Showing posts with label Terminalia chebula. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Terminalia chebula. Show all posts

Thursday, June 25, 2015

Terminalia chebula, Harithaki, Kadukkai, สมอไทย, Chiêu lieu, Hardi,

Terminalia chebula Retz.
Family: Combretaceae

Synonyms: Buceras chebula (Retz.) Lyons, Myrobalanus chebula (Retz.) Gaertn., Myrobalanus gangetica (Roxb.) Kostel., Terminalia acuta Walp., Terminalia chebula var. chebula, Terminalia gangetica Roxb., Terminalia parviflora Thwaites, Terminalia reticulata Roth, Terminalia zeylanica Van Heurck & Müll. Arg.

  • Common name: Black Myrobalan, Myrobalan
  • Assamese: শিলিখা Shilikha
  • Bengali: হরীতকী Haritaki
  • Chinese: 诃子
  • Gujaratai: હરડી Hardi, હરડે Harde
  • Hindi: हरीतकी Harithaki
  • Kannada: ಅಳಲೆ ಕಾಯಿ Alale kayi
  • Konkani: Ordo
  • Malayalam: കടുക്ക Katukka
  • Manipuri: মনাহী Manahi
  • Marathi: हिरडा Hirada
  • Nepali: हर्रा Harra,
  • Oriya: Karedha
  • Pashto: هريړه
  • Sanskrit: हरीतकी Harithaki
  • Tamil: கடுக்காய் kadukkaay
  • Telugu: కరక్కాయ karakkaya
  • Thai: สมอไทย
  • Vietnamese: Chiêu lieu
Description: Deciduous trees, to 25 m high, bark 5-6 mm thick, surface dark brown to black, fissures shallow, vertical, exfoliating in thick scales; blaze yellowish-brown; young shoots densely pubescent; branchlets brownish or greyish, glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite to alternate, exstipulate; petiole 12-25 mm long, stout, grooved above, pubescent, 2 sessile glands at the top; lamina 9.5-28 x 4-13 cm, ovate, elliptic, obovate or elliptic-obovate, base round, obtuse, oblique or subtruncate, apex acute, acuminate, obtuse or apiculate, margin entire, glabrous above tawny villous beneath, coriaceous; lateral nerves 6-12 pairs, pinnate, ascending, prominent, arched towards the margin, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, greenish-white, 5-6 mm across, in terminal and axillary spikes with offensive smell; bracts 2-3 mm long; calyx tube 1.5-2.5 × 0.8-1 mm, villous, constricted above the ovary, lobes 5, creamy, triangular, 1.5 mm; petals 0; stamens 10 in 2 rows; filaments 4-6 mm; disc 5-lobed, villous; ovary 2 mm long, inferior, densely villous, 1-celled; style 5 mm, subulate; stigma terminal. Fruit a drupe 3-4 x 2-2.5 cm, obovoid, woody, obscurely 5 angled, glabrous, greenish-yellow; seed one.

Ayurvedic uses: Sotha, Arsha, Aruchi, Hrudroga, Kasa, Pandu, Prameha, Udavarta, Vibandha, Jirna jvara, Siroroga, Tamakasvasa, Gulma, Udararoga. [API, Vol 1]

 The  chebulic  myrobalan  fruit  is  a  very  important  herb  in  the Ayurvedic tradition, and consequently, in the Royal Thai tradition as well. The unripe fruit is a common detoxifying remedy for fever, parasitic infections, spleen disorders, jaundice, skin disease, and allergic reactions of the skin. Chebulic myrobalan corrects digestive disorders and can be used for constipation, diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. It also has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, nervous disorders, and cancerous tumors. It is an expectorant used for colds, congestion, cough, asthma, bronchitis, and laryngitis, and an astringent used to halt blood or mucous in stool, sputum, or vaginal discharge. The ripe fruit is astringent, demulcent, and antidiarrheal. [A Thai Herbal: Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony]

Used  in  Ayurveda,  Unani  and  Sidha.  Herbal  preparation  antidyslipemic  and  antioxidant:  Terminalia  bellirica,  Terminalia  chebula,  Andrographis  paniculata  and  Gymnema  sylvestre.  Powder  made  of  Terminalia  chebula  and Asparagus racemosus mixed with milk and drunk for  cooling effect. Insect galls on the leaves crushed and taken  with water to cure asthma. Bark diuretic, cardiotonic, disinfectant, wound dressing; poultice of stem of Opuntia dillenii with bark of Terminalia chebula applied in ulceration in  venereal diseases; latex of Euphorbia neriifolia mixed with  dry powdered bark of Terminalia chebula given in constipation; dry powdered roots of Abroma augustum with bark of  Dillenia indica and Terminalia chebula given in urinary diseases. Seeds eaten for cough; contact therapy, a seed is tied  to the arm or a necklace of seeds is worn to prevent smallpox.  Fruits  laxative,  astringent,  stomachic,  tonic,  antibacterial, antifungal, alterative, for inflamed gums and as a relief in  asthma, often used in combination with Phyllanthus emblica  L. and Terminalia bellirica; fruit paste applied on neck for  cough, and also on forehead for headache; fruit paste applied  on seasonal wounds and cuts of the feet, also used to massage the body to cure bodyache; roots of Neonotonia wightii  ground with the fruits of Terminalia chebula and the paste  used in toothache. Fruit kept in water overnight, the filtrate  used as a soothing eye wash. Dry fruits decoction taken for  diarrhea, stomachache, spleen disorders; dried fruits chewed  and the juice used to cure coughs. Ripe fruit purgative, tonic,  carminative; rind of fruit chewed in asthma and cough; fruits  of Terminalia chebula ground with the latex of Ficus racemosa  and  the  paste  applied  in  rheumatism,  rheumatoid  arthritis. Unripe fruit blood purifier, highly astringent, used  for diarrhea, dysentery, metrorrhagia, digestion, heart, constipation, diseases of lung, used to expel diseases via diarrhea  and urine before taking other medicine; unripe fruit roasted  and chewed to cure cough. Veterinary medicine, leaves of  Cassia italica with flower of Calotropis gigantea and fruit  of Terminalia chebula pounded and given orally in constipation. Stem bark and fruits as fish poison. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Gentle purgative, astringent (unripe fruits are more purgative, ripe ones are more astringent; sennoside A and anthraquinone glycoside is laxative, tannins are astringent), stomachic, antibilious, alterative. Used in prescriptions for treating flatulence, constipation, diarrhoea, dysentery, cyst, digestive disorders, vomiting, enlarged liver and spleen, cough and bronchial asthma, and for metabolic harmony. Bark—diuretic. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Uses: The dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Myrobalans, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) are astringent and contain 20% to 40% of tannins. In Burma, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to invigorate health. In China, the fruits are used to stop flatulence and promote expectoration. In India, the fruits are eaten to invigorate health, promote digestion and expectoration, soothe sore throat and inflamed areas, stop dysentery and vomiting, and to treat ascite (Ayurveda). In Indonesia, the fruits are astringent. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to check bleeding, assuage liver discomfort and stop dysentry. In Vietnam, the fruits are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness.  [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future?]

100 g of fresh corms is boiled in 1 cup (250 mL)  of water for 10–15 min. Then the water is  filtered in a fi ltration pot and the corms are  dried in sunlight for 4–5 h. Then they are  mixed in 60–70 g of  Aloe vera  (Musabbar,  Alons) and 50 g of  Terminalia chebula  (Harir)  and ground for 10–15 min. Thirty or forty  small tablets, 5–6 g each, are made from this  powder; they are stored in a glass or plastic  bottle and given to patients suffering from  rheumatism.  For children,  not used.  For  adults,  1 tablet (5–6 g) of drug (at one time) is  given with 1 cup (250 mL) of milk or water  twice daily (morning–evening) for 15–20 days. [Medicinal Plant Biodiversity of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan]

Medicinal  use:  Fruits  are  given  internally  in  the  treatment  of  indigestion,  constipation,  dysentery,  jaundice,  piles  and  painful  menstruation,  and  as  a  general tonic.  Externally they are used to treat eye discharges.  Unripe fruit is  purgative  and  ripe  ones  astringent  and  used  also  in  fevers,  coughs,  asthma,  flatulence,  hiccup,  colic,  enlarged  spleen  and  liver,  rheumatism   and  urinary  diseases.  Powdered fruit is useful in carious teeth, bleeding and ulceration of gums. Bark acts as a cardio tonic and diuretic.

Other uses:  The fruit is the source of tannin, dye and ink.  Fruits taste  bitter,  astringent  when  first  chewed,  afterwards  if  water  is  taken,  it  tastes  very  sweet. Wood is greenish yellow, hard and heavy and takes a good polish. The  wood  is  used  for  making  houses,  furniture,  tool  handles,  agricultural  implements etc. Wood extracts contain tannin that are used to produce ink. Traditional use by the herbal healer of Bolipara: Local herbal healers use this  for  several  treatment  purposes  as,  cough,  dysentery,  fever,  food  poisoning.  Jaundice, menstrual problems, rheumatic pain and sore.  Different ethnic groups, such as Chakma, Tripura, Marma, Mru  and Bawm  use this species for  their  treatment.  Several Bengali community of the Bolipara also uses this plant as medicine. [Selected Medicinal Plants of Chittagong Hill Tracts]

536 Published articles of Terminalia chebula

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Terminalia chebula - Haritaki, Karakkaya, Kadukkaya

Terminalia chebula Retz.
Sanskrit: Haritaki
Bengali: Harithaki
Hindi: Harad
Tamil: Kadukkaya
Marathi: Harade
Malayalam: Katukka
Oriya: Karedha
Konkani: Ordo
Assamese: Hilika
Gujarati: Harade
Kashmir -Halela

Part used: Fruit, Bark
Uses: Haritaki is a rejuvenative, laxative, astringent, anthelmintic, nervine, expectorant, tonic, carminative, and appetite stimulant. Useful in Asthma, Sore throat, Thirst, Vomiting, Hiccough, Eye diseases, Diseases of Heart and Bladder. As an ingradient in Triphala.
277 Articles including some patents are published from 1933


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Acmella oleracea Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc 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Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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