Showing posts with label Cinnamomum verum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cinnamomum verum. Show all posts

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamon, Dalchini

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Family: Lauraceae
Synonyms: Persea cinnamomum Spreng., Laurus rigida Wall., Laurus montana Link ex Meisn., Laurus culitlaban Buch.-Ham. ex Nees, Laurus cinnamomum L., Laurus cinnamomea Salisb., Laurus cinnamifera Stokes, Cinnamomum zollingeri Lukman., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. microphyllum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. inodorum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. foeniculaceum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cordifolium Hayne, Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cassia Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Cinnamomum wolkensteinii Lukman., Cinnamomum variabile Lukman., Cinnamomum vaillantii Lukman., Cinnamomum sonneratii Lukman., Cinnamomum sieberi Lukman., Cinnamomum roxburghii Lukman., Cinnamomum regelii Lukman., Cinnamomum pourretii Lukman., Cinnamomum pleei Lukman., Cinnamomum pallasii Lukman., Cinnamomum ovatum Lukman., Cinnamomum meissneri Lukman., Cinnamomum mauritianum Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum var. karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum Lukman., Cinnamomum madrassicum Lukman., Cinnamomum leschenaultii Lukman., Cinnamomum leptopus A.C.Sm., Cinnamomum karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum iners Wight [Illegitimate], Cinnamomum humboldtii Lukman., Cinnamomum erectum Lukman., Cinnamomum ellipticum Lukman., Cinnamomum delessertii Lukman., Cinnamomum decandollei Lukman., Cinnamomum cordifolium Lukman., Cinnamomum commersonii Lukman., Cinnamomum cinnamomum (L.) H.Karst., Cinnamomum cayennense Lukman., Cinnamomum carolinense var. oblongum Kaneh., Cinnamomum capense Lukman., Cinnamomum boutonii Lukman., Cinnamomum bonplandii Lukman., Cinnamomum biafranum Lukman., Cinnamomum bengalense Lukman., Cinnamomum barthii Lukman., Cinnamomum aromaticum J.Graham, Cinnamomum alexei Kosterm., Camphorina cinnamomum (L.) Farw.

Common name: Cinnamon
Albanian: Kanella, Kanellë
Amharic: Kerefa, qa-ra-faa, ቀረፋ
Arabic: قِرْفَة, dâr sînî, قرفة
Armenian: Կինամոն
Azerbaijani: Darçın, Дарчын
Basque: Kanela, Kanelondo
Burmese: Thit-ja-bo-gauk
Catalan: Canyella
Croatian: Ceylonski cimet, Cimet
Czech: Skorice, Skorice cejlonska
Esperanto: Cinamo
Estonian: Kaneel, Tseiloni kaneelipuu
Finnish: aitokaneli, Ceyloninkaneli Kaneli
French: Cannelier de Ceylan, Cannelle, Cannelle type Ceylan, Cannellier
Galician: canela
Georgian: Darichini, daricini, დარიჩინი
German: Ceylon-Zimt Echter Zimt, Zimtblute
Hebrew: קינמון
Hindi: दालचीनी Dalchini
Hungarian: Ceyloni fahéj,
Indonesian: Kayu manis
Italian: cannella del Ceylano
Japanese: にっけい, セイロンニッケイ,  肉桂
Kannada: ದಾಲಚೀನೀ Dalchini
Kazakh: Даршин
Khmer: Chek tum phka loeng
Korean: 계, 육계
Latin: Cortex Cinnamomi zeylanici
Malayalam: കറുവ
Polish: Cynamon cejloński
Portuguese: canelleira da India
Romanian: Scorţişoară
Russian: Цейлонская корица
Sanskrit: Darusita, tamalapatra, twak
Sinhalese: Kurundu
Tamil: சன்னலவங்கம் Channalavangam, Karuva
Telugu: Dalchini chekka దాల్చిన చెక్క
Thai: อบเชย,  อบเชยเทศ
Turkish: Tarcin, Tarçın ağacı
Ukrainian: Кориця
Vietnamese: Quế rành
Yiddish: Tsimring

Description: Trees, to 20 m high, bark 8-10 mm thick, brown, rough, cracks vertical; blaze creamy pink; bole buttressed; branchlets glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite, estipulate; petiole 8-20 mm, stout, glabrous, slightly grooved above; lamina 9.5-14 x 3.5-5.5 cm, ovate, elliptic ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, base acute, apex acute to acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, 3-ribbed from base, prominent, glabrous; lateral nerves 3-6 pairs, obscure, pinnate; intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, in terminal and axillary, pedicel 7 mm long, pale yellow, 5 mm long, 6 mm across; perianth 8 mm, silky, tube campanulate, lobes 6, 3 mm long, oblong-lanceolate; stamens 9 perfect, those of first and second rows opposite the perianth lobes, introrse and eglandular, those of third row opposite the first row, lateral, bearing 2 large glands at the base; staminodes 3, of the forth row opposite the second row, cordate and stipitate; ovary half inferior, sessile. Fruit a berry, 1-2 cm, ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid, dark purple, surrounded by the enlarged perianth.

Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge [ Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. Univ]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Root bark and stem bark aromatic. Dried bark aromatic, carminative, astringent, stimulant,  stomachic,  analgesic,  antiseptic,  antispasmodic, germicide,  hemostatic,  used  for  stomachache,  vomiting, nausea, flatulence, to treat headaches and intestinal troubles; stembark juice applied on teeth in tooth decay and toothache. Bark and leafy branches contain volatile oil useful in rheumatic pains and nervous breakdown. Aromatic root smelled to relieve headache. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Dominican Medicinal Uses : The inner bark is traditionally prepared as a decoction and taken orally for allergy, anxiety, arthritis, low blood pressure, kidney ailments, common cold, flu, sinusitis and women’s health conditions. Contraindications: Large quantities of cinnamon should not be during pregnancy due to potential teratogenic effects. [Dominican Medicinal Plants]

Cinnamon tea might be useful for elderly bedridden patients with cold extremities, or in preparing such  a  patient  for  a  recuperative  walk,  or  cast  removal  from  a  fractured  extremity.  Regarded  as antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, diaphoretic, fungicide, stimulant, and stomachic, it is a fragrant cordial, useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhea, checking nausea and vomiting,  and  used  in  other  medicinal  mixtures.  Powdered  bark  in  water  (or  EO,  or  tiger  balm containing many of the same chemicals) is applied to the temple in headaches and neuralgia. Cinnamon bark  prevents  platelet  agglutination  and  shows  antithrombic  and  antitumor  activity.  Lebanese  use cinnamon  as  a  stimulant,  for  colds,  rheumatism,  halitosis,  and  to  check  slobbering  in  young  and elderly people. It is also used to loosen coughs. Ayurvedics consider the bark aphrodisiac and tonic, using it for biliousness, bronchitis, diarrhea, itch, parched mouth, worms, and cardiac, rectal, and urinary diseases. They use the oil for “eructations,” gas, loss of appetite, nausea, and toothache. Unani consider  the  oil  carminative,  emmenagogue,  and  tonic  to  the  liver,  using  it  for  abdominal  pains, bronchitis, head colds, and inflammation. They consider the bark alexeteric, aphrodisiac, carminative expectorant, sialagogue, and tonic, using it for gas, headache, hiccup, hydrocele, liver ailments, piles, and scorpion stings. One of our Belizean ecotourists was complaining about a snoring roommate. Famed Belizean herbalist Rosita Aruigo suggests 1 cup of cinnamon tea with 2 tsp grated ginger, adding honey and milk to taste. Drink at bedtime each night until cured. Since I have mentioned one spicy Ayurvedic triad, trikatu (ginger, long pepper, and pepper), I may as well mention another spicy triad, trijataka [cardamom, cinnamon, and “tejapatra,” which I am told is cassia (unidentified in DEP and WOI)],  three  more  aromatics  often  used  together  for  lengual  paralysis,  stomach  cramps,  and toothache. [CRC Handbook of medicinal spices]

Cinnamon are mainly used for digestive disorders such as diarrhoea, and flatulent colic or dyspepsia. Cinnamon has also been used for the common cold, and the oil may have antiseptic activity. It has been used in Chinese medicine for circulatory disorders. [Herbal Medicines Interactions]

Cinnamon used in Asian traditional medicine for colds, flu, and digestive problems, recent investigations indicate that it has a potent stabilizing effect on blood sugar levels, helping to slow or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is also active against Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium commonly linked with  stomach ulcers.  [Herbal Remedies] 

68 Published articles of Cinnamomum verum
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tetrasepala Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artemisia japonica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum inophyllum 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Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa 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macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana