Showing posts with label Gmelina arborea. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Gmelina arborea. Show all posts

Monday, April 20, 2015

Gmelina arborea, Gambhari, Gamhar, Intianjemane, Gmélin arboré

Gmelina arborea Roxb.
Family: Lamiaceae
  1. Common name: Gamhar
  2. Assamese: Gomari
  3. Bengali: গাম্ভারি Gambhari, গামার Gamar
  4. Chinese: 酸树
  5. Finnish: Intianjemane
  6. French: Gmélin arboré
  7. Gujarati: શેવન Shevan
  8. Hindi: गम्हड़ Gamhar, भद्रपर्णी Bhadraparni
  9. Kannada: ಶಿವನಿಮರ Shivanimara, ಕಾಶ್ಮೀರಿ ಮರ Kaashmiri Mara
  10. Konkani: Sirni
  11. Malayalam: Kumbil, കുമിഴ് Kumizh, കുമ്പിള് Kumpil
  12. Manipuri: ৱাঙ Wang
  13. Marathi: शिवण Sivan, थोरशिवणी Thorshivani
  14. Oriya: Thlanvawng
  15. Sanskrit: Madhumati, गम्भारी Gambhari, स्तूलत्वचा Stulatvacha
  16. Tamil: Kumalaamaram, குமுதை Kumutai, கூம்பல் Kumpal, பெருங்குமிழ் Peru-n-kumil
  17. Telugu: పెద్ద గుముడు టేకు Peddagumudutekku, పుల్లగుమ్మడి Pullagummadi,  అడవి గుమ్మడి Adavigummadi
  18. Thai: ซ้อ
Description: Trees ca. 15 m tall; bark grayish brown; branchlets, petioles, and inflorescences densely yellow-brown tomentose. Branchlets slightly 4-angled when young, becoming terete, lenticellate, leaf scars prominent. Petiole terete, 3.5-10 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 8-19 X 4.5-15 cm, thickly papery, base broadly cuneate to subcordate, apex acuminate; veins 3-5 pairs, abaxially prominent. Inflorescences terminal, narrow thyrses; peduncle 15-30 cm. Calyx 3-5 mm, with several black discoid gland patches; teeth 5, sharply triangular. Corolla yellow, 3-4 cm, 2-lipped, sparsely glandular; lower lip 3-lobed, outside yellowish brown puberulent, inside glabrous; upper lip entire or slightly 2-cleft. Ovary glabrous, glandular. Stigma unequally 2-cleft. Drupes yellow when ripe and black when dry, ellipsoid to obovoid-ellipsoid.

Coomb teak,    Candahar  tree or  Kashmeeri  tree  is  a  moderate  sized,  unarmed,  deciduous tree which is a vital ingredient of the ”dasamula” (group of ten roots). The whole  plant  is  medicinally  very  important.  It  promotes  digestive  power,  improves  memory,  overcomes giddiness and is also used as an antidote for snake bite and scorpion sting. Roots  are useful in hallucination, fever, dyspepsia, hyperdipsia, haemorrhoids, stomachalgia, heart  diseases, nervous disorders, piles and burning sensation. Bark is used in fever and dyspepsia.  Leaf paste is good for cephalagia and leaf juice is a good wash for foul ulcers and is also  used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and cough. Flowers are recommended for leprosy, skin  and  blood  diseases.  The  fruits  are  used  for  promoting  the  growth  of  hair  and  in  anaemia,  leprosy, ulcers, constipation, strangury, leucorrhoea, colpitis and lung disease. Wood  is  one  of  the  best  and  most  reliable  timber  of  India.  It  is  used  for  making furniture, planks, carriages, printing boxes, musical instruments, shafts, axles, picture frames, jute bobbins, calipers, ship buildings, artificial limbs and stethoscopes. [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag Uni.]

Used in Ayurveda. Flowers used in blood diseases. Leaves  demulcent,  carminative,  purgative,  diuretic,  antiinflammatory,  used  in  gonorrhea,  snakebite,  scorpion  sting,  cough  and ulcers; leaves decoction to cure gonorrhea and cough;  applied  in  rheumatic  affections,  headache;  leaves  infusion  carminative,  given  in  indigestion.  Fruits  cooling,  wound  dressing,  insecticide  and  astringent,  for  skin  diseases,  biliousness, fever and urticaria; ripe fruit juice with sugar and  pomegranate fruit juice taken for dysentery. Bark decoction  for stomach ailments; root paste of Abroma augustum with  bark  of  Adhatoda  zeylanica,  Gmelina  arborea  and  roots  of  Amaranthus  spinosus  applied  on  forehead  in  headache;  inner bark powder used in scabies; stembark used as an anti-dote to poisoning, a paste applied for whitlow. Roots, leaf  sap and flowers decoction, anodyne, diuretic, galactagogue,  laxative, for loosening phlegm, an appetite stimulant, for the  treatment  of  liver  disorders.  Roots  bitter,  tonic,  stomachic,  laxative  and  galactagogue,  applied  externally  on  wounds,  gout  and  abscesses;  root  decoction  given  in  indigestion,  fevers and anasarca; extract of the root given as blood purifier. Veterinary medicine, bark boiled with water applied on  tumors. Sacred plant, ceremonial sacrifice. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

To  rectify  eyeSight during  diabetes [Herbal Cures Traditional Approach]

Root:  as blood purifier,  Leaf:  as  carminative; Birhore:  Leaf:  in headache; Santal:  in anasarca,  asthma,  bronchitis,  cholera,  colic  pain,  diarrhoea,  dropsy,  dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, phthisis, rheumatism, smaIl pox, sore,  spleen complaints, syphilis, throat swelling, urticaria, as antidote  to snake bite and some other poisons; Munda: Bark: to cure wounds;  Sora (Orissa): Root:  in catarrh of bladder; Decoction of root: as  tonic; Bark: in stomach disorder; Ethnic Communities of Araku  Valley  (Andhra Pradesh):  Root:  in  malarial  fever;  Ethnic  Communities of Godavari (Andhra Pradesh): Bark-paste: on bone  fracture, Leaf: in cough, gonorrhoea; Ethnic Communities ofDehra  Dun {Uttar Pradesh): Leaf-paste: on wounds; Atharvaveda: blood  purifier; Charaka Samhita: useful in vomiting, dropsy and in burning  sensation of the body; Sushruta Samhita: energiser like grape, can  be used as substitute of sweet date palm; Bhavaprakasha: it is bitter,  appetiser, brain tonic, energiser, digestive, subdues vata and kapha,  removes dropsy,  alleviates thirst,  useful in colic pain, burning  sensation of body, fever, urinary complaints, wastage; Rajanighantu:  it is pungent, bitter, heavy (guru), thermogenic, removes oedema,  phlegm,  tridosha, burning sensation,  fever,  thirst,  poisons;  Dhanvantarinighantu: bitter,  thermogenic,  removes bleeding  tendency, tridosha .•  fatigue, burning sensation of body, fever, thirst;  Kaiyaoevanighantu: it is sweet, bitter,  thermogenic,  heavy,  appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, removes dropsy, giddiness, colic  pain, toxins, burning sensation of body,  fever,  alleviates thirst;  flowers sweet, cooling, bitter, astringent, beneficial for the diseases  caused by  pitta and kapha;  fruits  unctuous, heavy,  cooling,  astringent, brain tonic,  cardiotonic, removes giddiness, acidity,  urinary troubles, burning sensation of body, wounds, wastage and  troubles caused by vata; Rajavallabham: fruits seizing, bitter, sweet,  heavy, cooling, good for hair, brain, removes burning sensation of  body and diseases caused by pitta; roots are too hot;  Nighantu  ratnakaram: it is pungent, bitter, hot,  astringent, heavy,  sweet,  appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, cardiotonic, removes thirst, colic  pain, oedema, phlegm, toxins,  burning sensation of body, fever,  impurities of blood,  piles,  giddiness; fruits aphrodisiac, heavy,  increases semen, cooling, unctuous, increa~s intelligence, removes  urinary troubles, impurities of blood, thirst, burning sensation of  body, good for urticaria, consumption, wounds, leucorrhoea.  Ayurveda: Root:  Acrid,  bitter,  anthelmintic,  galactogogue,  laxative, stomachic, tonic, useful in burning sensation, dyspepsia,  fever, haemorrhoids, hallucination, hyperdisia and stomachalgia;  Bark: bitter, tonic, stomachic, useful in dyspepsia, fever; Leaf-paste:  useful in cephalalgia, Leaf-extract: good wash for foul ulcer; Flower:  acrid, astringent, bitter, refrigerant, sweet, useful in skin diseases  including leprosy; Fruits: acrid, alterant, aphrodisiac, astringent,  bitter, diuretic, refrigerant, sour, sweet, tonic, trichogenous, useful  in anaemia,  blood dysentery, constipation,  leprosy,  leucorrhoea,  malnutrition of child and embryo, strangury and wounds. [Horticultural, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants]

Leaf—demulcent, bechic. Used for removing foetid discharges from ulcers. Root— stomachic, laxative, antibilious, demulcent, galactagogue. Bark—anticephalalgic. Root and bark—febrifuge. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark and stem in inflammatory diseases and oedema; the fruit in dysuria and haemorrhagic diseases. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Medicinal  use:  Ethanolic  extract  of  bark  and  wood  is  hypoglycemic  and  antiviral.  Bark is also used as bitter tonic and galactagogue.  Juice  of  young  leaves  is  used  as  demulcent,  in  gonorrhea  and  coughs.  Flowers are used in leprosy and blood diseases.  Fruit is diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, alterative and is used in anemia, leprosy and ulcer.  Root and root bark are stomachic, laxative, anthelmintic and used in fever, piles and abdominal pains. Other uses; the wood is used as a source of paper-pulp, lumber, shade and ornament.  Its  wood  resembles  that  of  Teak  and  Is  widely  employed  In  carriage-building  and  ornamental  cabinet  work,  in  the  manufacture  of  palanquins, shafts, axels, yokes, agricultural instruments, toys etc.  The fruit is edible. Traditional use by the herbal healer of Bolipara: Local herbal healers use this for several treatment purposes as diarrhea, intestinal worm   and sore.  [Medicinal Plants of Chittagong]

The juice of the leaves of  this tree is used to remove foetid discharges and  worms from ulcers.  A decoction of the roots and bark  is given for  fever and thirst and to increase the secretion of milk in women. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic)  Used in Ceylon – Part-V]

696 Published articles of Gmelina arborea

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Gmelina arborea Gambhari Kasmari Kumizh Bhadraparni Adavi gummadi

Gmelina arborea Roxb.
Synonym: Premna arborea Roth
Family: (Verbenaceae) Lamiaceae
Sanskrit: Gambhari, Kasmari,
Assamese : Gomari
Bengali : Gambhar, Gamar গামার
English : Candhar Tree, Coomb teak
Gujrati : Shivan, Seevan
Hindi : Gambhari, Khambhari, Bhadraparni भद्रपर्णी
Kannada : Shivanigida, ಶಿವನೆ Shivana, Hannu
Kashmiri : Kashmari
Malayalam : Kumizh  കുമ്പിള്‍, Kumpil
Marathi : Shivan
Oriya : Gambhari, Bhodroparnni
Punjabi : Gumhar, Kumhar
Tamil : Kumishan, Kumizhan, Kattanam,
Telugu : Peggummudu, అడవి గుమ్మడి Adavi gummadi, గుమ్మడి టేకు Gummadi teku, Ataricarika, Pulla gummadi పుల్ల గుమ్మడి

Ayurvedic uses: Sotha, Daham Jvara, Trushsna, Arsha, Hrudroga, Mutrakruccha, Rakta Pitta.

Roots and heart wood of Coomb teak are reported to contain gmelinol, hentriacontanol, n-octacosanol and b-sitosterol. The roots contain sesquiterpenoid and apiosylskimmin, a coumarin characterised as umbelliferone-7-apiosyl glucoside and gmelofuran. The heart wood gives ceryl alcohol, cluytyl ferulate, lignans, arboreol, gmelonone, 6”-bromo isoarboreol, lignan hemiacetal and gummidiol. Leaves yield luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, b-sitosterol, quercetogenin and other flavons. Fruits contain butyric acid, tartaric acid, and saccharine substances

The roots are acrid, bitter, tonic, stomachic, laxative, galactogogue, demulcent, antibilious, febrifuge and anthelmintic. Bark is bitter, hypoglycaemic, antiviral, anticephalalgic and tonic. The leaves are demulcent, antigonorrhoeic and bechic. Flowers are sweet, refrigerant, astringent and acrid. Fruits are acrid, efrigerant, diuretic, astringent, aphrodisiac, trichogenous, alterant and tonic.

Leaf—demulcent, bechic. Used for removing foetid dis charges from ulcers. Root— stomachic, laxative, antibilious, demulcent, galactagogue. Bark— anticephalalgic. Root and bark— febrifuge.

214 Published articles list of Gmelina arborea


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Acmella oleracea Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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