Showing posts with label Cinnamomum verum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cinnamomum verum. Show all posts

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Cinnamomum verum, దాల్చిన చెక్క, കറുവ, दालचीनी, சன்னலவங்கம், Darusita, Корица, 锡兰肉桂, ଡାଳଚିନି, قرفة حقيقية

 
Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Family: Lauraceae


Synonyms: Camphorina cinnamomum (L.) Farw., Cinnamomum alexei Kosterm., Cinnamomum aromaticum J.Graham, Cinnamomum barthii Lukman., Cinnamomum bengalense Lukman., Cinnamomum biafranum Lukman., Cinnamomum bonplandii Lukman., Cinnamomum boutonii Lukman., Cinnamomum capense Lukman., Cinnamomum carolinense var. oblongum Kaneh., Cinnamomum cayennense Lukman., Cinnamomum cinnamomum (L.) H.Karst. [Invalid], Cinnamomum commersonii Lukman., Cinnamomum cordifolium Lukman., Cinnamomum decandollei Lukman., Cinnamomum delessertii Lukman., Cinnamomum ellipticum Lukman., Cinnamomum erectum Lukman., Cinnamomum humboldtii Lukman., Cinnamomum iners Wight [Illegitimate], Cinnamomum karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum leptopus A.C.Sm., Cinnamomum leschenaultii Lukman., Cinnamomum madrassicum Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum var. karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum mauritianum Lukman., Cinnamomum meissneri Lukman., Cinnamomum ovatum Lukman., Cinnamomum pallasii Lukman., Cinnamomum pleei Lukman., Cinnamomum pourretii Lukman., Cinnamomum regelii Lukman., Cinnamomum roxburghii Lukman., Cinnamomum sieberi Lukman., Cinnamomum sonneratii Lukman., Cinnamomum vaillantii Lukman., Cinnamomum variabile Lukman., Cinnamomum wolkensteinii Lukman., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cassia Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cordifolium Hayne, Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. foeniculaceum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. inodorum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. microphyllum Meisn., Cinnamomum zollingeri Lukman., Laurus cinnamifera Stokes, Laurus cinnamomea Salisb., Laurus cinnamomum L., Laurus culitlaban Buch.-Ham. ex Nees, Laurus montana Link ex Meisn., Laurus rigida Wall., Persea cinnamomum Spreng.
  • English: Cinnamon
  • Tamil: கறுவா (மரம்), சன்னலவங்கம் Channalavangam
  • Telugu: దాల్చిన చెక్క
  • Tulu: ಇಜಿನ್‌ದ ಮರ
  • Chinese: 锡兰肉桂
  • Russian: Корица
  • Nepali: दालचिनीको बोट
  • Malayalam: കറുവ
  • Odia: ଡାଳଚିନି dalachin
  • Arabic: قرفة حقيقية
  • Hindi: दालचीनी Dalchini
  • Sanskrit: Darusita
  • Kannada: ದಾಲಚೀನೀ Dalchini 
Native to Sri Lanka. Cinnamon is extracted from the tree’s inner bark. Cinnamon is believed to be effective in blood glucose balancing and to increase insulin secretion. Glucose balancing and insulin secretion, help improve the efficiency of
insulin and increase glucose disposal. Cinnamon also possesses antioxidant properties [43] that help to reduce the damaging complications of diabetes [Anti-diabetes and Anti-obesity Medicinal Plants and Phytochemicals_ Safety, Efficacy, and Action Mechanisms]

(Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Root bark and stem bark aromatic. Dried bark aromatic, carminative, astringent, stimulant,  stomachic,  analgesic,  antiseptic,  antispasmodic, germicide,  hemostatic,  used  for  stomachache,  vomiting, nausea, flatulence, to treat headaches and intestinal troubles; stembark juice applied on teeth in tooth decay and toothache.  Bark and leafy branches contain volatile oil useful in rheu matic pains and nervous breakdown. Aromatic root smelled to relieve headache. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Canela is used both medicinally and as a flavoring agent in herbal teas because of its sweet, spicy taste. An infusion of canela is reported to help regulate blood pressure. For low blood pressure, a tea is prepared by boiling the dried inner bark in milk. For kidney disorders, canela is added to an infusion made of horsetail (cola de caballo). Canela is considered a hot (caliente) herb that warms the body and is used for treating conditions caused by excess cold in the body such as arthritis and the common cold or flu. As a remedy, a tea is prepared of cinnamon (canela) bark, lemon/lime (limón) fruit, lavender (alucema) flowers and Chinese star anise (anís de estrella) seeds. To treat sinusitis and nasal congestion due to allergies, the following herbs are boiled in water to make a steam bath for the face: cinnamon (canela) sticks, cumin (anís comino or comino) seeds, rose (rosa) petals and allspice (malagueta) seeds. The patient inhales the vapor of these plants by leaning over the pot of water while covering his or her head with a sheet or towel. For anxiety, stress and tension, canela is considered a relaxing herb (relajante), and a tea for calming the nervous system is prepared using cinnamon sticks and chamomile (manzanilla) flowers. For women’s health conditions, including uterine fibroids and menopausal hot flashes, cinnamon (canela) sticks are added to multi-herb decoctions or tinctures (bebedizos and botellas) to sweeten the bitter flavor of these preparations. Because this plant is considered a sweet herb, la esencia de canela or el espiritu de canela (essential oil or alcohol extract) is used as an ingredient in baths to attract good fortune and positive energy as part of spiritual healing traditions. [Dominican Medicinal Plants: A Guide for Health Care Providers]

spice for health food, carminative, nausea and vomiting, diaphoretic. [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Carminative, antispasmodic, aromatic stimulant, diuretic, haemostatic, astringent, stomachic and germicide. Used in pain balms, cold, cough and gastric troubles. It also has antimicrobial and anti-oxidant properties. [Handbook of herbs and spices Vol 2]

Well known for millennia, and oft mentioned in the Bible, cinnamon was reportedly one of the ingredients in Moses’ holy ointment. Cinnamon tea might be useful for elderly bedridden patients with cold extremities, or in preparing such a patient for a recuperative walk, or cast removal from a fractured extremity. Regarded as antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, diaphoretic, fungicide, stimulant, and stomachic, it is a fragrant cordial, useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhea, checking nausea and vomiting, and used in other medicinal mixtures. Powdered bark in water (or EO, or tiger balm containing many of the same chemicals) is applied to the temple in headaches and neuralgia. Cinnamon bark prevents platelet agglutination and shows antithrombic and antitumor activity. Lebanese use cinnamon as a stimulant, for colds, rheumatism, halitosis, and to check slobbering in young and elderly people. It is also used to loosen coughs. Ayurvedics consider the bark aphrodisiac and tonic, using it for biliousness, bronchitis, diarrhea, itch, parched mouth, worms, and cardiac, rectal, and urinary diseases. They use the oil for “eructations,” gas, loss of appetite, nausea, and toothache. Unani consider the oil carminative, emmenagogue, and tonic to the liver, using it for abdominal pains, bronchitis, head colds, and inflammation. They consider the bark alexeteric, aphrodisiac, carminative, expectorant, sialagogue, and tonic, using it for gas, headache, hiccup, hydrocele, liver ailments, piles, and scorpion stings. One of our Belizean ecotourists was complaining about a snoring roommate. Famed Belizean herbalist Rosita Aruigo suggests 1 cup of cinnamon tea with 2 tsp grated ginger, adding honey and milk to taste. Drink at bedtime each night until cured. Since I have mentioned one spicy Ayurvedic triad, trikatu (ginger, long pepper, and pepper), I may as well mention another spicy triad, trijataka [cardamom, cinnamon, and “tejapatra,” which I am told is cassia (unidentified in DEP and WOI)], three more aromatics often used together for lengual paralysis, stomach cramps, and toothache. [CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices]

Cinnamon is stated to possess antispasmodic, carminative, orexigenic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, refrigerant and anthelmintic properties. It has been used for anorexia, intestinal colic, infantile diarrhoea, common cold, influenza, and specifically for flatulent colic, and dyspepsia with nausea. Cinnamon bark is also stated to be astringent, and cinnamon oil is reported to possess carminative and antiseptic properties. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

Mainly used for digestive disorders such as diarrhoea, and flatulent colic or dyspepsia. Cinnamon has also been used for the common cold, and the oil may have antiseptic activity. It has been used in Chinese medicine for circulatory disorders. [Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interactions]

 Asian traditional medicine for colds, flu, and digestive problems, recent investigations indicate that it has a potent stabilizing effect on blood sugar levels, helping to slow or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is also active against Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium commonly linked with stomach ulcers. [Herbal Remedies]

Charaka used the dried leaves and bark of Cinnamomum tamala, in prescriptions, as an aid to rejuvenation, in anaemia, cardiac disorders, fever and externally in body-odour. He included Tvak in a mouthwash. Sushruta prescribed the leaves internally in skin eruptions and blood poisoning; also the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. He used the dried bark as an antispasmodic; externally as an ingredient of a dusting powder for wounds. For erysipelas, Sushruta incorporated the bark for a medicinal plaster. A classical compound of Ashtaanga Hridaya, Sitopalaadi Churna, incorporated Tvak, Elaa (Elettaria cardamomum), Pippli (Piper longum), Tavk- shiri (Bamboo-manna) and sugar, successively double in quantity, for cough and asthma. Among over-the-counter classical Ayurvedic drugs, Elaadi Gutikaa (Bhaishajya Ratnaavali) incorporates Tamaalpatra, and is prescribed in chronic and dry cough; Lavangaadi Churna (Shaarangadhara Samhitaa) contains Cinnamo- mum zeylanicum bark, and is prescribed in anorexia and flatulence. Among Unani compounds, Iyarij-e-Faiqra contains Daarchini as well as Saleekhaa and is prescribed in rheumatism, hemiplegia, Bells Palsy, as a purgative, cathartic. Daarchini has been used as a single drug in Raughan-e-Daarchini, prescribed externally in rheumatism and headache; internally in sexual debility (2-5 drops) and neurasthenia. [Indian Herbal Remedies]

120 Publications of  Cinnamomum verum

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamon, Dalchini

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Family: Lauraceae
Synonyms: Persea cinnamomum Spreng., Laurus rigida Wall., Laurus montana Link ex Meisn., Laurus culitlaban Buch.-Ham. ex Nees, Laurus cinnamomum L., Laurus cinnamomea Salisb., Laurus cinnamifera Stokes, Cinnamomum zollingeri Lukman., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. microphyllum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. inodorum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. foeniculaceum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cordifolium Hayne, Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cassia Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Cinnamomum wolkensteinii Lukman., Cinnamomum variabile Lukman., Cinnamomum vaillantii Lukman., Cinnamomum sonneratii Lukman., Cinnamomum sieberi Lukman., Cinnamomum roxburghii Lukman., Cinnamomum regelii Lukman., Cinnamomum pourretii Lukman., Cinnamomum pleei Lukman., Cinnamomum pallasii Lukman., Cinnamomum ovatum Lukman., Cinnamomum meissneri Lukman., Cinnamomum mauritianum Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum var. karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum Lukman., Cinnamomum madrassicum Lukman., Cinnamomum leschenaultii Lukman., Cinnamomum leptopus A.C.Sm., Cinnamomum karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum iners Wight [Illegitimate], Cinnamomum humboldtii Lukman., Cinnamomum erectum Lukman., Cinnamomum ellipticum Lukman., Cinnamomum delessertii Lukman., Cinnamomum decandollei Lukman., Cinnamomum cordifolium Lukman., Cinnamomum commersonii Lukman., Cinnamomum cinnamomum (L.) H.Karst., Cinnamomum cayennense Lukman., Cinnamomum carolinense var. oblongum Kaneh., Cinnamomum capense Lukman., Cinnamomum boutonii Lukman., Cinnamomum bonplandii Lukman., Cinnamomum biafranum Lukman., Cinnamomum bengalense Lukman., Cinnamomum barthii Lukman., Cinnamomum aromaticum J.Graham, Cinnamomum alexei Kosterm., Camphorina cinnamomum (L.) Farw.

Common name: Cinnamon
Albanian: Kanella, Kanellë
Amharic: Kerefa, qa-ra-faa, ቀረፋ
Arabic: قِرْفَة, dâr sînî, قرفة
Armenian: Կինամոն
Azerbaijani: Darçın, Дарчын
Basque: Kanela, Kanelondo
Burmese: Thit-ja-bo-gauk
Catalan: Canyella
Croatian: Ceylonski cimet, Cimet
Czech: Skorice, Skorice cejlonska
Esperanto: Cinamo
Estonian: Kaneel, Tseiloni kaneelipuu
Finnish: aitokaneli, Ceyloninkaneli Kaneli
French: Cannelier de Ceylan, Cannelle, Cannelle type Ceylan, Cannellier
Galician: canela
Georgian: Darichini, daricini, დარიჩინი
German: Ceylon-Zimt Echter Zimt, Zimtblute
Hebrew: קינמון
Hindi: दालचीनी Dalchini
Hungarian: Ceyloni fahéj,
Indonesian: Kayu manis
Italian: cannella del Ceylano
Japanese: にっけい, セイロンニッケイ,  肉桂
Kannada: ದಾಲಚೀನೀ Dalchini
Kazakh: Даршин
Khmer: Chek tum phka loeng
Korean: 계, 육계
Latin: Cortex Cinnamomi zeylanici
Malayalam: കറുവ
Polish: Cynamon cejloński
Portuguese: canelleira da India
Romanian: Scorţişoară
Russian: Цейлонская корица
Sanskrit: Darusita, tamalapatra, twak
Sinhalese: Kurundu
Tamil: சன்னலவங்கம் Channalavangam, Karuva
Telugu: Dalchini chekka దాల్చిన చెక్క
Thai: อบเชย,  อบเชยเทศ
Turkish: Tarcin, Tarçın ağacı
Ukrainian: Кориця
Vietnamese: Quế rành
Yiddish: Tsimring

Description: Trees, to 20 m high, bark 8-10 mm thick, brown, rough, cracks vertical; blaze creamy pink; bole buttressed; branchlets glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite, estipulate; petiole 8-20 mm, stout, glabrous, slightly grooved above; lamina 9.5-14 x 3.5-5.5 cm, ovate, elliptic ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, base acute, apex acute to acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, 3-ribbed from base, prominent, glabrous; lateral nerves 3-6 pairs, obscure, pinnate; intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, in terminal and axillary, pedicel 7 mm long, pale yellow, 5 mm long, 6 mm across; perianth 8 mm, silky, tube campanulate, lobes 6, 3 mm long, oblong-lanceolate; stamens 9 perfect, those of first and second rows opposite the perianth lobes, introrse and eglandular, those of third row opposite the first row, lateral, bearing 2 large glands at the base; staminodes 3, of the forth row opposite the second row, cordate and stipitate; ovary half inferior, sessile. Fruit a berry, 1-2 cm, ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid, dark purple, surrounded by the enlarged perianth.

Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge [ Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. Univ]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Root bark and stem bark aromatic. Dried bark aromatic, carminative, astringent, stimulant,  stomachic,  analgesic,  antiseptic,  antispasmodic, germicide,  hemostatic,  used  for  stomachache,  vomiting, nausea, flatulence, to treat headaches and intestinal troubles; stembark juice applied on teeth in tooth decay and toothache. Bark and leafy branches contain volatile oil useful in rheumatic pains and nervous breakdown. Aromatic root smelled to relieve headache. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Dominican Medicinal Uses : The inner bark is traditionally prepared as a decoction and taken orally for allergy, anxiety, arthritis, low blood pressure, kidney ailments, common cold, flu, sinusitis and women’s health conditions. Contraindications: Large quantities of cinnamon should not be during pregnancy due to potential teratogenic effects. [Dominican Medicinal Plants]

Cinnamon tea might be useful for elderly bedridden patients with cold extremities, or in preparing such  a  patient  for  a  recuperative  walk,  or  cast  removal  from  a  fractured  extremity.  Regarded  as antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, diaphoretic, fungicide, stimulant, and stomachic, it is a fragrant cordial, useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhea, checking nausea and vomiting,  and  used  in  other  medicinal  mixtures.  Powdered  bark  in  water  (or  EO,  or  tiger  balm containing many of the same chemicals) is applied to the temple in headaches and neuralgia. Cinnamon bark  prevents  platelet  agglutination  and  shows  antithrombic  and  antitumor  activity.  Lebanese  use cinnamon  as  a  stimulant,  for  colds,  rheumatism,  halitosis,  and  to  check  slobbering  in  young  and elderly people. It is also used to loosen coughs. Ayurvedics consider the bark aphrodisiac and tonic, using it for biliousness, bronchitis, diarrhea, itch, parched mouth, worms, and cardiac, rectal, and urinary diseases. They use the oil for “eructations,” gas, loss of appetite, nausea, and toothache. Unani consider  the  oil  carminative,  emmenagogue,  and  tonic  to  the  liver,  using  it  for  abdominal  pains, bronchitis, head colds, and inflammation. They consider the bark alexeteric, aphrodisiac, carminative expectorant, sialagogue, and tonic, using it for gas, headache, hiccup, hydrocele, liver ailments, piles, and scorpion stings. One of our Belizean ecotourists was complaining about a snoring roommate. Famed Belizean herbalist Rosita Aruigo suggests 1 cup of cinnamon tea with 2 tsp grated ginger, adding honey and milk to taste. Drink at bedtime each night until cured. Since I have mentioned one spicy Ayurvedic triad, trikatu (ginger, long pepper, and pepper), I may as well mention another spicy triad, trijataka [cardamom, cinnamon, and “tejapatra,” which I am told is cassia (unidentified in DEP and WOI)],  three  more  aromatics  often  used  together  for  lengual  paralysis,  stomach  cramps,  and toothache. [CRC Handbook of medicinal spices]

Cinnamon are mainly used for digestive disorders such as diarrhoea, and flatulent colic or dyspepsia. Cinnamon has also been used for the common cold, and the oil may have antiseptic activity. It has been used in Chinese medicine for circulatory disorders. [Herbal Medicines Interactions]

Cinnamon used in Asian traditional medicine for colds, flu, and digestive problems, recent investigations indicate that it has a potent stabilizing effect on blood sugar levels, helping to slow or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is also active against Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium commonly linked with  stomach ulcers.  [Herbal Remedies] 

68 Published articles of Cinnamomum verum
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prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana