Saturday, July 14, 2018

How to find authenticated and latest botanical names and synonyms of plants?

How to find authenticated and latest botanical names and synonyms of plants?

For example once tulasi was known as ocimum sanctum. After that it is named as Ocimum gratissimum. Its present name is Ocimum tenuiflorum. Most authenticated plant resources sites are

If you find differences [labeled as illegitimate]  in follow or wikipedia

Thursday, July 12, 2018

Curculigo orchioides, நிலப்பனைக்கிழங்கு, काली मुसली, నేలతాడి, তলমুলি, Sâm cau images uses and publications


Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.
Family: Hypoxidaceae

Synonyms: Curculigo brevifolia Dryand. ex W.T.Aiton, Curculigo firma Kotschy & Peyr., Curculigo malabarica Wight, Curculigo orchioides var. minor Benth., Curculigo pauciflora Zipp. ex Span., Curculigo petiolata Royle, Curculigo stans Labill., Franquevillea major Zoll. ex Kurz, Gethyllis acaulis Blanco, Hypoxis dulcis Steud. ex Baker, Hypoxis minor Seem., Hypoxis orchioides (Gaertn.) Kurz

  • English: Black musli
  • Bengali: তলমুলি talamuli
  • Hindi: काली मुसली kali musli, ताल मूली tal-muli, तीर्ण पदी tirna padi
  • Kannada: ನೆಲತಾಳೆ nelataale, ನೆಲತೆಂಗು nelatengu
  • Konkani: मसळकांदो masalkamdo
  • Malayalam: നിലപ്പന nilappana
  • Marathi: काळी मुसळी kali musali, मुसळकंद musalakanda, तालमूली tal-muli
  • Oriya: talamuli
  • Sanskrit: मुसली musali, तालमूली talamuli
  • Tamil: நிலப்பனைக்கிழங்கு nilappanaikkilanku
  • Telugu: నేలతాడి nela-tadi
  • Tulu: ನೆಲಮುಂಡ nelamunda
  • Vietnamese: Sâm cau
  • Chinese: 仙茅

Descrption: Plants 10-35 cm tall. Root tubers elongated. Leaves radical, lanceolate, plicate, sparsely long ciliate. Scape short, hidden among the leaf bases. Flowers in racemes, subsessile, the upper staminate, lower hermaphrodite, bracteate; bracts lanceolate. Tepals elliptic-oblong, 5-7 mm long, yellow, ciliate. Stamens about half the length of the perianth segments, anther linear. Ovary pubescent, separated from the perianth by a stipe, lanceolate, locules imperfect; ovules 6-8; stigmas 3. Fruit 1-4-seeded, beaked. Seeds oblong, grooved.

Used for piles, diseases of the nervous system,  emaciation and weakness due to internal injury  (therapeutic uses based on texts from the fourteenth–sixteenth centuries). According to Bhāvaprakāsha (sixteenth century), a compound containing Shatavari  (Asparagus racemosus), Mundi (Sphaeranthus  indicus), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia),  Hastikarna Palāsha (Leea macrophylla)  and Tālamūli (C. orchioides) acts as an  aphrodisiac. 

Uses in ethnomedicine: for treating spermatorrhea, impotency, and increasing sexual vigor  in males. Also used for leucorrhea, as a uterine  stimulant, as a stomachic during menstruation  and for increasing lactation.  [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda. Whole plant made into a paste applied as anti-rabies on the dog bitten part. Roots diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac, used to treat asthma, jaundice, piles, diarrhea, fever, venereal diseases, gonorrhea, toothache; root paste with salt applied on boils, ulcers; tuber powder of Eulophia ramentacea given with the roots of Chlorophytum tuberosum and Curculigo orchioides with milk to cure impotency and weakness; root powder in oil dropped in ear for earache; root juice for peptic ulcer, also given to women for stomachache during menstruation; root paste given for abortion; pulp of the root taken with fresh blood of a white cock to cure epilepsy; in cholera, fresh root juice given to check loose motion. Roots and leaves applied to the body used as a contraceptive. Tuberous roots pounded and applied to cuts, boils, blisters, itches and wounds; tuber paste applied on forehead to cure headache, also applied on eye brows to cure migraine; powdered tuberous roots with milk a tonic for impotency, quick ejaculation, spermatorrhea, in general and sexual debility; tuber juice applied as eye drop for eye diseases; tubers of Curculigo orchioides pounded with roots of Geniosporum coloratum given in impotency. Paste from tubers along with tubers of Globba bulbifera and Costus speciosus applied in knife injuries; astringent tubers chewed to prevent diarrhea. Veterinary medicine, tubers given with meals to kill maggots in wounds; dried tubers ground with stem of Cissus quadrangularis given orally for impaction; leaves of Andrographis paniculata along with those of Vitex negundo, Cardiospermum halicacabum, tubers of Curculigo orchioides and Urginea indica pounded and extract given for ephemeral fever; roots of Agave americana along with those of Curculigo orchioides, leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Vitex negundo pounded and the extract given for ephemeral fever; root fed to cattle for hoof infection; dried root powder poulticed to eyes for eye sight; stem bark of Acacia chundra along with leaves of Derris scandens and tubers of Curculigo orchioides pounded, boiled in water and the decoction given orally in trypanosomiasis; tuber juice applied as eye drop for eye diseases. Magico-religious beliefs, contact therapy, a piece of rhizome tied on the left arm of a pregnant woman to ensure a male child. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Ethnomedicinal uses: 100 g of powder of dried tuber is mixed in “Khowa” (concentrated milk) prepared from 5 L of buffalo milk and eaten early in the morning by tribals for 7 d as an eye tonic and also to treat fatigue. One teaspoon of root powder is taken orally by tribal women for 7 to 10 d to treat leucorrhoea and menorrhagia. A powder of the tuber is given orally to children to treat rickets. A tuber extract is applied locally to treat gonorrhoea and syphilis. A decoction of the tuber is given to children as a tonic and also to treat filariasis. [Herbal Drugs: Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine]
Nervine, adaptogenic, sedative, anticonvulsive, androgenic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic. Used in Jaundice, urinary disorders, skin diseases and asthma. Mucilaginous. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

It helps in polyurea, dysuria, gonorrhoea, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea and piles. It is considered a nutritive and aphrodisiac, for which 3–6 g of root powder is given twice daily. It is used for gastroenteritis, hepatitis and as an anti-inflammatory agent. For most of the  diseases,  25–50  g  of  dry  root  in  powdered  form  is  boiled  in  milk,  with  sugar according to taste. In this way it exudes mucilage and has a demulcent activity, which helps convalescent geriatric patients. [Rasayana: Ayurvedic Herbs for Longevity and Rejuvenation]
247 Published articles of Curculigo orchioides

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

Withania somnifera अश्वगंधा அமுக்கிரா అశ్వగంధ ಅಶ್ವಗಂಧಾ അമുക്കുരം અશ્વગંધા ਅਸ਼ਵਗੰਧਾ

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

English: Winter Cherry
Arabic: سم الفراخ (سِم الفِراخ)، مرجان (مُرجان)
Chinese: 睡茄
Gujarati: અશ્વગંધા
Hindi: अश्वगंधा
Kannada: ಅಶ್ವಗಂಧಾ, Kanchuki
Telugu: అశ్వగంధ
Tamil: அமுக்கிரா amukkira
Malayalam: അമുക്കുരം Amukkuram
Punjabi: ਅਸ਼ਵਗੰਧਾ

Description: A suffruticose shrub, 60-90 cm tall. Branches ascending. Shoots stellate-tomentose. Leaves 4-13 x 2-9 cm, elliptic-ovate to broadly ovate, acute, cuneate or oblique, entire to repand. Petiole 10-20 mm long. Flowers sessile to subsessile, greenish-yellow, in axillary clusters of 2-5.Calyx 2-2.5 x 2.5-3 mm, up to 2.0 x 14 mm in fruit, stellately hairy, becoming glabrescent and membranous; teeth 1-1.5 mm long, up to 8 mm in fruit, acute. Corolla lobes 2-2.5 mm long, triangular, tomentose to the outside. Anthers sub included; filaments 1-2.5 mm long. Berry globose, 6-8 mm broad, red. Seeds sub pyriform to reniform, minutely reticulate-foveolate, yellowish-brown.

Used for phthisis, weakness, diseases of the nervous system, inflammation, and impotency (therapeutic uses based on a sixteenth century text). (Some wild variety was used.) Charaka (1000 bc) included Ashvagandha in the vajikarana (aphrodisiac and sex-stimulant) group. Ashtāngahridaya (seventh century) included it in the age-sustaining group. Shārangadhara Samhitā (thirteenth century) considered Ashvagandha to be spermatogenic and a libido stimulant; it was recommended topically for stimulating the growth of the penis, as well as for restoring the original shape to the relaxed vagina. By the sixteenth century, Ashvagandha entered into more than 30 compounds as a nourishing, rejuvenating, restorative and aphrodisiac drug for debility, anxiety neurosis, muscular atrophy, and nervine dysfunctions. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Historically used as a general tonic to enhance energy and health, ashwagandha is used in a variety of Ayurvedic formulae prescribed for arthritis and rheumatism, and to prevent disease in the el der ly as well as in pregnancy. [Clinical Botanical Medicine]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Poisoning due to seeds. Plant decoction said to increase fertility in women, used for conception. diuretic. Bark for disease of the rectum. Roots abortifacient, sedative, narcotic, general tonic, hypotensive, stimulant, diuretic, used for conception in sterility, gangrenous rectitis, insomnia, cardiac diseases, malaria, venereal diseases, syphilis, ulcers, asthma, urinary troubles, renal calculi; root decoction given to cure spermatorrhea; boiled root infusion used for women’s stomachache; powdered roots in diabetes, gout, rheumatism; fresh root juice tonic, aphrodisiac. Leaves for wounds, sores, skin diseases; arthritis, swellings, wounds, boils, crushed leaves applied as a poultice to affected areas; paste of leaves and fresh roots applied on tumours, boils, swellings, rheumatism; against malaria, leaves and roots boiled. Fruit soaked in water and the decoction applied to eye diseases. Rhizome powder mixed with seed powder of Hygrophila schulli and Ionidium suffruticosum mixed with water and taken orally as aphrodisiac. Veterinary medicine, stem bark of Deccania pubescens ground with those of Carissa spinarum, Chloroxylon swietenia and tubers of Withania somnifera given in anthrax. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Root is one of the most highly regarded herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. W. somnifera, an Ayurvedic rasayana (memory facilitating drug), was shown to attenuate amnesic effects in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease by reversal of cholinergic dysfunction induced by ibotenic acid. [Evaluation of Herbal Medicinal Products]

In West African folk medicine, both roots and leaves are used internally, and the freshly pounded leaves (also used internally) are used against fever, chills, and rheumatism, among several other uses. In southern Africa, the Sotho use the plant as an anthelmintic and as a ritual plant against witchcraft. The Zulu administer an enema of the decorticated root for the treatment of hyperpyrexia in infants. The Xhosa and the Pedi use the plant to disinfect meat, particularly if suspected to be infected with anthrax. A decoction of the root and leaf is used by the Swati for the treatment of eruptive diseases such as smallpox. The plant is reported to be used in southern Africa in the treatment of asthma and bronchial diseases and syphilis and other venereal infections, as a remedy for “blach gall-sickness,” and as a general antiseptic for wound dressing. [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Use of ashwagandha root originates in Ayurvedic medicine and it is used as a tonic for debility and as an adaptogen and immune modulator. It has sedative and anti-inflammatory effects and is used for a wide range of conditions including hypercholesterolaemia. [Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interactions]

The root is regarded as tonic, alterative, and aphrodisiac, and is used in consumption, emaciation of children, debility from old age, rheumatism, &c. (Dutt). It has also narcotic and diuretic properties. The root sold in the bazars of South India resembles Gentian root in external appearance. The ground root and bruised leaves are employed as a local application to carbuncles, ulcers, and painful swellings (Pharm. Ind.). The root is also said to have deobstruent properties. The leaves are very bitter, and are given in infusion in fevers. The fruit is diuretic. [Indian medicinal plants - 1918]

Narcotic, analgesic, antibacterial, useful for impotency. Caution, it is a poisonous herb. Among the Jordanian tribes it is used for impotency. [Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Middle-East]

The root of this plant is a tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac and used in consumption, emaciation, debility due to old age, rheumatism, etc. It has also narcotic, diuretic and deobstruent properties. In Sind, it is used to cause abortion. The root ground into a paste is applied on ulcers, carbuncles and painful swellings with beneficial results. The Zulus use an infusion of the root as an enema for gangrenous rectitis and the whole plant for treating syphilis. The green berries are rubbed on ringworm with beneficial effect. A decoction of the leaf is used externally and internally in the treatment of haemorrhoids. A paste of the leaf is applied on syphilitic sores. In Tanganyika, the root of the plant is used as a sexual stimulant and also as an abortifacient, while in southern and eastern Africa it is given for diarrhoea and proctitis and the leaf for nausea and rheumatism. In Ceylon, the powdered root is taken as an aphrodisiac and for consumption. A special preparation is made along with other drugs for treating insanity, apoplexy and nervous diseases. The plant has milk-coagulating properties and can be used for cheese-making. It is also an insecticide. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

In West African local medicine, both roots and leaves are used internally, and the freshly pounded leaves also externally, against fever, chills, rheumatism, colics, etc. The juice of the plant is said to be diuretic and emmenagogic. In local medicine in East Africa, the root is considered to have narcotic and antiepileptic actions. [Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa]

Reduces stress. Has anti-inflammatory effect. Boosts sexual energy in men (aphrodisiac) [Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine 2nd Ed]

Since ancient times ashwagandha has been considered a nervine tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac, deobstruent (having the property of removing obstruction in any system of the human body) and a sedative. It has been used in rheumatism, consumption and in debility. Ashwagandha can be used by persons of both sexes, of all ages and at all stages of their lives. In elders it provides energy, relieves inflammations, pains and aches of the back, hand and feet, and in the generative system, nervous debility and diseases [Rasayana: Ayurvedic Herbs for Longevity and Rejuvenation]

Over 1700 Published articles of Withania somnifera

1-600 Publications   601-1200 Publications   1201-1738 Publications
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Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba 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dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana