Showing posts with label Strychnos nux-vomica. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Strychnos nux-vomica. Show all posts

Wednesday, July 18, 2018

Strychnos nux-vomica, Visha mushti, कुचिला, കാഞ്ഞിരം, ବିଷମୁଷ୍ଟି, ਕੁਚਲਾ, rävkaketräd, کچلا

Strychnos nux-vomica L.
Family: Loganiaceae
  • English: strychnos, Strychnine tree
  • Chinese: 马钱子
  • Telugu: ముష్టి Mushti, ఉసిడి, ముసిడి కాయ,
  • San:  विषमुष्टि vishamusti
  • Hindi: Kajra, कुचिला Kuchila;
  • Malayalam: Kanjiram; Kanjeram കാഞ്ഞിരം
  • Tamil: எட்டி மரம், Etti, Kagodi, Kanjirai
  • Mar: Jharkhatchura, कुचला;
  • Kannada: Hemmushti, Ittangi, ಕಾಸರಕ, ಮುಷ್ಟಿ ಮರ
  • Odia:  ବିଷମୁଷ୍ଟି bishamushti, ବିଷତରୁ bishataru, ବିଷତିନ୍ଦୁ bishatindu, ଦୀର୍ଘପତ୍ର dighapatra, ଜଳଜ jalaja, କିମ୍ପାକ kimpaka, କୋଚିଲା kochila, କୁଚେଳକ kuchelaka, କୁଳକ kulaka, ମର୍କଟେନ୍ଦୁ markatendu, ରମ୍ଯ ଫଳ ramya phala, ରଣମୁଷ୍ଟି ranamushti
  • Punjabi: ਕੁਚਲਾ
  • Russian: ĕilibucha, ĕилибуцха, рвотный орецх
  • Swedish: rävkaketräd
  • Tibetan: ཀོ་བྱི་ལ ko-byi-la
  • Tulu: ಕಾಯೆರ್ ಮರ kayer mara
  • Urdu: کچلا kuchala

Description: Trees to 25 m tall. Branchlets slightly pubescent, glabrescent. Petiole 0.5--1.5 cm; leaf blade suborbicular, broadly elliptic, or ovate, 5--18 X 4--12.5 cm, papery, abaxially minutely hairy especially on veins, adaxially glabrous and shiny, base rounded to cordate, apex shortly acuminate to acute and often mucronulate, basal veins 3--5. Thyrses axillary, 3--6 cm; peduncle puberulent; bracteoles pubescent. Flowers 5-merous. Pedicel puberulent. Calyx lobes ovate, outside densely pubescent. Corolla greenish white to white, salverform, ca. 1.3 cm; tube longer than lobes, outside glabrous, inside sparsely villous at base or on lower half; lobes narrowly ovate, ca. 3 mm, margin thickened and puberulent. Stamens inserted at mouth or corolla tube; filaments very short; anthers elliptic, ca. 1.7 mm, apex exserted. Pistil 1--1.2 cm. Ovary ovoid, glabrous. Style to 1.1 cm, glabrous; stigma capitate. Berries orange when ripe, globose, 2--4 cm in diam., glabrous, 1--4-seeded. Seeds orbicular to elliptic, 2--4 cm wide, densely sericeous. Fl. spring to summer.
Uses: Uterine colic, sharp pain at the umbilicus, nausea, vomiting, patient is chilled. [Botanical Medicine for Women's Health] Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Strychnine very poisonous; seeds deadly poisonous, also used for poisoning arrow blades and killing wild animals. Paste prepared from leaves, ripe fruits and seeds applied to treat poisonous bites. Bitter, tonic, increasing appetite; it stimulates peristalsis in chronic constipation due to atony of the bowel often combined with cascara and other laxatives with good effects. Leaves have strong allelopathic properties; leaf paste applied all over the body against the fever. Seeds analgesic, antiinflammatory, anti-ulcer, cytotoxic, antioxidant, uterine stimulant activity, respiratory and cardiac stimulant, depurative, diuretic,  diaphoretic, nervine, stomachic, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic; seed paste applied for vitiligo, snakebite and scorpion stings. Alleviates spasms, fruit and leaf; relaxes muscles, root bark. Fruit used to treat inflammation, sore throat, stomach complaints. Fruit and bark pesticide, insecticide. Antimalarial activity of wood water extract of Strychnos ligustrina Blume. Wood cures fever, snakebite, ulcer, acne, syphilis and chicken pox; as stomach tonic, as poultice and anthelmintic; bark juice with lemon useful for cholera, acute diarrhea. Applied for burns, against boils and rashes and cures scabies. Root decoction for snakebite. Veterinary medicine, root paste poulticed with stem bark extract of Ceriscoides turgida (Roxb.) Tirveng. given orally for snakebite; fruits jelly applied on the tongue of convalescing cattle; seeds along with stem bark of Terminalia arjuna and stem of Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given orally in insect bite. Crushed fruits as fish poison. [CRC  World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants] 

Strychnos nux-vomica (nux vomica) and Calendula officinalis are used in highly diluted form in homeopathic medicine to treat patients suffering from gastritis and gastric ulcers. [Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants  Vol-7] 

Despite the known toxicity, the seeds continue to be used in some countries as a medicinal herbal product. Initially the patient may experience feelings of restlessness and anxiety, followed by fasciculations and hyper reflexia. In severe poisoning, generalized symmetrical tonic spasms with opisthotonic posturing develop. Although resembling seizures, consciousness is maintained. The extreme muscle spasms can last from seconds to minutes and are triggered by movement or excitement. Rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia can develop.  [Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants 2nd Ed] 

Seeds—used in emotional disorders, insomnia, hysteria, epilepsy, paralytic and neurological affections, retention or nocturnal incontinence of urine, spermatorrhoea, sexual debility and impotence, general exhaustion; as antidote to alcoholism; GIT disorders. Bark—juice given in acute dysentery, diarrhoea and colic. Root—given in intermittent fevers. In Chinese medicine a paste made of Nux vomica seeds is applied topically for treating facial paralysis. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends detoxified seeds in paralysis, facial paralysis, sciatica and impotency. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In China, the seeds are eaten to combat fever, assuage headache, treat diseases of the eyes, skin, and abdominal swellings and to heal sores. In Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam, the seeds are eaten to promote vomiting and to combat fever. The bark is used to heal leprous ulcers. The sap of Strychnos nux-vomica L. is used  by the Orang Asli of Malaysia to make arrow-poison.  Warning: In regard to the toxic effect of Nux Vomica, ingestion of a single seed will cause tremors and slight twitching of the limbs, followed by sudden convulsions of all the muscles. The body becomes arched backwards in hyperextension with the legs and arms extended, and the feet turned inwards. The facial muscles produce a characteristic grinning expression known as “risus sardonicus.” Death from medullary paralysis usually follows the second or fifth seizure. The convulsions are mediated spinally and believed to result from a blockade of inhibitory glycinergic sites. Antidotes for strychnine poisoning are short acting barbiturates and muscle relaxing drugs. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs for The Future?]

The seeds are bitter, acrid, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, appetiser, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, digestive, febrifuge, emmenagogue, purgative, spinal, respiratory and cardiac stimulant and stomachic. The bark is bitter, and tonic and febrifug. [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag University]

The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L. are used to treat eye diseases because strychnine instilled locally increases the ability to discriminate colors and intensities of illumination, particularly in the area of the blue visual field. Strychnos nux-vomica L. was once used to treat amblyopia. [Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific]

298 Published articles of Strychnos nux-vomica L.


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tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica 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Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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