Showing posts with label Ocimum basilicum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Ocimum basilicum. Show all posts

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

Ocimum basilicum, Basil, Tulasi, tirnirupachai

Ocimum basilicum L.
Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Ocimum album L., Ocimum anisatum Benth., Ocimum barrelieri Roth, Ocimum basilicum var. album (L.) Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. basilicum, Ocimum basilicum var. densiflorum Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. difforme Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. majus Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens Benth., Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum (L.) Benth., Ocimum bullatum Lam., Ocimum caryophyllatum Roxb., Ocimum chevalieri Briq., Ocimum ciliare B.Heyne ex Hook.f., Ocimum ciliatum Hornem., Ocimum citrodorum Blanco, Ocimum cochleatum Desf., Ocimum dentatum Moench, Ocimum hispidum Lam., Ocimum integerrimum Willd., Ocimum lanceolatum Schumach. & Thonn., Ocimum laxum Vahl ex Benth., Ocimum majus Garsault , Ocimum medium Mill., Ocimum minus Garsault , Ocimum nigrum Thouars ex Benth., Ocimum odorum Salisb. , Ocimum scabrum Wight ex Hook.f., Ocimum simile N.E.Br., Ocimum thyrsiflorum L., Ocimum urticifolium Benth. , Plectranthus barrelieri (Roth) Spreng.
  • English: Basil
  • Albanian: Bozilok i mermë
  • Amharic: በሶቢለ
  • Arabic: rehahn, رَيْحَان, ريحان
  • Armenian: Շահասպրամ
  • Azerbaijani: Reyxan
  • Bengali: Babui tulsi
  • Bulgarian: Босилек
  • Burmese: Laun, Pinzainpinzin
  • Catalan: Alfàbega
  • Chinese: 省头草
  • Croatian: Bosiljak
  • Danish: Basilikum
  • Esperanto: Bazilio
  • Estonian: Vürtsbasiilik
  • Finnish: Maustebasilika
  • French: Basilic commun, Basilic à épis nombreux
  • Galician: albahaca
  • Georgian: რეჰანი
  • Gujarati: Sabje
  • Hebrew: בזיליקום
  • Hindi: Babui Tulsi बाबूई तुलसी
  • Hungarian: Bazsalikom
  • Indonesian: Indring
  • Italian: Basilico
  • Japanese: バジル, メボウキ
  • Kannada: ವಿಷ್ಣುತುಳಸಿ, ಶ್ರೀತುಳಸಿ
  • Kazakh: Насыбайгүл
  • Korean: 바실
  • Lithuanian: Bazilikas
  • Malay: sělasi
  • Malayalam: Tirunetru
  • Polish: Bazylia wonna
  • Romanian: Busuioc
  • Russian: Душистые васильки
  • Sanskrit: munjariki
  • Sinhalese: Madurutala
  • Swedish: Basilika
  • Tamil: திருநீற்றுப்பச்சை, tirnirupachai
  • Turkish: Fesleğen
  • Vietnamese: É dỏ
Description: Erect annual herbs to 60 cm tall; stem obtusely 4-angular. Leaves 3.5-6 x 1.5-2.5 cm, ovate-elliptic, base cuneate, margin entire to distantly crenulate, apex acute, puberulous above, pubescent with sessile oil galnds beneath; petiole to 2 cm long. Racemes to 14 cm long; bracts oblanceolate, ciliate; pedicel to 2 mm long. Calyx to 6 mm long; tube c. 3 mm long, sparsely strigose; upper lip c. 3 mm long, broadly ovate; lower lip to 4 mm long, hairy within. Corolla cream, 7-10 mm long; tube c. 4 mm long, inflated below; lobes 5. Stamens 4; filaments of posterior pair with a transverse process of tufted hairs. Nutlets 2-3 x 1-1.5 mm, ellipsoid, black, mucilaginous when wet. Fruiting calyx 6-8 mm long
Used  in  Ayurveda,  Unani  and  Sidha.  Whole  plant  used  to  promote  delayed  menstruation,  whole  plant  boiled  for  morning  sickness.  Mucilaginous  seeds  infusion  given  in  gonorrhea,  dysentery  and  diarrhea.  Leaves  antibacterial,  stimulant,  aphrodisiac,  astringent  and  carminative,  antiyeast, insecticidal, febrifuge, antifungal, antiascariasis, for  gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, kidney diseases, spermatorrhea; leaf decoction mixed with saline water used to keep  away the snakes; leaves pounded and soaked in water, put  in ear for headache; leaves decoction as a postpartum remedy; fresh juice of leaves dropped in nostrils during hysteria.  Flowers and leaves for cough and cold, sore throat and fever.  Ceremonial, whole plant, holy plant. Veterinary medicine,  fruits of Phyllanthus emblica pound with leaves of Ocimum  basilicum and given with honey to cure the loss of appetite;  bark extract of Crateva magna along with leaves of Cassia  fistula ,  seeds  of  Ocimum  basilicum,  butter  and  salt  are  pounded and given orally in tympany [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Basil is an important culinary herb. Dried sweet basil leaves are aromatic, fragrant, and sweet, with a warm clove­like flavor with pungent undertones. The fresh or dehydrated  leaves (sometimes also the flowering tops) are added to soups, meat pies, fish dishes, and certain cheeses. The leaves complement various vegetable  dishes, including artichoke, broccoli, carrot, cabbage, eggplant, green beans, peas, squash, zucchini, and cooked cucumber. Many consider basil to be the best  accompaniment to tomatoes (even a Bloody Mary), tomato cocktails, peppers, and eggplants (all belonging to the potato family). So good is it with tomatoes that  Italian tomato paste cans often contain a leaf of basil (Duke 1985). Chopped basil leaves season lamb dishes, dressings, stuffings and pâtés. The green leaves are also  used in salads and on pizza in addition to or instead of oregano. Dehydrated basil is very important in Italian cooking, notably in tomato sauce, pizza, spaghetti,  macaroni, chicken cacciatore, and cheese casseroles. Rinzler (1990) states that basil goes well with fruits, and suggests sprinkling some on a baked apple. Fresh basil  is essential for the famous Italian pesto sauce, an oil­and­herb mixture made by pounding the leaves to a pulp in a mortar and combining salt, garlic, olive oil, parmesan  cheese and pine or walnuts. The French add basil to omelets and soups. It is also sometimes an ingredient of "bouquet garni" (a combined bunch of herbs popular in  France, typically thyme, rosemary and laurel). Fresh leaves are best added towards the end of cooking tune to retain a desirable flavor and aroma. Small leaves are  best used whole. Fresh leaves are much more flavorful than dried, and are to be preferred when available. Large leaves should be torn rather than cut to preserve their flavor. However, Mességué and Peter (1982) recommend cutting basil into strips on a board, or with scissors, but not  chopping it. Lemon basil can be used to make a flavorful tea. The oil of basil is sometimes added as a flavoring for confectionary, candy, baked goods, and commercial condiments such as chile sauces, catsup, tomato paste,  pickles, and specialty vinegars. It is an important ingredient in some types of sausages and spiced meats. The oil is sometimes a component of dental and oral  products. It is also used occasionally in perfumes (Prakash 1990). A tincture of oil (combined with 20­60% ethanol) is employed as a flavor modifier for some  liqueurs, such as Chartreuse (Greenhalgh 1979). An oleoresin is also obtained from basil but its commercial usage is negligible (Greenhalgh 1979). In the Near East, basil seeds are consumed alone or in bread dough (Morton 1976). The mucilaginous coating of the seeds was once used to prepare a tonic drink  (Morton 1976). Basil flowers are an attractive decoration on soups and salads (Leggatt 1987), and are said to be eaten in China (Duke 1985). Purple­leaved cultivars  are Of ornamental value, but are as aromatic as regular green­leaved sweet basils (Simon and Reiss­Bubenheim 1987), and may be perfectly acceptable for culinary .

Dominican Medicinal Uses   The aerial parts or leaves are traditionally  prepared as a tea and taken orally for stomach  ache, indigestion, gastro-intestinal pain, internal  cleansing and women’s health conditions. [Dominican Medicinal Plants: A Guide for Health Care Providers]

Ttraditional uses in Tunisia - Leaves as Aphrodisiac, headaches, gynaecological disorders. [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

In  China,  the  seeds  are  used  to soothe  pain  and  inflammation.  In  India,  the  juice expressed from the leaves is used as nasal douche, and the plant is used to treat inflammation and assuage chronic pain in the joints. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is drunk to calm cough, and the plant i s used to abrogate pregnancy. In Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos, the leaves are used to break fever. The anti-inflammatory property of the plant is confirmed by Singh et al. [Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants Asia and the Pacific]

The herb in Italian cooking, basil relieves upper digestive discomfort, indigestion, and bloating, and is applied topically to acne and insect bites. Antibacterial  •  Insecticidal •  mild sedative  •  relieves gas  Juice from the leaves can be applied neat to infected spots and insect bites and stings to speed healing. [Herbal Remedies]

Flower—stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, diuretic, demulcent. Seed—antidysenteric.
Juice of the plant—antibacterial. Essential oil—antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal. Because of high estragole content of the essential oil, the herb should not be taken during pregnancy, nursing or over extended periods of time. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In China, the leaves are used to invigorate health, treat flatulence, heal ulcers, curb vomiting, remove nasal polyps and to cure hiccups. The seeds are used to assuage eyes discomfort and to heal ulcers. In Indonesia, the seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the leaves is used to alleviate cough. A decoction is used to aid recovery from childbirth, promote menses and to combat fever. The seeds are used to combat fever. In Vietnam, the plant is used in perfume making, to invigorate health, treat dysentery and to combat fever. The ashes of the roots are used to treat skin diseases. Ocimum basilicum L. is listed in the French Pharmacopoeia, 1989 and known of Dioskurides [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

Leaf: Infusion for a sedative and antispasmodic. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

Improves digestion, antitoxic; headache, irregular menses. [Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants]

495 Published articles of Ocimum basilicum


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coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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