Showing posts with label Abrus precatorius. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Abrus precatorius. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Abrus precatorius, Coral, Gunja, Guruvinda, Gundumani, Чёточник молитвенный, มะกล่ำตาหนู, Cam thảo dây, Paternostererbse

Abrus precatorius L.Family: Fabaceae
  • English: Coral bead vine, Rosary pea
  • Arabic: عين العفريت
  • Assamese: লাটুমণি লতা
  • Bengali: गुंच Gunch, কুঁচ
  • Chinese: 相思子, 相思豆
  • Czech: Soterek obecný
  • Finnish: Paternosterpapu
  • German: Paternostererbse
  • Gujarati: Ratti रत्ती, Chanothi
  • Hindi: रत्ती Ratti, गुंची Gunchi
  • Kannada: गुलगुंजी Gulugunji
  • Kannada: ಗುಲಗಂಜಿ gulaganji
  • Malayalam: Kunni
  • Marathi: गुंज Gunja
  • Nepali: लालगेडी lalgodi
  • Pampanga: Kansasaga
  • Polish: Modligroszek różańcowy
  • Punjabi: ਰੱਤੀ
  • Russian: Чёточник молитвенный
  • Sanskrit: गुंजा Gunjaa
  • Shona: Chonjo
  • Spanish: jequerity
  • Tamil: குந்து மணி kundu mani
  • Telugu: గురుగింజ guruginja, గురువింద guruvinda
  • Thai: มะกล่ำตาหนู
  • Vietnamese: Cam thảo dây
  • Yoruba: Lele
Description: Perennial, Vines, twining, climbing, Woody throughout, Stems woody below, or from woody crown or caudex, Nodules present, Stems erect or ascending, Stems greater than 2 m tall, Stems solid, Stems or young twigs glabrous or sparsely glabrate, Stems or young twigs sparsely to densely hairy, Leaves alternate, Leaves petiolate, Stipules inconspicuous, absent, or caducous, Stipules setiform, subulate or acicular, Stipules deciduous, Stipules free, Leaves compound, Leaves even pinnate, Leaf or leaflet margins entire, Leaflets opposite, Stipels present at base of leaflets, Leaflets 10-many, Leaves glabrous or nearly so, Flowers in axillary clusters or few-floweredracemes, 2-6 flowers, Inflorescences racemes, Inflorescence axillary, Inflorescence terminal, Flowers zygomorphic, Calyx 5-lobed, Calyx glabrous, Petals separate, Corolla papilionaceous, Petals clawed, Petals red, Petals blue, lavander to purple, or violet, Banner petal ovo id or obovate, Wing petals narrow, oblanceolate to oblong, Wing tips obtuse or rounded, Stamens 9-10, Stamens monadelphous, united below, Filaments glabrous, Style terete, Fruit a legume, Fruit unilocular, Fruit freely dehiscent, Fruit elongate, straight, Fruit oblong or ellipsoidal, Fruit exserted from calyx, Fruit compressed between seeds, Fruit torulose or moniliform, strongly constricted between seeds, Fruit beaked, Fruit glabrous or glabrate, Fruit 3-10 seeded, Seeds ovoid to rounded in outline, Seed surface smooth, Seeds red, or scarlet and black. 

Alopecia, dryness of mouth, colic (therapeutic uses based on classical texts from the seventh century to the sixteenth century). The petroleum ether extract of the root at 1–5 days post-coitum prevented nidation in up to 100% of albino rats. 95% ethanol extract of root (orally) at 10.0 mg/kg showed an anti-estrogenic effect. Abruquinones A, B, and D exhibit platelet  aggregation and A, B, D, and F show strong anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. 70% ethanol extract of fresh root (intraperitonealy) showed anticonvulsant and CNS depressant activity at variable doses in mice. The root was used as a snuff in masosinusitis (Vrindamadhava, sixth century). The root was chewed for pain due to dental caries (Rājamarttanda, eleventh century). Massage and snuff of the root and seed extract in oil was prescribed for treating chronic cervical lymphadenitis (Bhāvaprakasha, sixteenth century). Hot water extract of the root is taken orally as an emmenagogue. In Taiwan, a decoction of the dried root is given internally to treat bronchitis and hepatitis. A decoction of the root and leaf sap is taken orally for asthma in Tanzania. Leprosy/obstinate skin diseases; ulcer; diseases of the nervous system; baldness (therapeutic uses based on texts from the fifteenth to sixteenth century). In leprosy, a paste of the seeds with butter was applied topically; in sciatica, stiffness of shoulder, and paralysis, the affected region is incised with a razor and a paste of the seeds was applied thereon; in baldness, the scalp was incised and a paste of the seeds was applied frequently; for treating scrofula, oil extract of seeds and root; for dandruff, oil extract of seeds and Eclipta alba was prescribed. Abrin has been studied for its cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, as well as for sterility, treat- ing prostate and breast cancer  and as a “molecular probe” to investigate cell function. Experimentally, seed extracts showed anti-fertility activity in rats; adversely influenced pregnancy and the fetus in mice; and caused irreversible impairment in human sperm motility. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. High toxicity. Seeds poisonous, highly toxic, often used criminally; a single well- masticated seed can kill an adult human; abrin is regarded as one of the most deadly plant toxins known. Plant antibacte- rial, contraceptive, antiallergic, antimalarial, febrifuge, anti- inflammatory, expectorant, insecticide, anti-schistosomiasis, molluscicidal. Root said to be emetic and useful in poisoning, an infusion used for procuring abortion; decoction of fruits of Pedalium murex with the roots of Abrus precatorius used as oral medicine to cure syphilis. Leaves or roots used for chest complaints, pleurisy; juice of fresh leaves on scabies and leprosy; dried leaves refrigerant; leaves applied on swol- len tonsils; leaf juice mixed in water taken for cough. Roots, stem and leaves for the treatment of flu, cough, fever; roots used for expelling hookworm; roots infusion or juice used for procuring abortion; soaked crushed roots decoction taken to treat leucorrhea. Seeds antiseptic, abortifacient, tonic, anti- malarial and antiinflammatory, poultice applied externally to cure mastitis and galactophoritis; paste of seeds said to decrease fertility in women, the lady will not get pregnant; seed paste with seeds of Albizia lebbeck given to cure cata- ract; seeds ground, brewed and taken as a cure for asthma; seed paste when placed in cotton and inserted in vagina causes abortion, also criminal abortion. Veterinary medicine, whole plant extract given orally for retained placenta; the leaves of this plant and the leaves of Calotropis procera are mixed, burnt and the ash given to goats after delivery; pounded leaves decoction given for insect bite; leaf paste a germicide to dress wounds in domestic animals; leaves extract given to cure anthrax, in insect bite, in retained placenta; crushed roots applied to cure white eyes of the cattle; powdered seeds given with water to treat liver disorders, poisoning and ner- vousness; seeds paste applied on yokegall, seed powder fed to ox to cure galls on the neck. Used in religion and magico- religious beliefs and performances, amulet from the roots; a piece of root tied round the wrist is believed to prevent skin diseases; Tantric rituals, rosaries made of seeds; a traditional remedy through plant wreath, stem pieces tied on hand to treat fits. Contact therapy, or touch therapy, to cure toothache a piece or root is tied around the ear. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

A decoction of the leaves has been prescribed for scurvy, cough, bronchitis, sprue and hepatitis and as a refrigerant. They are also applied on painful swellings, eye inflammation, cancer, syphilis and on leucodermic spots. The leaves are also effective in the treatment of coryza, cough, fever, and jaundice resulting from viral hepatitis and intoxications. The seeds have been used to treat fever, malaria, headache, dropsy and to expel worms. A decoction of the seeds is applied for abdominal complaints, conjunctivitis, irachoma and malarial fever. Central Africans use powdered seed as an oral contraceptive/ It is also used to lower high blood pressure and relieve severe headache. The seeds are very toxic and can be applied externally to treat bacterial infection and accelerate the bursting of boils and to cure mastitis and galactophoritis. The seed has purgative properties and is used as an emetic, tonic, aphrodisiac, and for nervous disorders. The poultice can be used as suppository, abortifacient, or tonic for pregnant women and children and to treat severe headaches. Water from the boiled roots is used to cure cough, bronchitis, sore throat and also applied as an emetic agent. [A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach ]

The leaf decoction is used for treatment of coughs, constipation, colic, and general pains. The leaves are chewed to relieve hoarseness and bronchial constrictions; the vapor from crushed leaves boiled with water is used to treat eye inflammation. The aqueous extract of the seed is used for the treatment of cancer of the epithelioma and as a vermifuge and an abortifacient. A single dose of the powdered seeds acts as a long-acting contraceptive, with the effect lasting up to  menstrual cycles. The seed infusion has been employed to hasten labor and for treatment of conjunctivitis granulosa and trachoma. The entire plant is drunk for treatment of venereal disease, headaches, and snakebites. A poultice prepared from the seeds of Abrus, salt, and the unripe fruits of Musa paradisica is applied topically to boils and abscesses. [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Ingested seeds generally remain intact as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract without releasing any toxin and causing any toxicity. However, if the seeds are chewed, pulverized, or digested (i.e., if passage through the gastrointestinal tract is delayed), then the toxin is absorbed by intestinal cells, causing mild to severe gastrointestinal toxicity. Symptoms depend upon the amount of toxin exposure and include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and dehydration. Variations in the severity of toxicity may be related to the degree to which the seeds are ground or chewed before ingestion. Parenteral administration (such as by injection or inhalation), or perhaps large ingestion, may produce life-threatening systemic findings, including multisystem organ failure, even with small exposures. [Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants, 2nd Ed]

Used  in  nervous  disorders,  sciatica  and  paralysis;  leaf  decoction  used  in cough,  conic  pain,  skin  diseases;  root  used  in  preparation  for  gonorrhoea,  jaundice. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

Ethnomedicinal uses: fresh leaves are chewed to cure mouth blisters. Seed powder is used as an antifertility drug by both males and females. A high dose of seed powder is considered fatal. Ethnoveterinary medicinal uses: the powder of two to three seeds is given to animals with bread two to four times a day for the disposal of the placenta following the birth of a baby.  [Herbal Drugs: Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine]

Grind  the  roots,'  make  small  pills,  encase  the  pills  in molasses and eat the same to treat night-blindedness; Make  a  plaster  by  grinding  the  roots  of  white-fruited variety  and  apply  the  plaster  on  the  painful  part  of inflammated sections of the gum; To treat white-coloured urine they drink a mixture made by grinding roots of the following: White-fruited A.  precatorius, Horticultural, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (b)  Indigofera pulchella, (c)  Panicum repens and (d)  Spatholobus roxburghii; To treat gravel they drink a mixture made of the following: Roots of A. precatorius, (b)  The refuse of molasses, (c)  Exudation from a sapling of Diospyros  tomentosa, (d)  Exudation from Acacia catechu, (e)  Little  saltpeter,  and (f)  Pinch of sulphur; To treat the variety of childbed complaints (usually caused by anaemia) characterized by profuse diarrhoea, roots of A. precatorius are used in preparing two different varieties of mixtures; the ingredients of the mixtures are given below: First  variety:  roots  of A.  precatorius,  Elaeodendron roxburghii,  Coix  lachryma-jobi,  Piper  longum,  Ruellia suffruticosa, white onion, rhizome of Zingiber officinale; (b)  Second variety: roots of A. precatorius,  Coix lachrymajobi,  Embelia  robusta,  Piper  longum,  bark  of Casearea tomentosa,  Elaeodendron  roxburghii,  Gmelina  arborea, Emblica  officinalis,  white  onion,  leaves  of  Ocimum sanctum, rhizome of Curcuma angustifolia and Zingiber officinale - all  these are ground together, boiled and mixed with the refuse of molasses; Roots as abortifacient and used in paralysis; Apply leaf-paste  with lime-water (2:  1)  on swelling of glands; Grind  the leaves of white-flowered A.  precatorius,  warm slightly and plaster on the loins to kill pain there; Grind leaves of A. precatorius along with leaves of Lawsonia alba and Tamarindus indica (1: 1: 1), add a little salt, boil a little and apply the plaster on the whole body to get relief from muscular pain caused by over-exhaustion; Make a paste of leaves of A. precatorius along with roots of Carissa carandas and Gossypium arboreum, warm the paste slightly and plaster the same over the whole body of the patient suffering from stealth convulsions; A Salubrious Perspective of Medicinal Plants  Leaf-paste in leucoderma; Seed-paste in skin diseases; Seeds after  some processing as  contraceptive.  Paste in gonorrhoea. Oraon: dried root-powder as mild purgative. [Horticultural, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants]

In Burma, the roots of Abrus precatorius L. are used to relieve cough and to adulterate liquorice. In China, the seeds are used to induce vomiting, relieve the bowels of costiveness, expel intestinal worms, stimulate the secretion of sweat, and promote expectoration. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves and roots is drunk to relieve cough. In Vietnam, a decoction of about 10 g of the roots, stems and leaves is drunk to treat fever, coryza and jaundice, relieve cough, and counteract poisoning. The seeds are used to treat infected skin, mastitis and galactophoritis, heal boils and soothe inflammation. A number of Asian women living in UK use the seeds to abort a pregnancy, even though these seeds are poisonous. Note that the seeds of Abrus precatorius L. were officially used in Western medicine [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

Stem:  Bark  decoction  for  stomachache,  thrush,  colds,  coughs,  sore  throat  and  asthma;  emollient; extract for cancer treatment. Stem and Leaf: In French Guiana, the stems and leaves are  mixed with the leaves, stems and roots of Zea mays for a tisane used to remedy mild inflammations  of  the  urinary  tract,  diarrhoea,  aphthae  and  hoarseness.  Leaf:  Boiled  with  leaves  of  Tamarindus  indica,  Annona  muricata  and  Lantana  camara  in  a  syrup  for  chest  colds.  Seed:  Decoction  for  chronic ulcers and ophthalmia, specifically trachoma of the conjunctiva. Root: Liquorice substitute.  CHEM:  Seed poisonous, containing the toxic abrin and abric acid. Plant extracts have been used as  an effective oral contraceptive. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

445 Published articles of Abrus precatorius

Sunday, May 6, 2012

Abrus precatorius, Gunja, Guriginja, Gundumani

Abrus precatorius Linn.
Family: Fabaceae
Arabic : Ainuddeek عين العفريت
Bengali: গুঞ্জা guñja, গুঞ্জিকা guñjika, কুঁচ kuncha, 
Filipino/Tagalog - Rosary pea, Rosary plant, Sága
Gujarati: રત્તી ratti
Hindi: गुंची gunchi, गुञ्जा gunja, कूंच kunch, माषा masha, पाटहिका patahika, रत्ती ratti
Javanese - Saga telik
Kannada: gunja, ಗುಲಗಂಜಿ gulagunji
Konkani: मनजोटी manjoti
Ladybird beads, Lele damu Fijian -
Malay - Akar saga
Malayalam: കുന്നി kunni
Marathi: गुंज gunja, मधुयष्टि madhuyashti, रती rati
Persian : Chashm Kharoos Surkh
Prakrit: रतिआ ratia
Samoan - Matamoso
Sanskrit: गुंजा gunjaa, kakachinchi, मधुयष्टिका madhuyashtika, रक्तिका raktika, रती rati
Singhalese - Mienie-mienie, Olindawel
Sundanese - Saga leutik
Tamil: குந்து மணி kundu mani,
Telugu: గుంజ gunja, గురిగింజ guriginja
Thai - Kuntumani
Tongan - Licorice-vine, Love bean, Love pea, Lucky beans, Matamoho
Urdu: خاکشي khakshi, قيراط qirat, سرخ surkh

Ayurvedic uses: Kushta, Vrana, Vatavyadhi, Indralupta
Unani: Bahaq, Bars, Kalaf, Sabal, Bayaz-e-Chashm (as a Surma)


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Acmella oleracea Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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