Showing posts with label Withania somnifera. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Withania somnifera. Show all posts

Saturday, August 10, 2013

New vaccine adjuvant from 'Ashwagandha' gets US patent

New vaccine adjuvant from 'Ashwagandha' gets US patent

The US patent office has granted patent to an innovative industry-academia research project that has led to a new vaccine adjuvant extracted from ' Ashwagandha', also known as Indian Ginseng, a medicinal plant used in Ayurveda as an immunity enhancer. The grant of patent will further the cause of development of far more effective vaccines meant for improvement of human immune system to counter various ailments.

The Union government's department of science and technology (DST) had sponsored the research project which was jointly executed by Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII) and University of Pune's Inter-disciplinary School of Health Sciences (ISHS).

Executive director of SII Suresh Jadhav is the lead author while ISHS head Bhushan Patwardhan and SII research manager Manish Gautam formed the team of inventors. Additional research team included Sunil Gairola and Yojana Shinde from the SII, Dada Patil and Sanjay Mishra from the university.

Jadhav told TOI on Friday, "We are already in the process of developing new vaccines and the US patent will enable us the use the newly developed adjuvant right from the development stage of these vaccines. The new vaccine adjuvant has been found to be far more effective compared to traditional adjuvant. It has shown greater success in applications related to ailments like meningitis; diphtheria; and tetanus, among others," he added.

According to Patwardhan, "The application of this new adjuvant can be envisaged not only with vaccines against meningitis, polio, diphtheria, tetanus and hepatitis but also holds promise against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria." Patwardhan has described the project as a unique industry-academia partnership success story with a very high potential of applications owing to the involvement of the industry.

He said, "Newer vaccines include synthetic, recombinant or highly purified subunit antigens that are weakly immunogenic. Therefore vaccine formulations often require adjuvants for better immunological efficiency. Immuno-modulators obtained from different sources like synthetic, bacterial, viral have been used for enhancement of immune response to vaccines. Plant based products are being considered as one option for immune adjuvants."

He said, "The concept of rasayana in Ayurveda is based on modulation of immune response to provide better immunity and resistance to fight against diseases. Many extracts and formulations prepared from rasayana plants have shown immuno-modulatory activity in various models. Researchers in health sciences have been actively engaged in establishing immuno-modulatory activity of medicinal plants including 'Ashwagandha','Shatavari' and 'Guduchi.' Our studies indicate that these botanical materials have potential to be developed as immuno-adjuvants. As such, it was desirable to develop well characterized and highly pure adjuvant as compared to crude extracts which can be formulated with vaccines."

The DST had provided a total financial outlay of Rs 90 lakh spread over three years for the research project, which had completed in 2007 and actual development work continued thereafter at the SII. Following Indian patents, the US Patent application was made in 2009
Source: Times of India

For Ashwagandha 694 Publications, images and other details See here

Withania somnifera Ashwagandha Amukkura Winter cherry

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal
Family: Solanaceae
Other local names
Arabic: ويتانيا منومة
Assamese: Lakhanu
Bengali : Ashvagandha
Bengali Aswagandha
Catala: Bufera
Chinese: 睡茄
Deutsch: Schlafbeere
English: Winter cherry
Gujarati : Asgandha અશ્વગંધા
Hindi: Aswagandha अश्वगंधा
Indian ginseng or Winter cherry
Kannada: Angarberu, Hiremaddina-gida, Aswagandha ಅಶ್ವಗಂಧಾ,
Kashmiri : Asagandh
Magyar: Álombogyó
Marathi: Askandh आसकंद; Asagandha
Malayalam: Amukkuram അമുക്കുരം
Oriya : Aswagandha
Punjabi : Asgandh ਅਸ਼ਵਗੰਧਾ
Sanskrit : Hayagandh¡, V¡jigandh¡, Ashwagandhi
Sinhalese: අශ්වඝන්ධ
Suomi: Rohtokoisio
Tamil : Amukkaramkizangu, amukkira அமுக்கிரா
Telegu: Pennerugadda పెన్నేరు గడ్డ; Ashwagandha అశ్వగంధ,
Urdu: Asgand
Vietnamise: Sâm_Ấn_Độ

 Ashwagandha is among the most highly regarded herbal tonifiers in ayurvedic herbalism. It is considered a tonic, nervine, and adaptogen. [American Herbal Pharmacopoeia: Botanical Pharmacognosy]

Ayurvedic uses: Sotha, Kshaya, Daurblya, Vataroga, Klaibya [API- Part-1, Vol.1]
Kampavata, Ashwagandha appeared to increase body weight and hemoglobin. Withania somnifera root extract) – a well known adaptogenic agent. Anti-Parkinson’s, hypercholesterolaemia. Cholera, dysentery; used as antiemetic.

Adenopathy, Addiction, Aging, Alcoholism, Alzheimer’s, Ameba, Amenorrhea, Anemia, Anorexia, Anthrax, Arthrosis, Asthma, Backache, Bacteria, Boil, Bronchosis, Cancer, Cancer, lung, Carbuncle, Childbirth, Chill, Cholecystosis, Cold, Conjunctivosis, Convulsion, Cough, Cramp, Cystosis, Debility, Decubitis, Dermatosis, Diarrhea, Dropsy, Dyspepsia, Emaciation, Emphysema, Epilepsy, Eruption, Erysipelas, Fertility, Fever, Frigidity, Fungus, Furuncle, Gangrene, Gray Hair, Hemorrhoid, Hepatosis, Herpes, Hiccup, High Blood Pressure, High Cholesterol, Immunodepression, Impotence, Infection, Infertility, Inflammation, Insomnia, Leukocytosis, Leukoderma, Leukopenia, Lice, Lumbago, Marasmus, Milk Deficiency, Miscarriage, Morphinism, MS, Mycosis, Nausea, Nervousness, Neurasthenia, Neurosis, Neutropenia, Pain, Parasite, Pediculosis, Proctosis, Psoriasis, Pulmonosis, Rheumatism, Ringworm, Sarcoma, Scabies, Senility, Smallpox, Sore, Stress, Swelling, Syphilis, Tuberculosis, Tumor, Typhoid, Ulcer, Uterosis, VD, Virus, Water Retention, Worm, Wound, Yeast. [Handbook of Medicinal Herbs]

Withania somnifera root has chemopreventive efficacy against forestomach and skin carcinogenesis [Handbook of herbs and spices]

Roots and leaves are used by many ethnic communities as medicines in many other diseases. In Ayurvedic system, powder of root is used for improvement of semen and in many other diseases. [HERBAL CURES: TRADITIONAL APPROACH]

In West African local medicine, both roots and leaves are used internally, and the freshly pounded leaves also externally, against fever, chills, rheumatism, colics, etc. The juice of the plant is said to be diuretic and emmenagogic. In local medicine in East Africa, the root is considered to have narcotic and antiepileptic actions (Pichi Sermoli, 1955). In India, the bruised leaves and ground root are used as a local application to painful swellings, carbuncles and ulcers as the root and leaves are considered to be sedative and the root has been included in the Indian Pharmacopoeia and Codex for its narcotic and sedative properties. [Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa]

The root of this plant is a tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac and used in consumption, emaciation, debility due to old age, rheumatism, etc. It has also narcotic, diuretic and deobstruent properties. In Sind, it is used to cause abortion. The root ground into a paste is applied on ulcers, carbuncles and painful swellings with beneficial results. The Zulus use an infusion of the root as an enema for gangrenous rectitis and the whole plant for treating syphilis. The green berries are rubbed on ringworm with beneficial effect. A decoction of the leaf is used externally and internally in the treatment of haemorrhoids. A paste of the leaf is applied on syphilitic sores. In Tanganyika, the root of the plant is used as a sexual stimulant and also as an abortifacient, while in southern and eastern Africa it is given for diarrhoea and proctitis and the leaf for nausea and rheumatism. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

Reduces stress, Has anti-inflammatory effect, Boosts sexual energy in men [Pharmacodynamic Basis of Herbal Medicine]

Since ancient times ashwagandha has been considered a nervine tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac, deobstruent (having the property of removing obstruction in any system of the human body) and a sedative. It has been used in rheumatism, consumption and in debility. Ashwagandha can be used by persons of both sexes, of all ages and at all stages of  their lives. In elders it provides energy, relieves inflammations, pains and aches of the back, hand and feet, and in the generative system, nervous debility and diseases due to vata. It is being prescribed as an anabolic agent, as an adaptogen and analgesic for the treatment of various arthropathies, certain forms of hypertension, insanity, etc. It imparts resistance to infection and stress. It stimulates sexual impulses and increases sperm counts. It is considered a Rasayana, for strength, vigour and for rejuvenation. The easiest way to use the root is to take one teaspoonful of the fine powder with sweetened milk, or mix the powder with ghee, lick the mixture followed by milk sweetened with sugar candy. In gynecological practice it helps in sterility, leucorrhoea and inflammation of the vagina. It also helps breast development. For these purposes, take one teaspoonful of ashwagandha powder with half a teaspoonful of ghee, and honey before breakfast in the morning and before sleeping in the evening, followed by cold sweet milk. It must be taken for three months, particularly during winter. [Rasayana - Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern Times Vol2]

Constitutents: Aswagandha roots contain alkaloids, starch, reducing sugar, hentriacontane, glycosides, dulcital, withaniol acid and a neutral compound. Wide variation (0.13-0.31%) is observed in alkaloid content. Majumdar (1955) isolated 8 amorphous bases such as withanine, somniferine, somniferinine, somnine, withananine, withananinine, pseudowithanine and withasomnine. Other alkaloids reported are nicotine, tropine, pseudotropine, 3,a-tigloyloxytropane, choline, cuscudohygrine, anaferine, anahygrine and others. Free aminoacids in the roots include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline,
tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine. Leaves contain 12 withanolides, alkaloids, glycosides, glucose and free amino acids. Berries contain a milk coagulating enzyme, two esterases, free amino acids, fatty oil, essential oil and alkaloids.

694 Published articles of Withania somnifera

Sunday, June 29, 2008

Withania somnifera - Ashwagandha

Botanical name: Withania somnifera (L.) Dun
Sanskrit name: Ashwagandha
withania somnifera have been traditionally used for the Ayurvedic system as aphrodisiacs, diuretics and for treating memory loss.

Ashwagandha is reported to have anti-carcinogenic effects in animal and cell cultures by decreasing the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB, suppressing intercellular tumor necrosis factor, and potentiating apoptotic signalling in cancerous cell lines

The Japanese patent applications are related to the use of the herb as a skin ointment and for promoting reproductive fertility. The U.S based company Natreon has also obtained a patent for an Ashwagandha extract.

Another US establishment, the New England Deaconess Hospital, has taken a patent on an Ashwagandha formulation claimed to alleviate symptoms associated with arthritis.

External preparations for skin whitening
Method of treating musculoskeletal disease
Method and composition for treatment of diabetes
For treating viral infections

Published articles on ashwagandha. About 258 articles are indexed by pubmed. Latest 20 articles are mentioned below.

1: Kulkarni SK, Dhir A.
Withania somnifera: An Indian ginseng.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jul 1;32(5):1093-105. Epub 2007 Sep 21.
PMID: 17959291

2: Anwer T, Sharma M, Pillai KK, Iqbal M.
Effect of Withania somnifera on insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rats.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Jun;102(6):498-503. Epub 2008 Mar 16.
PMID: 18346053

3: Sangwan RS, Das Chaurasiya N, Lal P, Misra L, Tuli R, Sangwan NS.
Withanolide A is inherently de novo biosynthesized in roots of the medicinal plant Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera).
Physiol Plant. 2008 Jun;133(2):278-87. Epub 2008 Feb 26.
PMID: 18312497

4: Martín-Herrera D, Abdala S, Benjumea D, Gutiérrez-Luis J.
Diuretic activity of some Withania aristata Ait. fractions.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 May 22;117(3):496-9. Epub 2008 Mar 14.
PMID: 18420363

5: Baldi A, Singh D, Dixit VK.
Dual Elicitation for Improved Production of Withaferin A by Cell Suspension Cultures of Withania somnifera.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2008 May 1.
PMID: 18449479

6: Abhilash PC, Jamil S, Singh V, Singh A, Singh N, Srivastava SC.
Occurrence and distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in vegetation samples from a contaminated area.
Chemosphere. 2008 May;72(1):79-86. Epub 2008 Mar 7.
PMID: 18329069

7: Deocaris CC, Widodo N, Wadhwa R, Kaul SC.
Merger of ayurveda and tissue culture-based functional genomics: inspirations from systems biology.
J Transl Med. 2008 Mar 18;6:14. Review.
PMID: 18348714

8: Chaurasiya ND, Uniyal GC, Lal P, Misra L, Sangwan NS, Tuli R, Sangwan RS.
Analysis of withanolides in root and leaf of Withania somnifera by HPLC with photodiode array and evaporative light scattering detection.
Phytochem Anal. 2008 Mar;19(2):148-54.
PMID: 17879227

9: Misra L, Lal P, Chaurasia ND, Sangwan RS, Sinha S, Tuli R.
Selective reactivity of 2-mercaptoethanol with 5beta,6beta-epoxide in steroids from Withania somnifera.
Steroids. 2008 Mar;73(3):245-51. Epub 2007 Oct 24.
PMID: 18061225

10: Misra L, Mishra P, Pandey A, Sangwan RS, Sangwan NS, Tuli R.
Withanolides from Withania somnifera roots.
Phytochemistry. 2008 Feb;69(4):1000-4. Epub 2007 Dec 3.
PMID: 18061221

11: Nair V, Arjuman A, Gopalakrishna HN, Nandini M.
Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in albino mice.
Phytother Res. 2008 Feb;22(2):243-6.
PMID: 17886228

12: Hamza A, Amin A, Daoud S.
The protective effect of a purified extract of Withania somnifera against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2008 Jan;24(1):63-73. Epub 2007 May 23.
PMID: 17520333

13: Malik F, Kumar A, Bhushan S, Khan S, Bhatia A, Suri KA, Qazi GN, Singh J.
Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the apoptotic cell death of human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells by a dietary compound withaferin A with concomitant protection by N-acetyl cysteine.
Apoptosis. 2007 Nov;12(11):2115-33.
PMID: 17874299

14: Nair V, Arjuman A, Dorababu P, Gopalakrishna HN, Chakradhar Rao U, Mohan L.
Effect of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal formulation) on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice.
Indian J Med Res. 2007 Nov;126(5):480-4.
PMID: 18160755

15: Hu JY, Saedler H.
Evolution of the inflated calyx syndrome in Solanaceae.
Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Nov;24(11):2443-53. Epub 2007 Sep 6.
PMID: 17827172

16: Gupta GL, Rana AC.
Protective effect of Withania somnifera dunal root extract against protracted social isolation induced behavior in rats.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Oct-Dec;51(4):345-53.
PMID: 18476388

17: Singh D, Aggarwal A, Maurya R, Naik S.
Withania somnifera inhibits NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors in human peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells.
Phytother Res. 2007 Oct;21(10):905-13.
PMID: 17562568

18: Kaileh M, Berghe WV, Boone E, Essawi T, Haegeman G.
Screening of indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep 25;113(3):510-6. Epub 2007 Jul 14.
PMID: 17716845

19: Martín-Herrera D, Abdala S, Benjumea D, Pérez-Paz P.
Diuretic activity of Withania aristata: an endemic Canary Island species.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep 25;113(3):487-91. Epub 2007 Jul 10.
PMID: 17706904

20: Madina BR, Sharma LK, Chaturvedi P, Sangwan RS, Tuli R.
Purification and characterization of a novel glucosyltransferase specific to 27beta-hydroxy steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera and its role in stress responses.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 Sep;1774(9):1199-207. Epub 2007 Jul 12.
PMID: 17704015

If you find objectionable content on this blog please Email me anandkumarreddy at gmail dot com I will remove it. The contents of this blog are meant for students and researchers of Indian system of Medicine for educational purpose and not for commercial use.

This site uses cookies from Google to deliver its services, to personalise ads and to analyse traffic. Information about your use of this site is shared with Google. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies.


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artemisia japonica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana