Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Achyranthes aspera, Prickly chaff flower, Nayurivi, Uttareni, Aghada, Cỏ xước

Achyranthes aspera L.
Family: Amaranthaceae

Synonyms: Achyranthes acuminata E.Mey. ex Cooke & Wright, Achyranthes aspera var. aspera, Achyranthes aspera var. australis (R.Br.) Domin, Achyranthes aspera var. canescens (R.Br.) Drake, Achyranthes aspera var. obtusifolia Suess., Achyranthes aspera var. simplex Millsp., Achyranthes aspera f. subgrandifolia Suess., Achyranthes asperoides Pires de Lima, Achyranthes australis R.Br., Achyranthes canescens R.Br., Achyranthes daito-insularis Tawada, Achyranthes ellipticifolia Stokes, Achyranthes fruticosa Desf., Achyranthes grandifolia Moq., Achyranthes obovata Peter, Achyranthes obovatifolia Stokes, Achyranthes okinawensis Tawada, Achyranthes robusta C.H.Wright, Achyranthes sicula Roth, Achyranthes tenuifolia Steud.  , Cadelaria punctata Raf., Centrostachys aspera (L.) Standl., Centrostachys australis (R.Br.) Standl., Centrostachys canescens (R.Br.) Standl., Centrostachys grandifolia (Moq.) Standl., Centrostachys indica (L.) Standl., Stachyarpagophora aspera (L.) M.Gómez

  • English: Prickly chaff flower, Rough chaff
  • Afrikaans: Grootklits, langklitskafblom
  • Arabian: Atkumah
  • Assam: Apang
  • Bengali: Apang
  • Chinese: 土牛膝
  • Finnish: Otatähkähäntä
  • French: Achyranth a feuilles rudes, collant, gendarme, Herbe à Bengalis
  • Gujarati: Safed aghedo, Anghadi, Andhedi, Agheda, આઘારો Agharo
  • Hindi: अपामार्ग
  • Indonesian: Daun sangketan
  • Kannada: ಉತ್ತರಾಣಿ
  • Malayalam: കടലാടി Katalaati Valiyakadaladi, Kadaladi,
  • Marathi: Aghada,
  • Punjabi: Kutri
  • Sanskrit: अपामार्ग apamarga
  • Sinhalese: Gaskaralheba, Karal seba
  • Spanish: Mosotillo, rabo de gato, rabo de chango, rabo de raton
  • Tamil: நாயுருவி Nayurivi
  • Telugu: ఉత్తరేణి uttareni
  • Vietnamese: Cỏ xước

Description: Herbs perennial, 20-120 cm tall. Stem quadrangular, pubescent; nodes slightly inflated; branches opposite. Petiole 0.5-1.5 cm, somewhat hairy; leaf blade broadly obovate or elliptic-oblong, 1.5-7 × 0.4-4 mm, papery, both surfaces hairy, base cuneate or rounded, margin entire or undulate, apex obtuse, with a mucro. Spikes terminal, erect, reflexed after anthesis, 10-30 cm; rachis angular, stout, densely hairy. Bracts lanceolate, 3-4 mm, apex acuminate; bracteoles spiny, shiny, 2.5-4.5 mm, rigid, base 2-winged; wings 1.5-2 mm, membranous, margin entire. Tepals lanceolate, 3.5-5 mm, with a vein. Stamens 2.5-3.5 mm; pseudostaminodes truncate or crenate at apex, fimbriate and ciliate. Utricles ovoid, 2.5-3 mm. Seeds brown, ovoid, ca. 2 mm. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Oct. 2n = 42, 48, 84, 96.Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Achyranthes aspera causes  a  dose-related  transient  cardiovascular  toxicity. Plant pungent, purgative, diuretic, used in dropsy, piles, colic, snakebite, boils and skin eruptions; whole plant decoction in rheumatism, muscular pains and arthritis; plant decoction to cure coughs; ash of the plant taken for asthma, applied on the body for the treatment of jaundice. Decoction of leaves applied externally for cuts, insect bites and wounds; leaves crushed with leaves and roots of Machilus bombycina and the juice is applied on pimples; a paste prepared with lime and leaf of nonflowering plants is applied to cure eczema; leaf infusion for the treatment of snakebite; leaves pounded, soaked in water, boiled and the liquid drunk to treat venereal diseases and also to treat colds in children; leaves juice given in diarrhea, as eye drops in hysteria. Root extract aphrodisiac and sex tonic, sedative, given for stomatitis, spermatorrhea, sterility, impotence, dystocia; root powder taken orally to check discharge of sperm with urine and to increase sexual potentiality, also given for fever and epilepsy; roots made into a paste with rhizomes of Chrysopogon aciculatus and applied on foul ulcers; powdered roots, mixed with crushed snails, applied to cure leprosy; roots ground with those of Ziziphus xylopyrus and the paste given after delivery as an antiseptic, tonic, postpartum remedy; an infusion astringent, for diarrhea, dysentery; a decoction in the oral treatment of leprosy, also given to women after menstrual period for the control of fertility, used as an abortifacient; roots paste given for easy delivery and as antidote, anti-venom, also applied in painful scorpion stings; pounded roots for malaria; crushed roots applied on wounds. Powdered roasted seeds mixed with honey given for cough; seed powder given in piles, also smoked for respiratory disease. Used in religion and magicoreligious beliefs as magical cure for jaundice, intermittent fever and for safe delivery of pregnant mother; plant infusion given as bath in sickness which is believed to be due to ghost; root tied on head and hair of pregnant woman to induce easy and normal delivery; smelling fresh roots is believed to hasten delivery; ingredient of Patra pooja in different religious pooja ceremonies, in Ganesh-pooja; dried inflorescence used by orthodox Hindus in sacred pyres; roots worn on the right arm for males and left arm for females to cure periodic fevers, string should be folded seven times and twined. Veterinary medicine, whole plant given to cows after delivery for taking out the remaining portion of placenta; whole plant juice given as diuretic; plant juice applied for maggot wounds; spikes made into a paste and applied on boils, ulcers and wounds; leaves ground with saffron used as eye drops for opacity of cornea; crushed leaves juice applied on the wounds, burns, on maggot wounds; roots extract given in insect bite. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]


Achyranthes aspera is used in rural Ethiopia for fertility control. [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs] 

The root is used as a hemostatic agent to stop wound bleeding. A decoction of the roots or stem bark is administered to children for constipation. The leaves, when fire cured like tobacco, are used as an embrocation for sprains and headache. When boiled, the steam is inhaled for the treatment of severe catarrh and colds. The decoction of the root bark is taken as a remedy for venereal diseases. A poultice made from the ash of the burned leaves is applied on boils and as an ointment for scabies; the ash mixed with honey is administered for coughs. The root infusion is used as an emetic and mixed with lime as a remedy for bronchitis, malaria, and helminthic infestation. The root has also been dispensed as a gargle for toothache, as a snakebite topical remedy, for the treatment of heartburn, to prevent miscarriage in pregnancy, and as a poison antidote to control vomiting. In India, the plant extract is used for the treatment of infectious diseases and in the management of leprosy. [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]Root  is  as  abortifacient.  Ethnic  communities of  Arunachal Pradesh and Tharus  employ  root  to  women for  treatment of antifertility.  Ethnic  communities  of Orissa  and Sagar  (Madhya Pradesh)  use  root in bleeding in delivery. Asurs, ethnic Communities of Meghalaya and Orissa use root for  fascilitating  childbirth.  Since  the  time  of  the  Atharvaveda  this  species  is regarded  as  medicinally  important,  and  in  Ayurvedic  system  it  is  used  for treatment of many diseases.  In homoeopathic  system, it is  used  in menorrhagia. In  allopathic  system,  too  different  parts  of  the  plant  are  used  for  treatment  of various  diseases. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]


Ethnomedicinal uses: decoction of two to three teaspoon of leaf powder is taken for stomachache and to ease constipation. The powder of roasted seeds is taken to cure whooping cough. Seeds are boiled in milk and taken for 3 d as a tonic to cure sexual debility and hydrophobia. The ash of the dry plant is mixed with honey and taken orally for cough, asthma, urinary complaints and stomachache. Root powder is boiled with mustard oil and used for massage by the tribals in rheumatic pain. Infusion of the whole plant is taken in liver and renal complaints. Root extract is taken orally as an antidote to scorpion bite. Ethnoveterinary medicinal uses: a half cup of root extract is given to animals to increase milk production. It acts as a lactogogue. Root extract is also given to sick animals as a tonic. Seed powder is given to animals to treat dysentery. [Herbal Drugs: Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine]

In Indonesia, a paste of Achyranthes aspera L. mixed with the bark of Alyxia stellata (Roem.) et Schult. and the fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Gaertn. is applied to the body to treat convulsion. A decoction of this mixture is drunk to stop dysentery. Achyranthes aspera L is used to promote urination and it is an astringent remedy. In Malaysia, Achyranthes aspera L. is used to resolve inflamed parts, lower blood pressure and to counteract infection of the urinary tract. In the Solomon Islands, a paste made from the powdered leaves is applied to boils and the roots are used to treat swollen legs. In Vietnam, roasted leaves are used externally to heal burns and an infusion of the roots is ingested to mitigate colic. In India, a decoction of Achyranthes aspera L. (1 in 15; dose 30 mL to 60 mL) is drunk to promote urination and the seeds are eaten to treat piles. The white variety of Achyranthes aspera L. is said to be more efficient against piles, ascite and dysentery whereas the red variety is preferred for ulcers. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

Therapeutic uses: The whole plant and especially the roots, characterized by their anti-inflammatory and uterine stimulant activity, are prescribed in the therapy of rheumatism, contusions, lumbago, osteodynia, dysuria, post-partum haematometra and dysmenorrhoea. The daily dose is 8 to 16g in the form of a decoction. The drug is used on its own or in combination with some other plants. [Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam]

Medicinal Uses of Achyranthes aspera in Sindh: Leaves are used against pneumonia and asthma.
1. Method of use for pneumonia: 1-2 leaves are boiled with 500 mL of water keep boiling until the volume is reduced to half. And give 1 spoon of that water after cooling twice a day.
2. Method of use for Asthma: Boil 200-250 g of fresh leaves in 1 litre of water keep boiling for 10-15 minutes and drink that water 3 times a day for 15-20 days. [Medicinal Plants of Sindh : Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Facts]

Plant  is  boiled,  and  the  water  drunk  as  an  antipyretic,  by  the  Guyana Patamona. Plant is boiled and the water used as an antiseptic or for washing the skin as treatment for cold sweat, by the Guyana Patamona. Plant is mixed with leaves of Gossypium and Lantana, boiled  and  used  for  herbal  bath,  by  the  Guyana  Patamona.  Plant  is  dried,  boiled,  and  the  water drunk as a treatment for back pain, by the Guyana Patamona. Plant is boiled, and the water drunk as a treatment for influenza, by the Guyana Patamona. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

Leaves used as a poultice for carbuncles and abscesses •  Leaves used to promote healing of wounds •  Leaves taken internally as a general childhood tonic [Samoan Medicinal Plants ]

483 published articles on Achyranthes aspera

Platostoma elongatum

Platostoma elongatum (Benth.) A.J.Paton
Family: Lamiaceae
Synonyms: Geniosporum elongatum Benth., Geniosporum indicum Briq.

Description: Annual herbs, 10-15cm tall, pilose. Leaves opposite; lamina oblong-obovate, 3-5 cm × 3-5 mm, apex acute, base cuneate, distantly serrate, hirsute, punctuate; petiole 0.5 cm. Flowers violet-purple, about 4mm across, in 5-7cm long dense terminal spikes. Bracts 4 × 3 mm, ovate, ciliate. Calyx lobes membranous, densely ciliolate, violet. Corolla violet, 2 lipped, upper 4 lobed; lobes ovate, lower lip longer acute.Stamens 4, didynamous, exerted. Style exerted. Nutlets orbicular.

Habitat & location: Rare. Found in moist places in hilly areas.  Photographed at Penchalakona. Limited to S.India and Sri Lanka.

Geranium wallichianum, Kaoashund, Ratanjot, Lal Jari, Himalajankurjenpolvi

Geranium wallichianum D. Don ex Sweet
Family: Geraniaceae

Chinese: 宽托叶老鹳草, 无腺老鹳草
Finnish: Himalajankurjenpolvi
Hindi: रतनजोत Ratanjot, Lal Jari, Chowhri
Nepali: राक्लामुल Rakla Moo,  birath, chyaktu, nikyu, yasign
Kashmiri: Kaoashund

Description: Perennials. Rootstock ± vertical, 5.8-8.8 mm in diam., not tuberculate, with many fibrous roots. Stem 24-50 cm tall, trailing or ascending, not rooting at nodes, with 0.3-1.7 mm patent to retrorse nonglandular trichomes and sometimes scattered 1.4-2 mm patent glandular trichomes. Stipules broadly ovate, connate. Leaves opposite; petiole with 0.4-1.5 mm patent to retrorse nonglandular trichomes and sometimes scattered 1.5-2 mm patent glandular trichomes; leaf blade 3.8-7.2 cm, palmately cleft, ratio of main sinus/middle segment length = 0.75-0.86, pilose with appressed nonglandular trichomes; segments 3 or 5, rhombic, 0.8-1.4 cm wide at base, 9-17-lobed in distal half, ratio of second sinus/middle segment length = 0.14-0.23. Cymules solitary, 2-flowered; peduncle 3.3-15.3 cm. Pedicel 3.1-8.4 cm, with 0.2-1.5 mm patent to retrorse nonglandular trichomes and sometimes scattered 1.5-2.1 mm patent glandular trichomes; bracteoles broadly lanceolate. Sepals 6.4-10.1 mm, mucro 2.3-4.6 mm, ratio of mucro/sepal length = 0.24-0.58, outside with 0.3-1.2 mm antrorse ± appressed nonglandular trichomes, inside glabrous. Petals deep pink, purplish, or blue, (1.2-)1.4-2.2 cm, erect to patent, inside basally with trichomes, margin basally ciliate, apex emarginate with a 0.4-1.4 mm notch. Staminal filaments blackish at least at tip, lanceolate, base slightly dilated, abaxially pilose and proximal half ciliate, trichomes 0.3-0.6 mm; anthers black, 2.2-3 mm. Nectaries 5, hemispheric, abaxially glabrous, apex with a tuft of trichomes. Stigma blackish. Fruit 3-3.9 cm, erect when immature; mericarps smooth, with a basal callus, with 0.6-1.6 mm ± patent nonglandular trichomes; rostrum 2-2.6 cm, with a 2.9-4.6 mm narrowed apex; stigmatic remains 5-7.6 mm. Seeds 3.6-3.9 mm. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Aug-Sep. 2n = 26, 28.
 
Astringent, for toothache, plant paste applied to relieve aching  joints.  Roots  for  eye  complaints,  a  warm  decoction  of root a remedy for dysentery and cold; fresh or dried roots infusion given for rheumatic pain, fever, abdominal pain and body ache; to treat peptic ulcer, infusion of root mixed with bark of Schima wallichii and Prunus cerasoides. Veterinary medicine, root paste to kill worms in wounds of cattle. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Published articles of  Geranium wallichianum
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Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Premna corymbosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana