Showing posts with label Annona muricata. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Annona muricata. Show all posts

Thursday, September 27, 2018

Annona muricata, Soursop, Mulluramaphala, முள்ளு சீதா, മുള്ളാത്ത, 刺果番荔枝, zuurzak, Oka-annoona, anone, 가시여지, Anona, އަނޯނާ, Pikilanono, ساپادیل, Láhevník ostnitý

Annona muricata L.
Family: Annonaceae

Synonyms: Annona bonplandiana Kunth, Annona cearaensis Barb.Rodr., Annona macrocarpa Wercklé, Annona muricata var. borinquensis Morales, Annona muricata f. mirabilis R.E.Fr., Guanabanus muricatus M. Gómez

  • English: Soursop, Brazilian pawpaw, Prickly custard apple, Graviola
  • Assamese: Ata-phal, Atlas
  • Kannada: Mulluramaphala
  • Tamil: Mullu-sitha-pazham, முள்ளு சீதா
  • Malayalam: മുള്ളാത്ത
  • Chinese: 刺果番荔枝
  • Dutch: zuurzak,
  • Finnish: Oka-annoona
  • French: anone
  • Spanish, German, Portuguese: Anona
  • korea: 가시여지
  • Polish: Flaszowiec miękkociernisty
  • Persion: ساپادیل
  • Czech: Láhevník ostnitý
  • Divehi: އަނޯނާ
  • Esparanto: Pikilanono
  • Slovak: Anona mäkkoostnatá

Description: Tree about 5-10 m tall. Bark dark brown, corky and fissured, branchlets subglabrous grayish brown with dark circular dots. Leaves simple, alternate, ovate-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 10-16 x 3-6 cm across, base acute, margin entire, apex acute, shallow acuminate or obtuse with mucronate tip, coriaceous, dark green, shining glabrous above, paler glaucous beneath, lateral veins 9-14 on either side of the midrib, almost parallel, impressed above, prominent on the midrib beneath, reticulate veinlets fine and close, petiole pubescent, about 0.5-1 cm long. Flowers bisexual, axillary, solitary, subcapitate, about 6-8 cm across, pedicels slender, stout, about 1-1.5 cm long. Sepals 3, ovate, apex acute or connate into a 3 angled shallow cup, thick, greenish when young yellow when mature outside and yellow, glabrous inside, about 3-5 x 5-6 cm long. Petals 6, subequal, ovate, apex acute, thick, glabrous, yellow outside and inside, about 3-3.5 x 2-2.5 cm long cm across, inner petals 1.5 x 1 cm squamose. Stamens numerous, linear, about 4-5 mm long, filaments fleshy, broad at the base, with apically capitates top of the connective. Carpels many, linear oblong, slightly curved, about 4 mm long, style broad at the base, stigma sessile, entire. Ripe carpels, broadly subglobose or ellipsoid in fruit, muricate, green, warty covered with long curved spines, slightly arolate with white pulp, about 8-10 cm in long, puberulous, stalk stout, about 2-3 cm long, Seeds many, dark brown or reddish brown, slightly flattened. 
Uses: Used in Sidha. Plants used for hypertension; roots, leaves, and fruit to cure dysentery; poultice of fruits for ringworm., Extracts from Annona muricata active against Leishmania, spp. and Trypanosoma. Antiparasitic, the seeds contain a yellow oil applied to the hair to kill lice, though it is irritant, to the eyes. Acetogenins in Annona muricata leaves potent, molluscicides. Leaves pounded in water and applied to treat, itch, boils; crushed leaves of Annona muricata mixed with a, red paste from the leaves of Trigonopleura malayana applied, as a rubefacient to treat stomachache and diarrhea; leaves, decoction drunk for easy delivery; leaves anthelmintic, taken, with sugar to remove worms from intestine; crushed leaves, applied as a poultice to the stomach to treat cholera. Bark, infusion for dysentery, against intestinal worms and to stop cough. Roots as fish poison. Veterinary medicine, seed powder applied on wounds to remove worms in cattle. 
For the common cold or flu, a tea is prepared using the leaves of guanábana combined, with cinnamon (canela) bark, acerola cherry (cereza) leaves and bitter orange (naranja agria) leaves., Guanábana leaves are used to support recovery from musculoskeletal injury, typically prepared as a tea in, combination with lemongrass (limoncillo) leaves, sweet orange (naranja) leaves and lime/lemon (limón), fruit. For menopausal hot flashes, a tea is prepared of the leaves and is considered a relaxant, often, combined with the leaves/stalk of lemongrass (limoncillo). To calm down anxiety and “nerves” (los, nervios), a sedative tea is prepared of the leaves along with lemon/lime (limón) or sweet orange (naranja), leaves and taken internally. For children with fever, a bath is prepared using the leaves of this plant. The, fruit is thought to be cold (frío) or cooling (fresco) and is used as a diuretic and to lower fever. Healers consider the leaves of this plant to be potentially toxic if taken in large doses, so caution, is advised and only small to moderate amounts of the tea should be taken internally. This herb should not, be taken for an extended period of time. To avoid extracting too many toxins from this potent plant, herbalists advise that the leaves be boiled only for a very short period of time when preparing a, tea/decoction. Herbalists contraindicate eating the fruit during pregnancy or menstruation because it is attributed very cold properties which could cause complications such as menstrual cramps, the, accumulation of phlegm and mucha frialdad en la matriz (lots of “coldness” in the womb). [Dominican Medicinal Plants: A Guide for Health Care Providers]
All parts of the tree have been used in traditional folkloric medicine in various cultures for various ailments and complaints. The leaves and seeds of the tree have long been used by native peoples of various cultures for an astounding variety of ailments, ranging from parasites (the seeds), to high blood pressure and cancer. Seeds are emetic, Pulverized seeds and seed oil effective for head lice. Flowers are regarded to be antispasmodic and pectoral and used to alleviate catarrh. Infusion of leaves have been used as sudorific, antispasmodic and emetic. In the Caribbean, it is believed that laying the leaves of the soursop on a bed below a sleeping person with a fever will break the fever by the next morning. Also, boiling the leaves and drinking was believed to help induce sleep. Decoctions of leaves have been used as compresses for inflammation and swollen feet and similar decoction used for treating head lice and bedbugs. Poultice of mashed leaves and sap of young leaves have been employed for eczema and skin eruptions. Ripe fruit is reported antiscorbutic and is also used as an anthelmintic. Pulp of soursop has been used as poultice to draw out chiggers; and the juice of ripe fruit used as diuretic and for hematuria and urethritis. The unripe and dried fruit, also astringent, is used in diarrhoea, among the Amerindians. Unripe fruit and seeds are astringent and used for dysentery. The tea, fruit, and juice are used medicinally to treat illness ranging from stomach ailments to worms. The bark is used in powdered form for diarrhoea and dysentery and is used by the Chinese and Malays in Malaysia as tonic. [Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants Vol-1] 
The tanniferous unripe fruits and bark of Annona muricata L. are eaten so as to stop dysentery and diarrhea. In Indonesia, the crushed leaves are applied externally to heal boils and a powder of the dried leaves is used to kill insects. A decoction of the leaves is drunk to expel intestinal worms. In Malaysia, a liquid preparation containing the leaves is applied externally to treat rheumatism, and to alleviate cough and fever. A poultice of the powdered leaves is applied externally to soothe inflamed parts and to treat skin diseases. In the Philippines, the green bark is applied externally to heal wounds and to stop bleeding, and a decoction of the leaves is used to wash ulcers and to heal wounds. In Vietnam, an infusion of leaves is drunk to combat anxiety. In India, the oil expressed from the seeds is applied to the hair to kill lice, but it burns the eyes. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ] 
Traditionally, the leaf has been used in the treatment of headaches, hypertension, cough, asthma and as an antispasmodic, sedative and nervine for heart condition. It has also been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The fruit has been traditionally applied for cough, hypertension, rheumatism, tumors, cancer, asthma, childbirth, lactagogue, tranquilizer and in liver disorders, as well as arthritis, where extracts are applied externally. The leaf is also used for treating headaches, insomnia, cystisitis, liver problems, diabetes and as anti- inflammatory, anti-spasmodic and anti-dysenteric agents. The decoction of the leaf has parasitic, anti-rheumatic and neuralgic effects when used internally, while when cooked, the extract  of  leaf  is  applied  topically  against  rheumatism  and  abscesses. [Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World - Africa Volume 3] 
The fruit pulp. which is used in the preparation of drinks and ice-cream. contains vitamin C. It has been used as a febrifuge and the dried unripe fruit in the form of a powder was at one time used for dysentery. The plant (probably a tea made from the leaves) is said to induce perspiration and to be used for colds and 'nerves'. In Africa the whole plant is used for colds. coughs and fever, and the bark and root. which contain tannin. for dysentery and worms. In the Grenadines the leaves are used to make tea for fever, coughs and colds, 'to cool the blood' and as a sedative for vomiting. [Medicinal Plants of Jamaica] 
Stem: Bark and leaf infusion for a sedative or cardiotonic. Branches contain irritant sap. Leaf: Narcotic, for antispasmodic infusions and a calmative; in cataplasms to treat whitlow; infusion for fever with a cold, for a sedative, and to relieve overheating; extract calms nervous conditions; decoction for hypertension and heart conditions such as palpitations, the latter benefitted especially when the leaves are mixed with Ludwigia erecta. Leaves are boiled with the leaves of avocado and drunk as an anti-hypertensive, by the Guyana Patamona. Leaves are boiled with water and drunk as a medication for fluttering of the heart, by the Guyana Patamona. Fruit: For bedwetting children; decoction for excess foot and hand perspiration; antiscorbutic, febrifuge; for a mild antidysenteric and a good vermifuge. Fruit is used for making a tonic, by the Guyana Patamona. In NW Guyana, used for fever, headache, hypertension, and to treat heart problems. Seed: Ingredient in a remedy for convulsions. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) 
Hot water extract of dried leaves is taken orally as a sedative. Hot water extract of fresh leaves is taken orally as an analgesic Decoction of dried leaves is used externally to treat rashes, skin diseases and skin infections. Patient is bathed in the cool green solution obtained by boiling the leaves in water. The decoction is taken orally to treat indigestion. Crushed leaves produce a scent that is inhaled for dizziness and fainting spells. Hot water extract of Fruit, when eaten by women, is believed to induce lactation. Women in labor take hot water extract of leaves as a tea leaves is taken orally for gall bladder trouble. The extract is taken orally with Citrus aurantium every morning to relieve nervousness. The extract is also taken orally for easy childbirth. Hot water extract of dried leaves is used in a poultice for asthma, ringworm. Decoction of dried leaves is taken orally for grippe, coughs, and asthenia. Fresh fruit juice is taken orally for asthenia [Medicinal Plants of the World Vol 1]

218 Published articles of Annona muricata


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coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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