Showing posts with label Datura stramonium. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Datura stramonium. Show all posts

Monday, May 4, 2015

Datura stramonium, thorn apple, Ummetta, Στραμώνιο

Datura stramonium L.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Datura bernhardii Lundstr., Datura bertolonii Parl. ex Guss., Datura cabanesii P.Fourn., Datura capensis Bernh., Datura ferocissima Cabanès & P.Fourn., Datura ferox Nees, Datura hybrida Ten., Datura inermis Juss. ex Jacq., Datura laevis L.f., Datura loricata Sieber ex Bernh., Datura lurida Salisb., Datura microcarpa Godr., Datura muricata Godr., Datura parviflora Salisb., Datura praecox Godr., Datura pseudostramonium Sieber ex Bernh., Datura stramonium var. canescens Roxb., Datura stramonium var. chalybaea W.D.J.Koch, Datura stramonium f. godronii (Danert) Geerinck & Walravens, Datura stramonium var. gordonii Danert, Datura stramonium f. inermis (Juss. ex Jacq.) Hupke, Datura stramonium var. inermis (Juss. ex Jacq.) Fernald, Datura stramonium var. stramonium, Datura stramonium var. tatula (L.) Decne., Datura stramonium f. tatula (L.) B.Boivin, Datura stramonium var. tatula (L.) Torr., Datura tatula L., Datura wallichii Dunal, Stramonium foetidum Scop., Stramonium laeve Moench, Stramonium spinosum Lam., Stramonium tatula Moench, Stramonium vulgare Moench, Stramonium vulgatum Gaertn.

Common name: Jimson weed, thorn apple, Jamestown-weed, Devil's apple
Arabic: سم الفار(سِم الفار)، نفير (نِفير) , داتوره، تاتوره
Bulgarian: Татул
Chinese: 醉心花
Finnish: Okahulluruoho
French: Stramoine, Herbe à la taupe, Stramoine commune
German: Stechapfel
Greek: Στραμώνιο
Italian: Stramonio comune
Kannada: ಉಮ್ಮತ್ತಿ
Latin: Folia Stramonii
Malayalam: Ummam, ഉമ്മം
Polish: Bieluń dziędzierzawa
Romanian: ciumafaie
Russian: durman obyknovennyj, дурман обыкновенный
Spanish: estramonio
Swedish: spikklubba
Tamil: ஊமத்தம் Umattam
Telugu: Ummetta ఉమ్మెత్త
Thai: ลำโพงม่วง
Vietnamese: Cà độc dược lùn

Datura stramonium differs in having smaller flowers and tooth-edged leaves, and Datura wrightii in having wider, 5-toothed (instead of 10-toothed) flowers. Datura inoxia differs from D. stramonium, D. metel & D.fastuosa in having about 7 to 10 secondary veins on either side of the midrib of the leaf which anastomose by arches at about 1 to 3 mm. from the margin. No anastomosis of the secondary veins are seen in the other 4 major species of Datura.

Description: Plant 60-120 cm or more tall, branched, pubescent; the branches often purplish. Leaves 8-17 x 4-13 cm, ovate or broadly so, sinuately dentate, minutely puberulose, cuneate. Petiole 2-5 cm long. Calyx 3.5-5.5 cm long, tubular, 5-dentate, puberulous, persistent. Lobes 6-9 mm long, strongly reflexed in fruit, apiculate. Corolla 7-10 cm long, white or purplish suffused; limb up to 8 cm broad. shallowy 5-lobed, with the lobes, ± triangular-acuminate. Anthers ± 5 mm long, with the lobes narrow oblong, usually white. Capsule erect, 3-4 cm long, ovoid, spiny and densely pubescent, splitting by 4 valves; spines up to 5 mm long. Seeds 3 mm long, reniform, reticulate-foveolate, black.  

Folk  practitioners  used  the  plant  for  worms. Folk practitioners use the leaves of the plant as a treatment not only for asthma, but also for convulsive cough, pertussis, and other respiratory
problems. The flowers are fragrant but poisonous. It has been smoked as a traditional treatment for asthma in Southern Appalachia.  Datura stramonium is now considered a dangerous poisonous plant and should not be taken internally. The PDR for Herbal Medicines does not recommend use
of the plant, due to its toxicity. [African American Slave Medicine : Herbal and Non-herbal Treatments]

Both herb and seed of this plant are used in asthma, especially in the spas medically recurring forms of this disease, in difficulty of respiration, and in chest and lung complaints generally; owing, however, to its possessing strong narcotic property, amounting, indeed, to that of a poison, it is unsafe for employment internally, but all the benefit produced by its employment in the infusion may be derived from it by inhaling the, smoke from the burnt herb; this is done by means of the ordinary tobacco pipe, and is a perfectly safe method of employment; in this way it is used in all chest affections, chronic coughs, excessive expectoration, and to promote expectoration when difficulty is experienced by the hardness of the sputa, in expelling it, and in difficulty of breathing, in all these symptoms very great relief is afforded by its exhibition. Inhalation being in a very numerous class of cases the only means by which the more distressing symptoms of many pulmonary complaints can be met with anything like effectiveness, we have offered, by the means suggested here, one of the most useful agents in procuring the results desired, relief being frequently obtained by means of this process, when by no other has it been possible to secure it. It has been similarly employed in dyspepsia, but, as would appear, with no permanently good result, its action being almost exclusively upon the lungs and respiratory apparatus. An ointment prepared from stramonium has received considerable attention for piles, fistula, abscesses, and suppurating old sores, in which it is employed with great benefit; success has also been said to have followed its employment for pains in the joints and in rheumatic affections, to which cases it is applied with friction For sores requiring a cleansing, and at the same time emollient, application, it is of extreme value. As an external application, stramonium appears to be less used at the present time than formerly. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. High toxicity, whole  plant toxic, leaves and seeds are the usual sources of poisoning in humans and other animals; all animals, including pets  and poultry, may be affected; even the nectar of this plant  contains alkaloids that contaminate honey. Hallucinogenic,  narcotic,  anesthetic,  intoxicating,  used  for  sedating  and  relieving  muscular  spasm.  Flower  juice  used  in  headache.  Leaves for asthma, cough, antimicrobial, leaf for skin dis- eases, boils, wounds and sores; leaves heated and tied on the  breasts  by  women  for  drying  out  the  milk;  crushed  leaves  kept in bed to kill bed-bugs; dry leaves smoked for asthma  and sinus infections; chewed to relieve toothache and sore  gum; leaves juice applied on forehead in headache. Crushed  seeds in mustard oil applied for rheumatism; seeds are fried and the smoke inhaled through the mouth to relieve toothache. Fruits sedative; fruits juice applied to scalp for dandruff and falling hairs [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Bolivians use the floral infusion for childbirth fever, delirium tremens, and hysteria.  Bulgarians  suggest  Asmatin,  Asmatol,  and  Datura  cigarettes  for  bronchial  asthma. Costa Ricans gargle leaf infusion for sore throat; crushed leaves applied on cancers and sores . Cubans inhale smoke for asthma . Cubans use crushed leaf poultice or decoction on hemorrhoids . Haitians ingest leaf diffusion for itch and pruritus . Haitians use the leaves or seeds for asthma, dementia, dermatosis, epilepsy, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, and sciatica . Indians apply warmed leaves to the breast to reduce lactation and to firm the breast.  Mexicans use seed tincture for headache, neuralgia, and rheumatism . Nepalese use flower juice as eardrops for earache . Nepalese use pounded leaves with marijuana and Peruvians and Venezuelans poultice leaves on tumors,  express juice for earache.  Bolivians use the floral infusion for childbirth fever, delirium tremens, and hysteria.  Bulgarians  suggest  Asmatin,  Asmatol,  and  Datura  cigarettes  for  bronchial  asthma.  Costa Ricans gargle leaf infusion for sore throat; crushed leaves applied on cancers and  sores . Cubans inhale smoke for asthma . Cubans use crushed leaf poultice or decoction on hemorrhoids . Haitians ingest leaf diffusion for itch and pruritus . Haitians use the leaves or seeds for asthma, dementia, dermatosis, epilepsy, hemorrhoids, rheumatism, and sciatica . Indians apply warmed leaves to the breast to reduce lactation and to firm the breast.  Mexicans use seed tincture for headache, neuralgia, and rheumatism . Nepalese use flower juice as eardrops for earache . Nepalese use pounded leaves with marijuana and Peruvians and Venezuelans poultice leaves on tumors , express juice for earache.  [ Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America ]

Spasmolytic, antiasthmatic, anticholinergic, cerebral depressant, nerve-sedative. Controls spasms of bronchioles in asthma. Anticholinergic. Effects of overdose are similar to those of atropine. Temporary relief from Parkinsonian tremor recorded. (Contraindicated with depressant drugs.) Applied locally, stramonium palliates the pain of muscular rheumatism, neuralgia, also pain due to haemorrhoids, fistula, abscesses and similar inflammations. Prevents motion sickness. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In Burma, the seeds are used to induce narcosis. In China, the flowers are used to assuage pains, treat asthma, bechic, skin troubles, swollen feet, prolapse of the rectum and nervous disorders. The leaves are smoked to treat asthma and to assuage pains. In the Philippines, the plant is used for criminal purposes. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

This species has been widely used since ancient times. Avicenna said that this plant makes you drunk, is too dangerous for the brain, and is the enemy of the heart. Beruni wrote that half a gram of the seeds can make you drunk and 4.2 g can kill you. A decoction of the seeds is used as a gargle for people with tooth- and headaches, as a painkiller and sedative, and to treat fevers, neuralgia, rheumatism, and radiculitis. Oil from the seeds is used to treat hemorrhoids and the leaves are laid over the eyes to treat eye aches. [The Medicinal Plants of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan]

This well-known drug plant is used to some extent in Jamaica for asthma and sinus infections. It palliates the distressing paroxysms of pure spasmodic asthma when smoked.  The leaves are rubbed up and applied externally to swellings, burns and ulcers. Similar uses are made of the plant in South Africa. The leaves are also used for headaches, haemorrhoids and running sores. Browne reports that in his day the plant was seldom used internally as its use was accompanied by 'dreadful perturbations of the mind', though it was tben used for scalds and sores. The leaves have a total alkaloid content of 0.2 to 0.6 per cent, the content increasing with the age and size of the leaves. The principle alkaloid is hyoscyamine with smaller quantities of atropine and hyoscine. [ Medicinal Plants of Jamaica]

 Leaf: Applied with coconut oil on bruises; leaf used for a pain-killer (anodyne) in Surinam. Fruit: Crushed green fruit used to treat pustules of anthracoid erysipelas in French Guiana. Flower: Juice used to treat earache in Surinam. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

253 Published articles of Datura stramonium


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Acmella oleracea Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
If you find objectionable content on this blog please Email me anandkumarreddy at gmail dot com I will remove it. The contents of this blog are meant for students and researchers of Indian system of Medicine for educational purpose and not for commercial use.

This site uses cookies from Google to deliver its services, to personalise ads and to analyse traffic. Information about your use of this site is shared with Google. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies.