Showing posts with label Myrtus communis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Myrtus communis. Show all posts

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Myrtus communis, True Myrtle, Gandhamalati, Vilayati mehndi

Myrtus communis L.
Family: Myrtaceae

Synonyms: M. acuta Mill., M. acutifolia (L.) Sennen & Teodoro, M. angustifolia Raf., M. augustini Sennen & Teodoro, M. aurantiifolia Grimwood, M. baetica (L.) Mill., M. baetica var. vidalii Sennen & Teodoro, M. baui Sennen & Teodoro, M. belgica (L.) Mill., M. borbonis Sennen, M. briquetii (Sennen & Teodoro) Sennen & Teodoro, M. christinae (Sennen & Teodoro) Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. acutifolia L., M. communis var. angustifolia L., M. communis var. baetica L., M. communis var. balearica Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. belgica L., M. communis var. christinae Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis subsp. communis , M. communis var. communis , M. communis var. eusebii Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. foucaudii Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. gervasii Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. grandifolia Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. italica (Mill.) Rouy & E.G.Camus, M. communis var. joussetii Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. lusitanica Rouy, M. communis var. mucronata L., M. communis subsp. mucronata Pers., M. communis var. neapolitana Sennen & Teodoro, M. communis var. romana L., M. eusebii (Sennen & Teodoro) Sennen & Teodoro, M. gervasii (Sennen & Teodoro) Sennen & Teodoro, M. italica Mill., M. italica var. briquetii Sennen & Teodoro, M. italica var. petri-ludovici Sennen & Teodoro, M. josephi Sennen & Teodoro, M. lanceolata Raf., M. latifolia Raf., M. littoralis Salisb., M. macrophylla J.St.-Hil., M. major Garsault [Invalid], M. media Hoffmanns., M. microphylla J.St.-Hil., M. minima Mill., M. minor Garsault [Invalid], M. mirifolia Sennen & Teodoro, M. oerstedeana O.Berg, M. petri-ludovici (Sennen & Teodoro) Sennen & Teodoro, M. rodesi Sennen & Teodoro, M. romana (L.) Hoffmanns., M. romanifolia J.St.-Hil., M. sparsifolia O.Berg, M. theodori Sennen, M. veneris Bubani, M. vidalii (Sennen & Teodoro) Sennen & Teodoro

  • Common name: True Myrtle, Common myrtle, Greek myrtle, Swedish myrtle
  • Albanian: Mersinë e rëndomtë
  • Amharic: አደስ
  • Arabic:  ريحان
  • Armenian: Մրտենի , Մրտի
  • Bengali: sutrsowa
  • Bulgarian: Мирта
  • Catalan: murta
  • Chinese: 香桃木
  • Czech: Myrta obecná
  • Esperanto: Ordinara mirto
  • Estonian: Harilik mülrt
  • Finnish: Välimerenmyrtti
  • French: Myrte commun
  • German: Brautmyrte
  • Hebrew: הדס
  • Hindi: Baragasha, Murad, विलायती मेहेंदी Vilayati mehndi
  • Hungarian: Mirtusz
  • Japanese: ギンバイカ, マートル
  • Kannada: murukulu gida
  • Korean: 머틀
  • Maltese: Riħan
  • Marathi: firangimethi, murt
  • Russian: мирт
  • Sanskrit: गंधमालती Gandhamalati
  • Spanish: Mirto
  • Tamil: cativam, குழிநாவல் kulinaval, sadevam, tevam, tevamamaram
  • Telugu: chitti jama
  • Turkish: Sazak
  • Urdu: aas, barg-e-maurid, burg madar

Description: Shrub, dense ramified,  twigs  in  young  stage  glandular-hairy.  Seeds  reniform curved with hard testa, 3.3-3.7 x 2.4-2.7 mm. Surface of the testa glossy, pale-yellow, central part greyish,  fine  reticulate-areolate.  2n  =  22.  Native to  southwestern  Europe  and  the  Mediterranean,  in scrubs,  usually  calcifuge,  rocky  slopes,  sand  dunes, in  areas  with  mild winters;  in  the Carpathians  rarely cultivated in gardens  and flowerpots.

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Aromatic, astringent, dried leaves to relieve stomachache, also a remedy for apoplexy, cerebral affections; powdered leaves applied in eczema, wounds and ulcers. Leafy branches with flowers boiled and taken in the form of decoction in headache and stomach distress. Berries carminative, used in diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhage, rheumatism, a wash for fetid ulcers, a mouthwash in aphthae. Sacred, ritual, a symbol of youth, beauty and marriage, twigs placed on graves to symbolize the virtue of the dead. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The spicy leaves and berries are used fresh or dried for cooking like bay leaves. They have been added to stuffing and
wild game meats since ancient times. The fruits and flower buds flavor poultry, sauces, wines, liqueurs, and syrups. Dried flower­buds and fruit can be crushed like pepperorms and used as a spice. Fresh myrtle fruit juice has been drank as an appetizer (Stuart 1979), and a tart drink is made in Greece from the fermented fruits. Sprigs were formerly added to wine to increase its potency. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is mixed with other spices for use as a condiment. The oil is used in liqueurs and, in some countries, in flavoring sauces and canned meats . The oil was once employed in manufacturing eau d'ange. By itself, myrtle oil is somewhat bitter and sharp, but it blends well with other herb oils . Myrtle branches are burned to give a rich, spicy flavoring to meat roasting over an open fire. Fresh flowers were once added to salads . The oil is also used for non­culinary purposes. It has been valued in perfumery since antiquity. Its attractive scent has resulted in the use of myrtle in home­made cosmetic recipes . Oil from the flowers, leaves and berries serves to tan fine Turkish and Russian leathers . The bark and roots have also been employed for tanning . Myrtle has been traditionally grown as an aromatic ornamental and as an addition to triumphal garlands and bridal wreaths . The dried flowers are added to potpourris . In Europe the leaves of myrtle were once crushed and rubbed on furniture to give it a spicy scent . The berries were employed to dye hair and sweeten breath. The wood is hard, richly golden with dark brown mottling, producing distinctive patterns that are attractive in carved figurines commonly sold where the tree grows. In warm parts of the temperate world, myrtle is considered an ideal subject for hedges. It is one of the best of all herbs for the indoor garden, and provides beautiful specimens that can be moved out in summer to adorn patios or gardens. [increase its potency. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is mixed with other spices for use as a condiment .
The oil is used in liqueurs and, in some countries, in flavoring sauces and canned meats . The oil was once employed in manufacturing eau d'ange. By itself, myrtle oil is somewhat bitter and sharp, but it blends well with other herb oils . Myrtle branches are burned to give a rich, spicy flavoring to meat roasting over an open fire. Fresh flowers were once added to salads . The oil is also used for non­culinary purposes. It has been valued in perfumery since antiquity. Its attractive scent has resulted in the use of myrtle in home­made cosmetic recipes . Oil from the flowers, leaves and berries serves to tan fine Turkish and Russian leathers . The bark and roots have also been employed for tanning . Myrtle has been traditionally grown as an aromatic ornamental and as an addition to triumphal garlands and bridal wreaths . The dried flowers are added to potpourris . In Europe the leaves of myrtle were once crushed and rubbed on furniture to give it a spicy scent . The berries were employed to dye hair and sweeten breath. The wood is hard, richly golden with dark brown mottling, producing distinctive patterns that are attractive in carved figurines commonly sold where the tree grows. In warm parts of the temperate world, myrtle is considered an ideal subject for hedges. It is one of the best of all herbs for the indoor garden, and provides beautiful specimens that can be moved out in summer to adorn patios or gardens. [Culinary Herbs]

Gastric ulcer, digestive disorders, toothache, respiratory diseases, rheumatism [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

A  tea  prepared  from  Myrtus  communis  L. (Myrtaceae) leaves or the volatile oil, obtained from the  leaves  by  steam  distillation,  is  used  to  lower blood  glucose  level [Evaluation of Herbal Medicinal Products]

The leaf is used for condylomata, figs, whitlows, warts, figs, parotid tumors, cancer of the gums, ulcerated cancers, and polyps. Iranians make a hot poultice for boils from the plant. The oil, in plasters or unguents, is said to help indurations of the breast, condyloma of the genitals, and cancer. The berries and seed are said to cure tumors and uterine fibroids . An infusion or tincture of leaves is given for prolapsus and leucorrhoea, and for washing incisions and joints. It is also used to check night sweats of phthisis and for all types of pulmonary disorders. Unani direct smoke from the leaves onto hemorrhoids. Italians make a bolus of the leaves in turpentine for the same indication. Algerians recommend the leafy infusion for asthma. Unani use fruits for bronchitis, headache, and menorrhagia . They consider the fruits useful for the blood, brain, hair, and heart. North Africans use the dry flower buds for smallpox . Lebanese consider the plant binding and diuretic, believing it holds loose things in place — the bowels, the emotions, or the teeth. The EO and tincture have analgesic properties but not as strong as menthol and peppermint oil. Wine of myrtle corrects the bad odor and stimulates healing in offensive sores and ulcers, threatening gangrene . Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves, roots, and stems are active against Gram (-) and Gram bacteria. [CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices]

280 Published articles of Myrtus communis
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