Saturday, August 27, 2016

Alpinia officinarum, Lesser Galanga, Mot loai gung, Siam-Ingwer, Pikkukalangajuuri


Alpinia officinarum Hance
Family: Zingiberaceae
Synonym: Languas officinarum (Hance) Farw.
  • English: Lesser Galanga
  • Chinese: 高良姜
  • Finnish: Pikkukalangajuuri
  • German: Siam-Ingwer
  • Swedish: Galangarot
  • Thai: Khaa-ling
  • Vietnamese: Mot loai gung 
  • Thai: khaa lek
  • Kulanjana, Sthuulagranthi, Sugandhaa, Ugragandhaa, Malaya Vachaa, Mahaabhari Vachaa.
Description: Rhizomes elongate, terete. Pseudostems 40--110 cm. Leaves sessile; ligule lanceolate, entire, 2--3(--5) cm, membranous; leaf blade linear, 20--30 × 1.2--2.5 cm, glabrous, base attenuate, apex caudate. Racemes erect, 6--10 cm; rachis tomentose; bracteoles very small, less than 1 cm. Pedicel 1--2 mm. Calyx 8--10 cm, puberulent, apex 3-toothed. Corolla tube slightly shorter than calyx; lobes oblong, ca. 1.5 cm, central one hoodlike. Labellum white with red streaks, ovate, ca. 2 cm. Filament ca. 1 cm; anther ca. 6 mm. Ovary tomentose. Capsule red, globose, ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. Apr--Sep, fr. May--Nov. 2 n = 48

A. officinarum looks similar to A. galanga, but it is smaller in stature

Galangal is used in Thai medicine in a very similar way to ginger. Ginger is considered to be a superior herb, but galangal is more common in Thailand. As a hot herb, the galangal rhizome has a stimulating effect on the digestion, and is therefore useful in cases of indigestion, flatulence, and stomachache. It is also recommended for diarrhoea, nausea, and seasickness. Galangal is reputed to be an aphrodisiac, although this is probably due to its general stimulating effect on the Fire element. Preparation: Decoction from one “thumb-length” (or about 5 grams) fresh galangal, finely chopped, grated, or mashed with mortar and pestle. Boil 10–15 minutes; drink after meals. Topical Application: Galangal has an antiseptic action similar to ginger and may be used topically for bacterial and fungal skin infections, acne, mosquito bites, bee stings, other insect bites, and as a gargle for mouth sores. A. nigra is used for treatment of ringworm and other skin parasites. Preparation: Mash fresh galangal with mortar and pestle. Add a bit of water to make a paste; apply topically to skin. For treatment of skin parasites, add 1 part galangal to 3 parts alcohol and let sit overnight before applying. For sores within the mouth, gargle with galangal tea. [A Thai Herbal: Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Rhizome used in epigastric pain, colic, dyspepsia, indigestion, vomiting, chronic gastritis,  stomachache,  flatulence,  diarrhea,  fever  and malaria, and locally applied to infected gums. Seeds used for heartburn, cholera, toothache, ague and colds. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

A. officinarum is a very valued medicinal plant and has been in use traditionally. Its rhizome has an essential oil that is warm and spicy. It has been in use in chronic enteritis, gastralgia and the decoction is a folk remedy for cancer in Louisiana and Oklahoma.  The  rhizomes  are  considered  aphrodisiac,  aromatic, carminative,  stimulant  and  stomachic.  It  is  useful  in  dyspepsia  and  in  preventing fermentation and flatulence. It is considered a nervine tonic. The properties are more or less similar to that of A. galanga. The therapeutic effects when used in traditional medicines might be mainly due to the contents of quercetin, galangin and kaempferol. [Handbook of Herbs and Spices - Volume 3]

It is a favorite spice and medicine in Estonia and Lithuania (GMH). A salve, prepared from the root, is said to be a folk remedy for cancer in Louisiana and Oklahoma. Prescribed for gastralgia and chronic enteritis. Rhizomes are considered aphrodisiac, aromatic,  carminative,  stimulant,  and  stomachic,  being  especially  useful  in  dyspepsia,  and  in preventing fermentation and flatulence. In India, it is considered a nervine tonic and an aphrodisiac. Reportedly, it clears halitosis when chewed, and sore throat when swallowed. According to India folklore, if given to children, they learn to talk earlier. Powdered with oil or water, it is said to remove freckles. Supposedly reduces the urine flow in diabetics (DEP). Powder is used as a snuff, especially for catarrh (GMH), and sometimes used as medicine for cattle. [CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices]

Rhizome—carminative (in dyspepsia), stomachic, circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory. Throughout southern India, the rhizome of Alpinia galanga is used as Raasnaa for rheumatism, intermittent fever, dyspepsia and respiratory ailments. Unani physicians use A. galanga as a sex tonic. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

The root is a stimulating, spicy, warming, aromatic alterative.It considerably excites the mucous membrane especially of the stomach, and its use is best in atonic and depressed conditions of the digestive tract. In hot infusion it arouses the circulation and gives general warmth. It promotes menstruation especially when the same has been checked by congestion, in either acute or chronic cases Zingiber, Asclepias or Camomile may be added as required. It has been recommended as an alterative in sarcoma, uterine fibroids, lymphatic swellings and in syphilis. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]

89 Published articles of Alpinia officinarum
1.    Antimicrobial efficacy of Rheum palmatum, C.l.a.A.o.e.a.s.p.m.A., Magda M. and N.M. Gumgumjee, African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. 10(56): p. 12058-12063.
2.    Diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum An, N., et al., Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 2006. 8(7): p. 637-641.
3.    New diarylheptanoids from the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Hance An, N., et al., Food Chemistry, 2010. 119(2): p. 513-517.
4.    Diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum and their anticancer activity An, N., et al., Fitoterapia, 2008. 79(1): p. 27-31.
5.    FLAVONOIDS OF RHIZOMA-GALANGAE (ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE) Bleier, W. and Chirikdj.Jj, Planta Medica, 1972. 22(2): p. 145-&.
6.    Anti-proliferative Effect of the Rhizome Extract of Alpinia officinarum on Cultured Human Tumor Cell Lines Choi, S.-U., et al., Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2008. 39(4): p. 347-351.
7.    Determination of the Content of Galangin in Alpinia officinarum Hance Harvested in Different Monthes by RP-HPLC Deng, Y., L. Feng, and H. Luo, Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal, 2010. 45(20): p. 1593-1596.
8.    The influence of the pungent components in extracts of Alpinia officinarum Hance on the antibacterial activities Deng, Y., L. Feng, and H. Luo, Food Research and Development, 2013. 34(4): p. 4-7.
9.    Study on HPLC fingerprint of Alpinia officinarum Deng, Y.-F., L.-N. Feng, and H. Luo, Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials, 2011. 34(9): p. 1351-5.
10.    Reversing beta-lactam antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus with galangin from Alpinia officinarum Hance and synergism with ceftazidime Eumkeb, G., S. Sakdarat, and S. Siriwong, Phytomedicine, 2010. 18(1): p. 40-45.
11.    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding antagonists from Alpinia officinarum Fan, G.-j., et al., Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2007. 17(24): p. 6720-6722.
12.    Antiproliferative activity of Alpinia officinarum extract in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 Ghil, S., Molecular Medicine Reports, 2013. 7(4): p. 1288-1292.
13.    Isolates of Alpinia officinarum Hance as COX-2 inhibitors: Evidence from anti-inflammatory, a.a.m.d.s.H., Varsha S., et al., International Immunopharmacology, 2016. 33: p. 8-17.
14.    Antimicrobial effect by extracts of rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Hance may relate to its inhibition of beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase Huang, H., et al., Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 2008. 23(3): p. 362-368.
15.    Vasorelaxation effect of the flavonoids from the rhizome extract of Alpinia officinarum on isolated rat thoracic aorta Hwan, Y.G., et al., Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2006. 37(1): p. 55-58.
16.    STUDIES ON PUNGENT PRINCIPLE OF ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE Inoue, T., et al., Yakugaku Zasshi-Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 1978. 98(9): p. 1255-1257.
17.    DIARYLHEPTANOIDS FROM THE RHIZOME OF ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE Itokawa, H., et al., Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1985. 33(11): p. 4889-4893.
18.    2 NEW DIARYLHEPTANOIDS FROM ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE Itokawa, H., M. Morita, and S. Mihashi, Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1981. 29(8): p. 2383-2385.
19.    Alpinia officinarum Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice Through Regulation of Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis Jung, C.H., et al., Journal of Medicinal Food, 2012. 15(11): p. 959-967.
20.    Isolation of COX-2 inhibitors from Alpinia officinarum Kang, S., et al., Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2000. 31(1): p. 57-62.
21.    Vasorelaxation effect of the flavonoids from the rhizome extract of Alpinia officinarum on isolated rat thoracic aorta Kim, H., et al., Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2006. 37(1): p. 56-59.
22.    Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of the Rhizome Extract of Alpinia officinarum Kim, K.-U., et al., Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2007. 38(1): p. 95-99.
23.    Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity by diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum Kim, Y.U., et al., Planta Medica, 2003. 69(1): p. 72-74.
24.    INHIBITORS OF PROSTAGLANDIN BIOSYNTHESIS FROM ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM Kiuchi, F., M. Shibuya, and U. Sankawa, Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1982. 30(6): p. 2279-2282.
25.    Antifungal activity of the extract of Alpinia officinarum Hance rhizomes on Candida albicans Klahan, K., N. Nantapong, and N. Chudapongse, Planta Medica, 2011. 77(12): p. 1406-1406.
26.    Antiviral Activities of Diarylheptanoids Isolated from Alpinia officinarum against Respiratory Syncytial Virus, P., Measles Virus, and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in vitro Konno, Katsuhiko, et al., Natural Product Communications, 2011. 6(12): p. 1881-1884.
27.    LC-MS/MS analysis, a.a.a.p.o.g.A.o.H.r.K., Leyla Polat, et al., Industrial Crops and Products, 2015. 74: p. 712-721.
28.    Cancer chemopreventive activity of the rhizome extract of Alpinia officinarum Ku, K., et al., Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy, 2007. 38(1): p. 95-99.
29.    Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum Lee, H.J., J.S. Kim, and J.H. Ryu, Planta Medica, 2006. 72(1): p. 68-71.
30.    Anti-inflammatory, a.-n., and anti-psychiatric effects by the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats Lee, JiSuk, et al., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2009. 126(2): p. 258-264.
31.    Anti-microbial effects of rhizome extracts of Alpinia officinarum Hance against VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci) and other pathogenic microorganisms Lee, K. and K. Rhee, Natural Product Sciences, 2011. 17(2): p. 160-164.
32.    Presence of fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Hance Li, B.H. and W.X. Tian, Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 2003. 18(4): p. 349-356.
33.    Supercritical extraction of Alpinia officinarum and GC-MS analysis of its components Lin, J., et al., Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials, 2000. 23(10): p. 613-6.
34.    Antihyperlipidemic bioactivity of Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw Zingiberaceae can be attributed to the coexistance of curcumin, p., dietary fibers and phytosterols Lin, Li-Yun, et al., Food & Function, 2015. 6(5): p. 1600-1610.
35.    Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, t.W.-L.S.C., and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw Lin, Li-Yun, et al., Journal of food science, 2016. 81(6): p. H1565-75.
36.    New cytotoxic diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Hance Liu, D., et al., Fitoterapia, 2014. 96: p. 76-80.
37.    A new dimeric diarylheptanoid from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Liu, D., et al., Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 2014. 12(2): p. 139-141.
38.    Simultaneous determination of four flavonoids in Alpinia officinarum Hance by RP-HPLC Liu, Y., et al., Journal of Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 2014. 31(1): p. 13-16,20.
39.    Determination of diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) by HPLC with photodiode array and electrochemical detection Liu, Z.H., et al., Phytochemical Analysis, 2005. 16(4): p. 252-256.
40.    Repellent and Contact Toxicity of Alpinia officinarum Rhizome Extract against Lasioderma serricorne Adults Lu, J. and D. Ma, Plos One, 2015. 10(8).
41.    Mechanism and inhibitory effect of galangin and its flavonoid mixture from Alpinia officinarum on mushroom tyrosinase and B16 murine melanoma cells Lu, Y.-H., et al., Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 2007. 22(4): p. 433-438.
42.    Separation and Identification of Diarylheptanoids in Supercritical Fluid Extract of Alpinia Officinarum by UPLC-MS-MS Luo, J., et al., Journal of Chromatographic Science, 2010. 48(10): p. 795-801.
43.    Isolation and characterization of some antioxidative compounds from the rhizomes of smaller galanga (Alpinia officinarum Hance) Ly, T.N., et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003. 51(17): p. 4924-4929.
44.    Antioxidative compounds isolated from the rhizomes of smaller galanga (Alpinia officinarum Hance) Ly, T.N., et al., Biofactors, 2004. 21(1-4): p. 305-308.
45.    Isolation and structural elucidation of some glycosides from the rhizomes of smaller galanga (Alpinia officinarum Hance) Ly, T.N., et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002. 50(17): p. 4919-4924.
46.    Inhibitors from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum on production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages and the structural requirements of diarylheptanoids for the activity Matsuda, H., et al., Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2006. 14(1): p. 138-142.
47.    Melanogenesis inhibitors from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum in B16 melanoma cells Matsuda, H., et al., Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2009. 17(16): p. 6048-6053.
48.    ENERGY EXPENDITURE REGULATION VIA MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR IN OBESITY AND IN VITRO ANTI-MACROPHAGE MIGRATION INHIBITORY FACTOR EFFECT OF ALPINIA OFFICINARUM HANCE EXTRACTION Mirzaei, K., et al., Endocrine Practice, 2012. 18(1): p. 39-48.
49.    Antiproliferative Activities of Lesser Galangal (Alpinia officinarum Hance Jam1), T.C.l.L., and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Against Acute Monocytic Leukemia Omoregie, Samson N., et al., Journal of Medicinal Food, 2013. 16(7): p. 647-655.
50.    Simultaneous determination of six compounds in Alpinia officinarum by HPLC Peng, G., G. Zhou, and H. Qin, Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2014. 34(6): p. 966-970.
51.    NEW ANTIFUNGAL SUBSTANCE FROM ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE Ray, P.G. and S.K. Majumdar, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1975. 13(4): p. 409-409.
52.    ANTIFUNGAL FLAVONOID FROM ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE Ray, P.G. and S.K. Majumdar, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1976. 14(6): p. 712-714.
53.    In vitro and in vivo anti-influenza virus activity of diarylheptanoids isolated from Alpinia officinarum Sawamura, R., et al., Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy, 2010. 21(1): p. 33-41.
54.    Effects of Alpinia officinarum on LPS-induced brain injury Seok, S.M., et al., Faseb Journal, 2008. 22.
55.    Antiemetic principles of Alpinia officinarum Shin, D., et al., Journal of Natural Products, 2002. 65(9): p. 1315-1318.
56.    5-hydroxy-7-(4 '-hydroxy-3 '-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone: A pancreatic lipase inhibitor isolated from Alpinia officinarum Shin, J.E., et al., Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2004. 27(1): p. 138-140.
57.    3-Methylethergalangin isolated from Alpinia officinarum inhibits pancreatic lipase Shin, J.E., N.J. Han, and D.H. Kim, Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2003. 26(6): p. 854-857.
58.    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Alpinia officinarum Srividya, A.R., et al., Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2010. 72(1): p. 145-148.
59.    Extract of Alpinia officinarum suppresses enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation in J774 A.1 macrophages Subramanian, K., et al., Journal of Health Science, 2008. 54(1): p. 112-117.
60.    Tackling multiple antibiotic resistance in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) clinical isolates: a diarylheptanoid from Alpinia officinarum shows promising antibacterial and immunomodulatory activity against EPEC and its lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation Subramanian, et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 2009. 33(3): p. 244-250.
61.    New cytotoxic diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Sun, Y., et al., Planta Medica, 2008. 74(4): p. 427-431.
62.    Diarylheptanoids Derived from Alpinia officinarum Induce Apoptosis, S.-P.A.a.D.i.H.N.C.T., Keiichi, et al., Anticancer Research, 2009. 29(12): p. 4981-4988.
63.    ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF FOUR BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM Alpinia officinarum HANCE UTILIZING HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY Tan, X., et al., Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 2013. 36(10): p. 1355-1365.
64.    HPLC analysis of bioactive flavonoids from the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum Tao, L., et al., South African Journal of Botany, 2006. 72(1): p. 163-166.
65.    FLAVONOLS AND STEROL GLYCOSIDES IN ROOT OF ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM HANCE Tunmann, P. and H. Tkotz, Zeitschrift Fur Naturforschung Part B-Chemie Biochemie Biophysik Biologie Und Verwandten Gebiete, 1972. B 27(3): p. 323-&.
66.    DIARYLHEPTANOIDS FROM THE RHIZOMES OF CURCUMA-XANTHORRHIZA AND ALPINIA-OFFICINARUM Uehara, S.I., et al., Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1987. 35(8): p. 3298-3304.
67.    Determination of Galangin in Commercial Extracts of Alpinia officinarum by RP-HPLC-DAD Verza, S.G., et al., Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 2011. 30(3): p. 576-579.
68.    Effect of oils in alpinia officinarum hance on serum NO, S., MDA in gastrelcosis mice model Wang, HaiYan, et al., China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, 2011. 26(7): p. 1640-1642.
69.    High-level 1, -.c.i.t.A.o.e.o.f.H.I.o.C.W., Jiao, et al., Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 2012. 48(2): p. 325-326.
70.    Antibacterial effects of leaf extract of Alpinia officinarum Xavier, T.F. and S. Agatheeswaran, Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants, 2010. 11(1): p. 49-52.
71.    Anti-Obesity and Hypolipidemic Effects of Ethanolic Extract from Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberaceae) in Rats Fed High-Fat Diet Xia, D.-Z., et al., Journal of Medicinal Food, 2010. 13(4): p. 785-791.
72.    Xiao-di, H.s.d.o.f.i.A.o.H.Z., et al., Chinese Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2009. 29(12): p. 2036-2039.
73.    Xiao-di, D.o.t.c.o.p.a.i.r.o.A.O.b.H.Z., et al., Journal of Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 2009. 26(8): p. 636-638,669.
74.    A new cadinane sesquiterpene from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Xu, S.-M., et al., Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 2012. 10(5): p. 374-377.
75.    Anti-inflammatory properties of a diarylheptanoid from Ginger (Alpinia officinarum) are mediated through Erk1/2-NF-kB signaling pathway Yadav, P.N., Z. Liu, and M.M. Rafi, Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, 2003. 44: p. 251-251.
76.    A diarylheptanoid from lesser galangal (Alpinia officinarum) inhibits proinflammatory mediators via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase, p., and transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B Yadav, P. N., Z.H. Liu, and M.M. Rafi, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2003. 305(3): p. 925-931.
77.    Inhibitory effect of the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum on TPA-induced inflammation and tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin Yasukawa, K., et al., Journal of Natural Medicines, 2008. 62(3): p. 374-378.
78.    Three new antibacterial active diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum Zhang, B.-B., et al., Fitoterapia, 2010. 81(7): p. 948-952.
79.    Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in vitro Zhang, J., et al., African Journal of Biotechnology, 2010. 9(28): p. 4414-4421.
80.    Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and methanol extracts of rhizoma Alpinia officinarum from China in vitro Zhang, J., et al., African Journal of Biotechnology, 2010. 9(27): p. 4264-4271.
81.    Simultaneous quantification of seventeen bioactive components in rhizome and aerial parts of Alpinia officinarum Hance using LC-MS/MS Zhang, J.-Q., et al., Analytical Methods, 2015. 7(12): p. 4919-4926.
82.    Metabonmontics study on the urine of rats adnunistrated with Alpinia officinarum water extracts Zhang, Q., et al., West China Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2010. 25(3): p. 263-266.
83.    A novel dimeric diarylheptanoid from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Zhao, L., J.Y. Liang, and W. Qu, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 2012. 48(5): p. 836-838.
84.    A New Diarylheptanoid from the Rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Zhao, L., et al., Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 2010. 8(4): p. 241-243.
85.    Simultaneous determination of alpha-pinene, b.-p., eucalyptol and alpha-terpineolin in essential oil from Alpinia officinarum Hance by GC Zhao, Xiaodi, et al., Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 2009. 34(21): p. 2751-3.
86.    Diversity and tissue distribution of fungal endophytes in Alpinia officinarum: an important south-China medicinal plant Zhou, R.-C., et al., Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 2014. 39(16): p. 3023-9.
87.    Progress on Alpinia officinarum Hance Zhu, J., W. He, and J. Ma, Food and Drug, 2009. 11(9): p. 68-70.
88.    A new labdane diterpene from the rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum Zou, Q.-Y., et al., Natural Product Research, 2016. 30(1): p. 1-6.
89.    Protective Effect of the 70% Ethanolic Extract of Alpinia officinarum and Galangin Against KBrO3-induced DNA and Chromosomal Damage in Mice 양혜은 and 허문영, Yakhak Hoeji, 2010. 54(6): p. 423-428.

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Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis paniculata Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Cissampelos pareira Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Premna corymbosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana