Sunday, November 11, 2018

Pimpinella anisum சோம்பு సొంపు เทียนสัตตบุษย์ Cây hồi सौंफ Γλυκάνισος Anis vert حبة الحلوة

Pimpinella anisum L.
Family: Apiaceae

English: anise
Arabic: حبة الحلوة, يانسون
Armenian: Անիսոն
Bengali: Sulpha
Bulgarian: Anason
Catalan: Matafaluga
Chinese: 茴芹
Czech: Anýz vonný
Estonian: Harilik aniis
French: Anis vert
Italian: anice vero
Kannada: ಸೋಂಪು
Marathi: बडीशेप
Russian: анис обыкновенный
Slovak: Bedrovník anízový
Slovenian: Janež
Tamil: பெருஞ்சீரகம்,  சோம்பு
Telugu: సొంపు
Thai: เทียนสัตตบุษย์
Vietnamese:Cây hồi

Used for colic, flatulence, catarrh of the respiratory tract, retention of urine, and infantile ailments. Anise seed infusions are known as carminatives and expectorants. They are used to decrease bloating and settle the digestive tract. In higher doses, they are used as anti-spasmodic for cough, asthma, and bronchitis. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Seeds  infusion  carminative,  tonic,  anthelmintic,  antispasmodic and expectorant, digestive, stomachic; roots used as a
cathartic, stomachic. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The seeds, Which are the economically important part of the plant, have an agreeable odor and pleasant, spicy taste. The aroma and flavor of the seeds have been described as powerfully sweet, aromatic, licorice­like, warm, fruity, camphoraceous, and cooling with little perceptible after­taste (Farrell 1985). The taste is reminiscent of licorice, and indeed anise seed is often used to impart a licorice taste (true commercial licorice comes from the root of another Mediterranean herb, Glycyrrhiza glabra, also treated in this book). The flavor of the leaves resembles that of the seeds. Both seeds and leaves are used to brew a sweet licorice­tasting tea. The seeds are an ingredient of such baked goods as bread, rolls, cookies, and cake; and of soups, stews, curries, cheese, apple sauce and baked apples, and confections. Many meats are seasoned with anise seeds or extract, including bologna, frankfurters, knockwurst, dry sausage, mortadella, pepperoni, spiced luncheon loaf, and sausages. The seeds can be added to such cooked vegetables as beet, cabbage, and carrot. Like most herbs and spices, it should be remembered that a very little goes a long way. [Culinary Herbs]

Colic Common cold, Empacho, Flatulence and intestinal gas, Flu Gastrointestinal disorders, Headache Indigestion, Pasmo.[Dominican Medicinal Plants: A Guide for Health Care Providers]

Anise seeds are known for their ability to reduce gas and bloating, and to settle digestion. They are commonly given to infants and children to relieve colic, and to people of all ages to ease nausea and indigestion. [Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine]

Cases of gas in the stomach or bowels, known as flatulence. It is also used as a stimulant for vital organs of the body such as the heart, liver, lungs, brain, etc. As a hot tea, anise will check pains in the bowels due to over-distention of the bowels caused by gas formation. [Encyclopedia of medicinal herbs]

The seeds (“fruits”) are used in traditional Arab medicine for a wide range of diseases, particularly for their ability to bring about a reduction in gas and bloating and to settle the problems related to digestion. Seed-based remedies are commonly used with infants and children to induce relief from cases of colic; these remedies are also given to people of all ages to help in relieving the symptoms associated with indigestion and nausea arising as a result of different reasons. An additional therapeutic effect of the seeds is their antispasmodic properties, which are effective in reducing the symptoms of menstrual pain, the discomfort during asthma attacks, as well as in the treatment of whooping cough and other spasmodic coughs. [Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine Traditional System, Ethics, Safety, Efficacy, and Regulatory Issues]

Aniseed is stated to possess expectorant, antispasmodic, carminative and parasiticide properties. Traditionally, it has been used for bronchial catarrh, pertussis, spasmodic cough, flatulent colic; topically for pediculosis and scabies; its most specific use is for bronchitis, tracheitis with persistent cough, and as an aromatic adjuvant to prevent colic following the use of cathartics. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

361 Published articles of  Pimpinella anisum

Cajanus cajan, Pigeon Pea, ervilha de Angola, arhar, Kyyhkynherne Tur, kandi, tuvaram, Adhaki

Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
Family: Fabaceae

Synonyms: Cajan indorum Medik., Cajan inodorum Medik., Cajanus bicolor DC., Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Cajanus cajan var. bicolor (DC.) Purseglove, Cajanus cajan f. bicolor Baker, Cajanus cajan var. flavus (DC.) Purseglove, Cajanus flavus DC., Cajanus indicus Spreng., Cajanus indicus var. bicolor (DC.) Kuntze, Cajanus indicus var. flavus (DC.) Kuntze, Cajanus indicus var. maculatus Kuntze, Cajanus inodorum Medik., Cajanus inodorus Medik. [Spelling variant], Cajanus luteus Bello, Cajanus obcordifolia Singh, Cajanus obcordifolius V.Singh, Cajanus pseudo-cajan (Jacq.) Schinz & Guillaumin, Cajanus striatus Bojer, Cytisus cajan L., Cytisus guineensis Schum. & Thonn., Cytisus guineensis Schumach. & Thonn., Cytisus pseudocajan Jacq., Phaseolus balicus L.

English: Pigeon Pea
Afrikaans: Kongo-boontjie
Assamese: অৰহৰ arahar
Bambara: jo yeri
Bengali: অড়হর arahar
Chinese: 三叶豆 :
Finnish: Kyyhkynherne
French: Pois d'Angole
German: Straucherbse
Gujarati: તુવેર tuver
Hindi: तूर , अरहर
Japanese: ki-mame
Malayalam: തുവര tuvara
Portuguese: ervilha de Angola
Sanskrit: adhaki
Spanish: frijol del monte
Tamil: துவரை
Telugu: కంది

Used for diseases due to vitiated blood (properties of seeds have been quoted from texts from , 1000 bc to sixteenth century)., Anti-plasmodial activities have been confirmed in , betulinic acid., Pinostrobin is anti-inflammatory; genistein and , genistin possess anti-oxidant activities and , cajanol possesses anti-cancer activity (activity , towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells). The pharmacological profile of pinostrobin , resembles that of anti-depressant drugs that , block sodium channels., In ethnomedicine, the roots and mature leaves are , prescribed for sinus fistulae, [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Leaves decoction for measles, cough, diarrhea, abdominal troubles, catarrh and hepatitis; sap of leaves, drops in eyes, for epilepsy; powdered leaves applied to sores; leaf juice given for flu, jaundice and as a poison antidote; leaf infusion baths for stroke and bewitchment; green leaves hypocholesterolemic, hypoglyce- mic and antimicrobial; poultice of the young leaves used for burning skin and gums inflammation; young leaves chewed for curing reddish sores on tongue, spongy gums, aphthae; leaves decoction drunk by pregnant women for easy delivery. Flowers paste or leaf paste applied on sores of mouth and tongue. Boil the roots, drink the decoction to cure food poi- soning from eating bad fish; roots for mental illness. Seeds used in snakebite; seed coat powder applied as a paste on skin eruptions, when mixed with root powder of Cordia dichotoma in severe toothache; boiled seed juice taken in jaundice; juice from the seeds put into the ear for earache; seeds and leaves made into a warm paste applied over the mammae to check secretion of milk. Ceremonial, important food during ceremonies. Veterinary medicine, cooked leaves fed to cattle with diarrhea. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The beans (pigeon peas) of this plant are used for nutrition and nourishment and prepared as a part of Dominican culinary traditions. For arthritis and joint pain, the leaf is applied locally to the affected area to relieve pain and inflammation. To induce abortion, the root of this plant is boiled to make a strong decoction and taken internally as a tea. In the Caribbean, this plant is used to treat toothache and conjunctivitis. [Dominican Medicinal Plants: A Guide for Health Care Providers]

It is used in ayurveda as volerant; a medicine that heals wounds and sores; as an astringent; a medicine that stops bleeding by constricting the tissues, and as a medicine that cures diseases of lungs and chest. It also works as anthelminthic to destroy internal parasitic worms. Pigeonpea leaves have been used to treat malaria. [Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants Vol-2]

Green leaves are considered hypocholesterolaemic. Pulse shows cholesterol and phospholipid lowering effect (reported to cause flatulence). A paste of leaves with salt and water, is taken on an empty stomach for jaundice. Leaves are used in diseases of the mouth, and topically for treating measles and other eruptions. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

The seeds are a favourite food in Jamaica while the leaves are sometimes used to make tea for colds. Both the leaves and roots are said to contain tannins. In Africa the leaves have been used to prepare a gargle and mouthwash: for diarrhoea and for smallpox. [ Medicinal Plants of Jamaica]

Stem, Leaf and Fruit: Shoots and green pods used for a good pectoral infusion. Leaf: Infusion is consumed for pulmonary conditions such as coughs and bronchitis. In Surinam, leaves are mixed in an infusion with Dactyloctenium aegyptium to accelerate childbirth. Juice used for haemorrhages; leaves decocted for washing ulcers. Boiled leaves applied to sores and wounds to hasten cicatrization. Leaves or pods boiled with salt and "steel drops" (ferric chloride solution) for treatment of leucorrhoea. Infusion for fever-bath, headaches; macerated for an antiperspirant or deodorant. Leaves used in a complex liquid with Plectranthus, cloves and "steel drops" for venereal disease. Leaf and Flower: Boiled for a diuretic and diabetes remedy. Flower: Infusion is pectoral. Seed: Infusion for a diuretic. Flour made from seeds is resolutive. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

345 Published (Medicine related only) articles of Cajanus cajan

Koelreuteria paniculata, Golden Rain-tree, Կելրեյթերիա հուրանավոր, Китайски мехурник, 栾树, Svitel latnatý, Kinesertræ, Rakkopuu, Rispiger Blasenbaum, Bugás csörgőfa, mukogenji, 모감주나무, കനകമഴമരം, باران طلایی, Roztrzeplin wiechowaty, Coreutéria, Кёльрейтерия метельчатая, Jabonero de la China, Kinesträd

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.
Family: Sapindaceae

Synonyms: Koelreuteria apiculata Rehder & E.H. Wilson, Koelreuteria bipinnata var. apiculata (Rehder & E.H. Wilson) F.C. How & C.N. Ho, Koelreuteria chinensis (Murray) Hoffmanns., Koelreuteria paniculata var. apiculata (Rehder & E.H. Wilson) Rehder, Koelreuteria paniculata var. lixianensis H.L Tsiang, Paullinia aurea Radlk., Sapindus chinensis Murray, Sapindus paniculata (Laxm.) Dum.Cours.
  • English: Golden Rain-tree
  • Armenian: Կելրեյթերիա հուրանավոր
  • Bulgarian: Китайски мехурник
  • Chinese: 栾树
  • Czech: Svitel latnatý
  • Danish: Kinesertræ
  • Finnish: Rakkopuu
  • German: Rispiger Blasenbaum
  • Hungarian: Bugás csörgőfa
  • Japanese: mukogenji
  • Korean: 모감주나무
  • Malayalam: കനകമഴമരം
  • Persian: باران طلایی
  • Polish: Roztrzeplin wiechowaty
  • Portuguese: Coreutéria
  • Russian: Кёльрейтерия метельчатая
  • Spanish: Jabonero de la China
  • Swedish: Kinesträd
Description: Trees or shrubs, deciduous. Bark grayish brown to black, stout, fissured when dry; lenticels gray to dark brown, small; branches tuberculate, appressed pubescent or glabrous with axes and petioles. Leaves fascicled on young branches, spreading, pinnate, imperfectly bipinnate, or sometimes bipinnate, to 50 cm; leaflets (7-)11-18 (terminal one sometimes connate with uppermost pair below middle), sessile or very shortly petiolate, opposite or alternate, ovate or broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, (3-)5-10 × 3-6 cm, papery, abaxially barbate on vein axils, sometimes tomentose, or densely pale yellow pubescent, adaxially scattered appressed pubescent on midvein, base obtuse to subtruncate, apex acute or shortly acuminate, margin irregularly obtusely serrate, teeth mucronate at tips, sometimes teeth near base sparse and fissured, or pinnately lobed. Thyrses 25-40 cm, densely pilosulose, branches spreading and long, cymes on last branches 3-6-flowered, densely arranged and capitate; bracts narrowly lanceolate, scabrous-hairy. Flowers pale yellow, slightly fragrant. Pedicels 2.5-5 mm. Sepals ovate, margin glandular ciliate, erose. Petals 4, reflexed when flowering, linear-oblong, 5-9 mm, claw 1-2.5 mm, villous; scale yellow at first, orange when flowering, irregularly fissured, tuberculate, appressed hairy. Stamens 8, 7-9 mm in male flowers, 4-5 mm in female ones; filaments densely spreading white villous at lower half. Disk oblique, with obtuse lobes. Ovary trigonous, glabrous except on ridges; rudimentary ovary densely hispidulous. Capsules conical, 4-6 cm, 3-ridged, apex acuminate; carpels ovoid, abaxially reticulate veined, adaxially smooth and slightly shiny. Seeds subglobose, 6-8 mm in diam.

117 Published articles of Koelreuteria paniculata


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Acmella oleracea Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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