Saturday, June 9, 2018

Hymenodictyon orixense, Latikarum, મધમહુડો, Vellakdamabu, வெள்ளைக்கடம்பு, ಡೊಲಿ ಮರ, อุโลก, Guliya, Ugragandha

Hymenodictyon orixense (Roxb.) Mabb.
Family: Rubiaceae

Synonyms: Benteca rheedei Roem. & Schult. , Cinchona excelsa Roxb. , Cinchona orixensis Roxb. , Cinchona thyrsiflora Roxb. [Invalid] , Exostema philippicum Schult. , Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) Wall. , Hymenodictyon excelsum (Roxb.) DC. , Hymenodictyon excelsum var. canescens Pierre ex Pit. , Hymenodictyon excelsum var. subglabrum Pierre ex Pit. , Hymenodictyon excelsum var. velutinum Pierre ex Pit. , Hymenodictyon rheedei (Roem. & Schult.) M.R.Almeida & S.M.Almeida , Hymenodictyon thyrsiflorum Wall. , Hymenodictyon utile Wight

  • Assamese: Kodam, Paroli
  • Bengali: Latikarum
  • Chinese: 高网膜籽
  • Gujarati: મધમહુડો Madhamahudo, લુણીયો Luniyo, ભમ્મર છાલ Bhammar Chaal
  • Hindi: भुरकुर Bhurkur, काला बचनाग Kala Bachnag
  • Kannada: ಡೊಲಿ ಮರ Doli Mara
  • Malayalam: Vellakdamabu
  • Marathi:कुडा Kuda, भोरसाल Or भोरसाळ Bhorsal, भ्रमरसाळी Bhramarsali
  • Oriya: Guliya
  • Sanskrit: उग्रगन्ध Ugragandha, भृङ्गःवृक्ष Bhringah-vriksha, भ्रमरछल्ली Bhramarchalli
  • Tamil: வெள்ளைக்கடம்பு Vellai-k-katampu
  • Telugu: బందారుచెట్టు Bandaaru-chettu
  • Thai: อุโลก

Description: Deciduous trees, to 20 m high, bark 2 cm thick, grey to greyish-brown, rough, vertically fissured and cracked; blaze orange red; branches pubescent. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate; stipules interpetiolar, leafy, membranous, cauducous; petiole 3-20 cm long, stout, flattened, pubescent, slightly grooved above; lamina 10-25 x 8-20 cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, base attenuate, apex acute or acuminate, margin entire, pubescent on both sides, chartaceous; lateral nerves 7-11 pairs, pinnate, prominent; intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, pale green, 5-6 mm long, in axillary and terminal racemes; bracts 2, leafy, persistent; bracteoles linear; calyx tube short, truncate to globose, lobes 5, puberulous without, acute, deciduous; corolla tube slender, elongate, limb expanding, lobes 5, puberulous without; stamens 5, attached on the corolla limb; anthers lanceolate-sagitate; ovary 2-celled, inferior, ovules many; style long, slender, stigma fusiform. Fruit a capsule, 2.5 cm long, flat, elliptic, pendulous, 2 valved, brown; seeds many, broadly winged

Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Bark very bitter, fresh or dried,  orally used as an astringent, hypotensive, antimalarial, febrifuge and anti-periodic; bark decoction of Hymenodictyon  orixense with barks of Sterculia urens and Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia and root of Carissa congesta given as analgesic and to facilitate delivery; paste of bark in skin diseases;  bark decoction given in diarrhea and malaria; crushed and  powdered  bark  orally  used  for  piles,  dysentery  and  to  kill  tapeworms; pounded bark applied in liver disorders of children. Root juice of mixed with the bark juice of Callicarpa  tomentosa  given  for  fever;  root  paste  applied  on  joints  for  gout. Ceremonial, flowers used in worshipping. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

3 Published articles of Hymenodictyon orixense

Sonchus oleraceus, दूधी, Almindelig Svinemælk, Kaalivalvatti, Laiteron maraîcher, Varapputhannal, Осот огородный

Sonchus oleraceus (L.)
Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Carduus amplexicaulis Noronha, Sonchus angustissimus Hook.f., Sonchus angustissimus H.Lindb., Sonchus asper P. Gaertn. & al., Sonchus asper  "Hall ex G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.", Sonchus australis Hort. ex Trev., Sonchus australis Trevir., Sonchus ciliatus Lam., Sonchus fabrae Sennen, Sonchus glaber, Gilib.  Sonchus gracilis Phil., Sonchus gracilis Sennen, Sonchus lacerus Willd., Sonchus laevis Vill., Sonchus laevis Garsault, Sonchus laevis camer. ex Sch.Bip., Sonchus longifolius Trevir., Sonchus longifolius Trev., Sonchus macrotus Fenzl, Sonchus oleraceus subsp. angustissimus H.Lindb., Sonchus oleraceus var. integrifolius Wallr., Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus Wallr., Sonchus oleraceus var. oleraceus, Sonchus oleraceus subsp. oleraceus, Sonchus oleraceus f. oleraceus, Sonchus oleraceus var. triangularis Wallr., Sonchus pallescens Panc., Sonchus pallescens Pančić, Sonchus parviflorus Lej. ex Rchb., Sonchus reversus E.Mey. ex DC., Sonchus rivularis Phil., Sonchus roseus Besser ex Spreng., Sonchus royleanus DC., Sonchus runcinatus (Fiori) Zenari, Sonchus schimperi A.Braun & Bouché, Sonchus schmidianus K.Koch, Sonchus spinulifoius Sennen, Sonchus subbipinnatifidus (Guss.) Zenari, Sonchus sundaicus Blume, Sonchus tenerrimus Schur, Sonchus umbellifer Thunb., Sonchus zacinthoides DC.
  • English: annual sowthistle
  • Afrikaans: Gweone sydissel
  • Arabic:جعضيض (جُعضيض)، جوع ضيع، جلوين (جَلَوين)
  • Chinese: 滇苦荬菜
  • Danish: Almindelig Svinemælk
  • Finnish: Kaalivalvatti
  • French: Laiteron maraîcher
  • German: Gemeine Gänsedistel, Gemüse-Gänsedistel
  • Hawaiian: pualele
  • Hindi: दूधी Dudhi
  • Icelandic: Gyltufífill
  • Italian: cicerbita domestica
  • Korean: 방가지똥
  • Malayalam: Varapputhannal
  • Norwegian: Haredylle
  • Portuguese: Serralha
  • Romanian: susai moale
  • Russian: osot ogorodnyj, Осот огородный
  • Swedish: mjölktistel

Discription: Annuals, to 90 cm high; stems glandular hairy. Leaves to 15 x 6 cm, runcinate-pinnatifid, with a wide hastate terminal lobe, auricled and amplexicaule at base; lobes spinulose-serrate. Heads 15 x 8 mm, few, in panicled cymes; bracts 10 x 1.5 mm, 3-seriate, oblong, obtuse. Female corolla 12 mm long, limb yellow, 5-lobed; lobes obtuse. Achenes 3 x 1 mm, narrowed to the base, truncate at apex, muriculate; pappus 10 mm long, white, cottony Used in Siddha. White latex suspected of being mildly poisonous for lambs and horses. Gum from the juice strongly cathartic; latex to treat warts. Infusion of root and leaves tonic and febrifuge; roots purgative, antibacterial, abortifacient, acaricidal and vermifuge. Leaves sedative, stomachic, diuretic, used to treat liver diseases, hepatitis, gastritis, salmonella, kwashiorkor and anemia; leaf paste given for stomachache. Veterinary medicine, to treat diarrhea, vaginal prolapse. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Used in Ophthalmic diseases, skin diseases, galactogogue,  diabetes. [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

Used as anti-infective, abortifacient, liver diseases (hepatitis), sedative, stomachic, diuretic, opium addiction, warts, genitourinary system disorders,

inflammation, cancer. [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Galactagogue, febrifuge, sedative, vermifuge. Used in indigestion and in the treatment of diseases of the liver. An ointment is made from the decoction for wounds and ulcers. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

184 Published articles of  Sonchus oleraceus

Sunday, April 15, 2018

Tephrosia calophylla


Tephrosia calophylla  Bedd.
Family: Fabaceae

It is tuberous woody herb growing in shady hill areas.Glabrous; branches slender, tough; Leaves simple, 7-10cm x 2-3cm; rigidly coriaceous, veins distinct, margin entire. Flowers in 10-15 cm long terminal raceme.

Published articles of  Tephrosia calophylla

Commiphora caudata, கிளுவை, Seevaya, Kiliya-maram, ಕೊಂಡ ಮಾವು, konda mavu

Commiphora caudata (Wight & Arn.) Engl.Family: Burseraceae

Synonyms: Amyris acuminata Roxb., Balsamea caudata Engl., Balsamodendrum caudatum Marchand, Balsamodendrum roxburghianum (Wight & Arn.) Wall. ex Voigt
  • Kannada: ಕೊಂಡ ಮಾವು
  • Malayalam: ഇടിഞ്ഞിൽ
  • Tamil: கிளுவை (மரம்)
  • Sinhala: Seevaya
  • Irula: Kiliya-maram

Other names in India: assuraada,  atakamikam,  atakamikamaram,  hasuvaara,  idinjil,  ikkada,  ikkata,  itinjil,  kalmaavu,  karpurakkiluvai,  kattukkiluvai,  kiluvai,  kond-amavu,  konda  maavu, konda-mamidi,  konda  mugur,  konda  rega,  kondamaamidi, kondamavu,  kondamukkadi,  kondaraavi,  magalinga, malaikkiluvai, malaima, malankiluvai, netta maamidi, paccaikkiluvai,  perunkiluvai,  urukkutanaiparpamakki,  vaetapathri, venkiluvai, vetapatri, vetkiluvai.

Astringent, aphrodisiac, diuretic [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag University]

Used in Ayurveda and Sidha. Leaves with goat milk taken as sexual stimulant in males. Hepatoprotective, febrifuge, antibacterial and antioxidant. Stem exudation, gum, mixed with water and used as mouth wash to cure mouth ulcer; gum also used for wound healing and rheumatoid arthritis. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Published articles of Commiphora caudata

Polygonatum cirrhifolium, Mahemedha, Devarigaala, Gomesha

Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle
Family: Asparagaceae

Synonyms: Polygonatum mairei H. Lév.,  Polygonatum fuscum Hua, Polygonatum souliei Hua , Polygonatum lebrunii H. Lév.,  Polygonatum fargesii Hua, Polygonatum cirrhifoliodes D.M. Liu & W.Z. Zeng , Polygonatum trinerve Hua , Polygonatum strumulosum D.M. Liu & W.Z. Zeng , Polygonatum bulbosum H. Lév., Convallaria cirrhifolia Wall. , Convallaria cirrhosa Griff.

  • English: Tendril-leaf Solomon's seal
  • Chinese: 滇钩吻,  卷叶黄精
  • Hindi, Sanskrit: Mahameda, Devarigaala
  • Nepali: gomesha
  • Tibet:  la sha chong wa, ra sha

Root—rejuvenating tonic for nervous system. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Baalaroga, Daha, Jvara, Kamala, Kshaya, Raktapitta, Raktavik¡ra. [API-Vol-5]

Used for fever, blood disorders, phthisis, burning sensation, bleeding disorders, infantile ailments, jaundice, wounds, and impairment [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used as tonic to restore vitality, increase regenerative fluids; also beneficial for cold wind disorders; bile and generate stomach heat. Also used as fixer in painting canvas/walls. Roots are edible raw. [Medicinal Plants of Dolpo]

Used in Ayurveda. Whole plant antibacterial, used for fevers, cold and cough. Root used for long life, strength, cold and cough, stomach, appetite, inflammation, a tonic for kidney and heart; a paste for wounds and cuts. Stewed, dried roots used for rheumatism and blood pressure problems. Dried root mixed with other plants and used for wounds. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Published articles of Polygonatum cirrhifolium

Monday, April 9, 2018

Diospyros kaki, japanese persimmon, Tamatiepruim, 山柿, Plaqueminier, Kakipflaume, kamnamu, churma vostočnaja, Caqui, cây hông, كاكي, Хурма восточная, 林柿, കാക്കിപ്പഴം, Kesemek, 柿

Diospyros kaki L.f.
Family: Ebenaceae

Synomyms: Diospyros amara Perrier, Diospyros argyi H.Lév., Diospyros bertii André, Diospyros chinensis Blume [Invalid], Diospyros costata Carrière, Diospyros kaempferi Naudin, Diospyros kaki var. aurantium André, Diospyros kaki var. domestica Makino, Diospyros kaki var. elliptica André, Diospyros kaki var. kaki, Diospyros kaki var. macrantha Hand.-Mazz., Diospyros kaki var. sahuti André, Diospyros kaki var. silvestris Makino, Diospyros lycopersicon Carrière, Diospyros mazelii E.Morren, Diospyros roxburghii Carrière, Diospyros schi-tse Bunge, Diospyros schitze Bunge, Diospyros sinensis Naudin, Diospyros sphenophylla Hiern, Diospyros trichocarpa R.H.Miao, Diospyros wieseneri Carrière, Embryopteris kaki (Thunb.) G.Don

  • English: Chinese persimmon, japanese persimmon
  • Afrikaans: Tamatiepruim 
  • Chinese: 山柿
  • French: Plaqueminier
  • German: Kakipflaume
  • Korean: kamnamu
  • Russian: churma vostočnaja
  • Spanish: Caqui,
  • Vietnamese: cây hông
  • Arabic: كاكي
  • Russian: Хурма восточная
  • Chinese: 林柿
  • Malayalam: കാക്കിപ്പഴം
  • Indonesian: Kesemek
  • Japanese: 柿,
Desctiption: Small tree, up to 15 m tall. Leaves elliptic or elliptic-ovate, 11-12 X5.3-6 cm, pubescent, acuminate; petiolate. Flowers pedicellate, pedicel 10-15 mm long. Male in 3-flowered cynics; female solitary and larger. Calyx segments oval or broadly lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla yellow-white, lobes rounded. Male flower: stamens 16-24, hairy. Female flower: staminodes 8-10; ovary 8-10-locular, style 4-parted, hairy. Berry globose, 3-7 cm. in diameter, orange to dark red, glossy and fleshy.  Trees, to 27 m tall, deciduous. Young branchlets densely pubescent to glabrous, sometimes with reddish brown lenticels. Winter buds small, blackish. Petiole 0.8--2 cm; leaf blade lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate, occasionally obovate, 5--18 X 2.6--9 cm, papery, pubescent when young drying brown, adaxially often glabrescent when mature and paler with dark veinlets, base cuneate, subtruncate, or rarely cordate, apex usually acuminate, lateral veins 5--7 per side, reticulate veinlets clearly defined, flat, and dark. Male flowers small, in 3--5-flowered cymes; calyx ± as long as corolla, hairy on both sides, lobes 4; corolla white, yellowish white, or red, 6--10 mm; stamens (14--)16--24. Female flowers solitary; calyx 3 cm or more in diam., lobes 4; corolla usually yellowish white, campanulate, (0.9--)1--1.6 cm, lobes recurved and ovate; staminodes 8(--16); ovary glabrous or pubescent. Fruiting calyx 3--4 cm in diam. Berries yellow to orange, flattened globose to ovoid but usually globose, 2--8.5 cm in diam., 8-locular, glabrescent. Seeds dark brown.
Ripe fruit prescribed as a stomachic; persistent calyx used to treat cough, hiccups. The juice extracted from unripe fruit employed in hypertension. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

In China, the juice expressed from the unripe fruits is drunk to lower blood pressure, check hemorrhage, relieve the bowels of costive- ness and treat typhus. The bark and wood are used to heal wounds and ulcers. A decoction of the leaves is drunk to treat fever. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

An astringent, styptic, antitussive, laxative,  nutritive, stomachic; for constipation, hemorrhoids,  diarrhea, bronchial complaints, dry cough,  hypertension [Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants: Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values]  

Over 1000 Published articles of Diospyros kaki

Sunday, April 8, 2018

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shepherd's Purse. كيس الراعى، مخلة الراعى (مِخْلة الراعى), 荠, Gewoon herderstasje, Lutukka, Capselle bourse à pasteur, Gemeines Hirtentäschchen, hjartarfi, Borsapastore comune, Tasnik, lomme, Пастушья сумка обыкновенная, ナズナ, 냉이

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.
Family: Brassicaceae
English: Shepherd's Purse
  • Arabic: كيس الراعى، مخلة الراعى (مِخْلة الراعى)
  • Chinese: 荠
  • Dutch: Gewoon herderstasje
  • Finnish: Lutukka
  • French: Capselle bourse à pasteur
  • German: Gemeines Hirtentäschchen
  • Icelandic: hjartarfi
  • Italian: Borsapastore comune
  • Polish: Tasnik
  • Swedish: lomme
  • Russian: Пастушья сумка обыкновенная
  • Japanese: ナズナ
  • Korean: 냉이

This plant is usually a winter annual, although sometimes it is a summer annual. It consists of a rosette of basal leaves up to 9" across, from which one or more flowering stalks develop that are little branched and up to 2½' tall (although individual plants can be much smaller than this). The basal leaves are up to 4½" long and ¾" across; they are elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, and pinnately lobed. The alternate leaves on the flowering stalks are much smaller in size and widely spaced; they are lanceolate, elliptic or linear in shape, and either smooth or slightly dentate along their margins. The bases of the alternate leaves are either sessile or they clasp their stalks with auriculate (ear-like) lobes. Both the basal and alternate leaves are medium to dark green and mostly hairless, although the lower sides of their central veins are often covered with appressed hairs. The terete stalks are light green to dark reddish purple (usually the latter), and they are usually glabrous above and appressed-hairy below. 
Human skin may blister from contact with the seeds. Do not take this herb during pregnancy. Whole plant decoction or infusion astringent, analgesic, anti-fertility, antiemetic, antiinflammatory, oxytoxic, emmenagogue, vasodilator, vasoconstrictor, styptic, hemostatic, hypotensive, diuretic, antiscorbutic, vulnerary, stimulant, tonic, uterine-contracting properties, for internal and external bleeding, intestinal and uterine bleeding, heavy uterine bleeding, dysentery, diarrhea, kidney problems, stomachache and cramps, cystitis, a wash for poison ivy and wounds; infusion of seed pods anthelmintic, vermifuge, taken for stomachache and internal worms. Used in the treatment of eye diseases and dysentery; tender parts cooked as a vegetable for constipation; flowers for chronic dysentery. Seeds reported to be toxic to mosquito larvae. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Chemical Constituents:  Acetyl choline, tyramine.
Applications and uses:   It is an astringent it is used in case of chronic or profuse diarrhea.  Shepherds purse is a very effective diuretic.  It is cleansing to the urinary tract.  It can be made into a compress or poul- tice and used for hemorrhoids and external bleeding ulcers.  The infusion may be snuffed to halt nose bleeds. [God's Healing Leaves]

 Diuretic, stimulant [Herbal Manual]

Shepherd's purse is stated to possess antihaemorrhagic and urinary antiseptic properties. Traditionally, it has been used for menorrhagia, haematemesis, haematuria, diarrhoea and acute catarrhal cystitis. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

For dysentery and diarrhea, decoct alone and take orally or decoct with Pteris multifida. For chyluria and menorrhagia, decoct the fresh plant and take orally. For tuberculosis of the kidney, cook the dry plant with egg and take orally. For ophthalmia, hypertension and hemorrhages, decoct and take orally. [Herbal Pharmacology in the People’s Republic of China]

The herb or its juice extracts are employed to check menorrhagia and hemorrhages from renal and genitourinary tract. Also used in diarrhea and dysentery and as a diuretic. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Constituents: Flavonoids (luteolin-7-rutinoside, querceti3-rutinoside); plant acids (fumaric and bursic acids)
Actions: Astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory Indications: Shepherd's purse may be used whenever a gentle diuretic is indicated—for instance, to alleviate water retention due to kidney problems. As an astringent, the herb proves effective in the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, nosebleeds, and other conditions. It traditionally was used to stimulate the menstrual process, but is also of value in reducing excess menstrual flow. Ellingwood recommended shepherd’s purse for hematuria, passive hemorrhage, chronic menorrhagia, intestinal hemorrhage, gastric hemorrhage, atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea, and dysentery, and externally for bruised or strained muscles, bleeding piles, and rheumatic joints. [Medical Hrebalism - The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine]

Capsella bursa-pastoris is well-known in Europe and North America for its use to check bleeding, treat dropsy and promote urination. In China, the ashes of the roots and leaves are used to treat flux. A powder of the plant is used to soothe inflammation. The plant is used to improve liver health, stop dysentery, treat fever, promote urination and check bleeding. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, a decoction of the entire herb (6 g/day–12 g/day) is drunk to stop haemoptysis and uterine bleeding, and to treat pulmonary oedema and fever. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

Used in Kyrgyz folk medicine to treat uterine bleeding, malignant ulcers, stomach cancer, dysentery, gastritis, tuberculosis, and venereal diseases. In Chinese medicine the roots are used to treat dysentery and eye diseases, and in Tibet they are used as an antiemetic. [Medicinal Plants of Central Asia Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan]

This herb is mildly relaxing and gently stimulating to the kidneys and urinary tract. It increases the flow of urine and relieves atonic and sluggish conditions. It is quite prompt in the relief of the aching back and of the irritated urethra in cases of scalding urine. It is quite efficient in the relief of renal catarrh. It allays nervous irritability and irritable spermatorrhoa. Directly or indirectly it is beneficial to the whole pelvic viscera, and is one of the best agents to be used for irritable conditions of these parts. It is more stimulating than eupatorium purpureum, but not nearly so stimulating as juniperus communis or barosma crenulata. Concentrated Tincture Shepherd's Purse (from the green) as made by C. T. Bedford, is a strong tincture, of a rich brown colour, made from the green herb, 8 ounces to the pint, and represents all the virtues of this valuable agent for urinary troubles. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]

Hemostatic, anthypertensive; chyluria, nephritis, edema, hematuria [Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants: Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values]

The plant is extremely high in vitamin K, the blood-clotting vitamin. Mash or chew the leaves and hold them on a cut. The juice of the plant on a ball of cotton was used to stop a nosebleed. Shepherd’s purse also contains significant amounts of calcium, potassium, sulfur, and ascorbic acid. Used as a decoction, shepherd’s purse has been used to treat hemorrhoids, diarrhea, and bloody urine. The decoction has a gentle detergent action and is very cleansing to the skin. [Wild Plants of The Sierra Nevada]
410 Published articles of Capsella bursa-pastoris

Impatiens bracteata

Impatiens bracteata Coleb. ex Roxb.
Synonym: Impatiens fimbriata Hook.
Family: Balsaminaceae

Chinese: 睫苞凤仙花

Description: Plants annual, 30-40 cm tall. Stem erect, simple or shortly branched in lower part, glabrous or slightly pubescent in upper part. Leaves opposite or alternate, rarely verticillate; petiole long, 0.5-2 cm, sparsely pubescent; leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4-6 × 2.5-4 cm, abaxially slightly pubescent on veins, adaxially sparsely or densely adpressed hairy, lateral veins 7 or 8 pairs, margin crenate-serrate, apex acute or acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, occasionally axillary, erect, subumbellate or densely racemose, 4-8-flowered; peduncles 1.5-6 cm. Pedicels bracteate at base; bracts linear, ciliate. Flowers pink-purple or purple, small. Lateral sepals 2, lanceolate. Lower sepal navicular, with an incurved spur 8-9 mm. Upper petal ovate-orbicular, abaxial midvein conspicuously cristate; lateral united petals ± clawed; basal lobes orbicular, small; distal lobes subovate; auricle inflexed. Anthers obtuse. Ovary oblong. Capsule elliptic, narrowed at both ends, glabrous. Seeds obovoid, compressed, hairy.

No pharmacological work is found about this plant.

Wednesday, December 6, 2017

Strychnos minor, Snake wood tree, Naagamushti, Cherukanjiravally, lengkoyan, bugahin, tum kaa daeng, kim lu[oo]ng


Strychnos minor Dennst. 
Syn.  Strychnos lenticellata Hill
Family: Loganiaceae
  • English: Snake wood tree
  • Telugu: Naagamushti
  • Malayalam: Cherukanjiravally
  • Indonesia: ipu tanah, ranosandang, wale ammelaum
  • Malaysia: lengkoyan, semiyo akar
  • Philippines: bugahin, bukuan, pamulaklakin
  • Thailand: tum kaa daeng, tum kaa khao
  • Vietnam: kim lu[oo]ng, thu[oor]c m[oj]i

Description: Climbing shrubs; bark pale brown; tendrils 2-branched. Leaves 5.5-14 x 2.8-5.4 cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, base obtuse or rounded, apex acute or acuminate, coriaceous, 3-ribbed from a little above the base; petiole to 1.2 cm long. Flowers white in cymes up to 3 cm long. Calyx lobes c. 1 mm long. Corolla tube c. 2 mm long, throat wooly; lobes ovate-acute, as long as the tube. Berry woody 2-2.5 cm across. Seeds 1-3, orbicular

It is used in the Philippines to treat throat trouble. A decoction of bark is used as an emmenagogue, and the Negritos chew the bark to treat prolapse of the uterus. The seeds are poisonous on probable account of strychnine and congeners. [Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants Asia and the Pacific]

15 Published articles of  Strychnos minor

Sunday, November 26, 2017

Tylophora indica, Indian ipecacuanha, Antamul, dum vel, jangli pikvan, vallippala, bedaki, mekameyani aaku, nayppalai, antrapachaka

Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family:  Asclepiadoideae

  • English: emetic swallow-wort, Indian ipecacuanha
  • Assamese: অংতমূল Antamul
  • Bengali: অন্তমূল antomula
  • Gujarati: દમ વેલ dum vel
  • Hindi: अंतमूल antamul, जंगली पीकवान jangli pikvan
  • Kannada: ಅಡುಮುಟ್ಟದಗಿಡ adumuttadagida, ಅಂತಮೂಲ antamula, ಕಿರುಮಂಜಿ kirumanji, ನಾಯಿಹಾಲೆ naayihaale, ನೆಪಾಳದಬೇರು naepalada baeru
  • Konkani: पितवेल pitvel
  • Malayalam: വള്ളിപ്പാല vallippala
  • Marathi: अंतमूळ antamul, बेडकी bedaki, खडकी रास्‍ना khadaki rasna, पितमारी pitamari
  • Oriya: ମେହେନ୍ଦି mehendi, Mulini
  • Sanskrit: अन्त्रपाचक antrapachaka, लताक्षीरी latakshiri
  • Tamil: கழுதைப்பாலை kalutai-p-palai, நச்சறுப்பான் naccaruppan, நாய்ப்பாலை nay-p-palai
  • Telugu: మేక మేయని ఆకు, కొండబెండ
4 morphological variations in floral structure of Tylophora indica; 1 is normal , widely available; another 2 rarely seen, one is completely yellow, hairy; another one more purplish; last one with hairs on innerside of petals, the petals are not yellow, pinkish; this is to show the intra species variation in a species

Used in Ayurveda. Intake of any part of the plant causes fatal  poisoning; when drunk the juice produces nausea, vomiting.  Roots stimulant, emetic, expectorant, potentially antitumor,  stomachic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, used for the treatment  of asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, dysentery, diarrhea.  Leaves emetic, diaphoretic, chewed for asthma; leaf decoction taken for body pain. Roots and leaves used in hydrophobia. Tylophora alkaloids inhibit cellular immune responses  like contact sensitivity to dinitro-flurobenzene and delayed  hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells, in vivo; these alkaloids suppress cellular immune responses when administered  at any stage during the immune response, have been shown  to  have  antiasthmatic,  antiinflammatory  and  antianaphy lactic properties. Cytotoxic alkaloids. Veterinary medicine,  leaves ground with those of Tinospora cordifolia and goat  milk, given in insect bite; leaves along with pepper and garlic  made into a paste and given as antidote; entire plant for lung  problems and asthma. (CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants)

The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyltylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaempferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, dsepticine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpenoids alpha-and beta-amyrin; betasitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.

The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyaxenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14-hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochloride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans. Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. Desmethyltylophorinegave promising results in leukaemia. The drug irritates the digestive tract. (Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary)

Tylophora indica (Burm. f.)  Merr. : Folklore: Yanandi people in Andhra Pradesh chew  leaves  daily  in  the  morning in severe  bronchitis. Modem Use  : Leaf powder is  used in bronchitis. (Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach)

157 Published papers on  Tylophora indica

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Cissus quadrangularis, हड़जोड़, হাড়জোড়া, ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ, ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട, నల్లేరు, பிரண்டை, เพชรสังฆาต, Devil's Backbone

Cissus quadrangularis L.
Family: Vitaceae

Synonyms: Cissus bifida Schumach. & Thonn., Cissus edulis Dalzell, Cissus quadrangula L., Cissus quadrangula Salisb., Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy, Cissus tetragona Harv., Cissus tetraptera Hook.f., Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn., Saelanthus quadragonus (L.) Forssk., Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight, Vitis succulenta Galpin

Vernacular names:
  • English: Devil's Backbone
  • Bangla: হাড়জোড়া
  • Hindi: हड़जोड़ hadjod
  • Kannada: ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ mangaravalli
  • Kinyarwanda: Umubogora
  • Malayalam: ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട
  • Odia: ହାଡ଼ଭଙ୍ଗା 
  • Sinhala: Hiressa
  • Sanskrit: Amara, Asthisamhara
  • Tamil: பிரண்டை pirandai
  • Telugu: నల్లేరు nalleru
  • Thai: เพชรสังฆาต
  • Vietnamese: Hồ đằng bốn cạnh
Description: Vine, rambling shrub, herbaceous, climbing, scandent, sprawling, jointed stems, quadrangular and four-winged succulent stems rooting at the nodes, young branches winged bearing long slender tendrils, simple leaves broadly ovate, flowers in clusters at nodes, perianth green with red lobes, apiculate berries, tender leaves as vegetable.

Aphrodisiac, carminative [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. University]

Used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. Presence of calcium oxalate crystals, irritating action of the fresh stem on the skin. Powdered root and stem specifically used in bone fracture. Root decoction antioxidant, widely used as remedy for hemorrhoids, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, peptic ulcer disease, dysentery; crushed stem and roots used as a plaster for bone fractures, analgesic, haemostatic. Whole plant infusion purgative. Succulent stem crushed with onion given orally for asthma; stem juice applied on swellings, body pains and bone fracture; stem juice for irregular menstruation and scurvy, dropped into ear for earache and into nose for epistaxis; stem paste for fertility, applied on rheumatic disorders; stem decoction in lime water taken as stomachic and alterative; paste of shoot for burns and wounds. Ash of leaves and shoots in bowel complaints and digestive troubles. Veterinary medicine, leaves infusion for diarrhea of calves; leaf paste applied on bone fracture; leaves ground with those of Pedalium murex and the decoction given in fevers; leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa along with those of Cissus quadrangularis pounded and given for ephemeral fever; stem fed in the bone fracture of cattle; stem juice with salt given to cure anorexia; roots of Indigofera trita along with stem bark of Balanites aegyptiacus, stem of Cissus quadrangularis and Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given in impaction; stem and the leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum pounded and the extract applied over the fractured area and bandaged; stem extract given in dysentery; stem paste applied on sprains and swellings; warm crushed plant applied locally on wounds of oxen. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Phytoconstituents: Quadrangularins A-C, 5-amyrin, 5-amyrone, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol,parthenocissine A and others.  Whole plant is used for urinary schistosomiasis in Mali.[A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach]

A  mixture  of stem  powder  and wheat flour  in  1:1  ratio  is  fed  to animals  to  cure  fractures  and  dislocations  of  bones. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

The leaves and young shoots are powerful alteratives.  The juice of the stem is a reputed  cure  for  scurvy  and irregular  menstruation.  The juice is dropped into  the  ear for otorrhoea and into the nose for epistaxis.  The root is used as a specific for fractures of bones. In Tanganyika, the leaf is used for treating ulcers and wounds, the root for  myalgia and  the juice of the stem for earache. In central Africa, a decoction of the stem is given for Menorrhagia, palpitation  of the heart and as an anthelmintic.  Externally, a poultice of the plant is applied for  muscular pains.  This plant  is also used  as a fish poison. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

The fresh leaves and pounded stems are applied to burns, wounds and also to saddle sores of horses, camels, etc. The stem is also used for gastrointestinal complaints or as a stomachic sometimes taken in the form of the succulent stem boiled and sugared. In Guinea the stems and leaves are given to cattle to induce milk and in Senegal a decoction of the stems and leaves is used as a friction and wash in pains with fever and in malaria. [Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa]

270 Published articles of  Cissus quadrangularis

Monday, July 10, 2017

Henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, Kurasaaie vamu, jusquiane, Meimendro, dente cavallino, Meimendro,

Hyoscyamus niger L.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Hyoscarpus niger (L.) Dulac, Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit., Hyoscyamus auriculatus Ten., Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W.Schmidt, Hyoscyamus lethalis Salisb., Hyoscyamus niger var. annuus Sims, Hyoscyamus niger var. chinensis Makino, Hyoscyamus officinarum Crantz, Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow, Hyoscyamus persicus Boiss. & Buhse, Hyoscyamus pictus Roth, Hyoscyamus syspirensis K.Koch, Hyoscyamus verviensis Lej., Hyoscyamus vulgaris Neck.
  • English: Henbane
  • Bengali : Khorasani ajwan 
  • Gujrati : Khurasanee ajma, Khurasanee ajmo 
  • Hindi : Khurasanee ajvayan, 
  • Kannada : Khurasanee, Ajawaana 
  • Malayalam : Khurasaanee, Paarasika, Yavaani 
  • Marathi : Khurasanee ova 
  • Punjabi : Khurasanee ajvain, Bangidewana 
  • Tamil : Kurasanee Vomam 
  • Telugu : Kurasanee vamu, Khurasanee omam 
  • Urdu : Ajvayanee Khursanee 
  • Arabic: بنج أسود
  • Armenian: Բանգի սև
  • Azerbaijani: Qara batbat
  • Basque: Erabelar
  • Bulgarian: Черна попадийка
  • Chinese: 天仙子
  • Czech: Blín černý
  • Danish: Bulmeurt
  • Esperanto: Nigra hiskiamo
  • Estonian: Koera-pöörirohi
  • Finnish: Hullukaali, villikaali
  • French: jusquiane
  • Galician: Meimendro
  • German: Schwarzes Bilsenkraut
  • Hindi: Khurasani ajwain
  • Icelandic: Nornajurt
  • Ido: Hiskiamo
  • Irish: Gafann
  • Italian: dente cavallino
  • Kashubian: Czôrnô kadzelnica
  • Kazakh: Қара меңдуана
  • Korean: 사리풀
  • Latin: Folia sive Herba Hyoscyami
  • Nepali: र्खुसानी ज्वाँनु Khursani jwanu, बजरभाङ्ग Bajarabhaang
  • Norwegian: Villrot
  • Persian: بذرالبنج (گیاه)
  • Polish: bielun
  • Romanian: bob
  • Russian: белена ерная
  • Sanskrit: Parseek yawani
  • Spanish: hierba loca
  • Swedish: bolmört
  • Upper Sorbian: Čorny woblěd
  • Welsh: Llewyg yr iâr

Description: Plants annual or biennial, up to 1.5 m tall, pubescent to hairy. Leaves sessile, 5-12.5 x 2.8-7.5 cm, ovate-oblong, sinuate to pinnately lobed, ± semi-amplexicaul, glandular-pubescent, especially on the nerves and margins. Calyx 14-16 mm long, up to 26 mm in fruit, campanulate to infundibuliform, ± urceolate in fruit, nervose, glandular-pilose; lobes triangular, aristate. Corolla (18-) 20-30 mm long, infundibuliform, pale yellow, with brown-purple nerves; lobes ± obtuse, unequal; tube glandular-pilose to the outside. Stamens subexserted, unequal. Lower part of filament pilose, purplish. Style exceeding the stamens in length, purplish. Pyxidium 11-13 mm long, ± pitcher-shaped; operculum usually of a darker colour. Seeds ± 1.2 mm long, reniform, rugose-tuberculate, brown.
Used for dysmenorrhea, premature ejaculation, nocturnal discharges, abdominal colic, abdominal distention, abdominal lumps, calculus, cough, asthma, insomnia, insanity, spasmodic pain, and joint pain (therapeutic uses based on texts from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries). Seeds are used as a sedative, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anthelmintic (prevent griping pain when added to cathartics), astringent and anodyne in Ayurvedic and Unani systems. Leaves are preferred in other systems. Seeds possess narcotic properties, and in large doses produces poisonous effects like datura poisoning. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Hallucinogenic, toxic. This plant, in the roots, leaves and seeds, contains several alkaloids, and it has caused rare poisoning in humans, cattle, poultry and swine. Its hallucinogenic effects have led people to eat the seed or chew the flowers, often with detrimental results, the major affect of hyoscyamine is depression of the central nervous system. Ingestion causes anticholinergic syndrome with stimulatory and hallucinatory effects. Post- mortem examination showed degeneration of heart muscle and cyanosis of mucous membranes. Whole plant vermifuge. Fried leaves applied over the forehead to relieve pain and headache. Leaves and flowering tops used in asthma. Leaves and fruits decoction given in whooping cough and asthma. Powdered seeds and leaves given as sedative and antispas- modic, for asthma, intestinal worms, whooping cough. Seeds astringent, used as an anaesthetic and for relieving muscu- lar spasm and pain, toothache, diarrhea, neuralgia, hysteria, asthma, cough, skin inflammation; powdered seeds given to subside pain, toothache and asthma. Magico-religious plant, ritual, for exorcism, Lamas burn the seeds and blow the smoke into the patient’s mouth. Veterinary medicine, leaf extract applied in sprains. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Relieve spasm and pain, cause tranquilization. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

71 Published articles of  Hyoscyamus niger

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Taxus baccata, Common Yew, Eibe, Կենի հատապտղային, طقسوس توتي, Обикновен тис, Harilik jugapuu, ურთხელი, ヨーロッパイチイ, Idegran, Тис ягодный

Taxus baccata L.
Family: Taxaceae

Synonyms: Cephalotaxus adpressa Beissn., Cephalotaxus brevifolia Beissn., Cephalotaxus tardiva Siebold ex Endl., Taxus adpressa Carrière, Taxus aurea K.Koch, Taxus baccata var. adpressa-aurea A.Henry, Taxus baccata f. aurea (J.Nelson) Pilg., Taxus baccata var. cavendishii Hornibr., Taxus baccata var. dovastoniana Leight., Taxus baccata f. dovastoniana (Leight.) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-aurea Sénécl., Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-aureovariegata Beissn., Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-variegata Gordon, Taxus baccata var. elegantissima C.Lawson, Taxus baccata f. elegantissima (C.Lawson) Beissn., Taxus baccata var. erecta Loudon, Taxus baccata f. erecta (Loudon) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. ericoides (Carrière) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. expansa (Carrière) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. glauca Jacques ex Carrière, Taxus baccata f. glauca (Jacques ex Carrière) Beissn., Taxus baccata f. linearis (Carrière) Pilg., Taxus baccata var. lutea Endl., Taxus baccata f. lutea Rehder, Taxus baccata var. macrocarpa Lavallée, Taxus baccata f. pendula (J.Nelson) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. pendula-graciosa (Overeynder) Beissn., Taxus baccata var. pendula-overeynderi Fitschen, Taxus baccata var. prostrata Bean, Taxus baccata var. pyramidalis C.Lawson, Taxus baccata f. pyramidalis (C.Lawson) Beissn., Taxus baccata f. repandens (Parsons) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. semperaurea (Dallim.) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. stricta (C.Lawson) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. variegata Weston, Taxus baccata f. variegata (Weston) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. xanthocarpa Kuntze, Taxus baccifera Theophr. ex Bubani, Taxus columnaris K.Koch, Taxus communis J.Nelson, Taxus communis var. pyramidalis (hort. ex Ravenscr., C. Lawson & et al.) Nelson, Taxus disticha Wender. ex Henkel & Hochst., Taxus dovastonii Carrière, Taxus elegantissima Carrière, Taxus elvastonensis Beissn., Taxus empetrifolia Gordon, Taxus erecta Carrière, Taxus ericoides Carrière, Taxus expansa K.Koch, Taxus fastigiata Lindl., Taxus foxii Carrière, Taxus hibernica Hook. ex Loudon, Taxus horizontalis Carrière, Taxus imperialis Gordon, Taxus jacksonii K.Koch, Taxus lugubris Salisb., Taxus marginata Carrière, Taxus michelii Carrière, Taxus microphylla Gordon, Taxus mitchellii Carrière, Taxus monstrosa Gordon, Taxus nana Parl., Taxus parvifolia Wender., Taxus pectinata Gilib., Taxus pendula Carrière, Taxus pyramidalis Carrière, Taxus pyramidalis (hort. ex Ravenscr., C. Lawson & et al.) Severin, Taxus recurvata C.Lawson, Taxus sparsifolia Loudon, Taxus tardiva (Siebold ex Endl.) C.Lawson, Taxus variegata Carrière, Taxus virgata Wall. ex Gordon, Verataxus adpressa (Carrière) Carrière
  • English: Common Yew 
  • Sanskrit: Sukapushpa, Vikarna
  • \Bengali: Birmi, Talish Patra
  • Gujarathi: Gethela Barmi
  • Hindi: Thuner, Talispatra Bhed
  • Kannada: Sthauneyak
  • Malayalam: Thuriangam
  • Marathi: Sthauney Barmi
  • Tamil, Telugu: Talisapatri Bhedam
  • Afrikaans: Yf
  • Alemannisch: Eibe
  • Arabic: طقسوس توتي
  • Armenian: Կենի հատապտղային
  • Azerbaujani: Giləmeyvəli qaraçöhrə
  • Basque: Hagin arrunt
  • Breton: Ivin (gwez)
  • Bulgarian: Обикновен тис
  • Catalan: Teix
  • Chinese: 歐洲紅豆杉
  • Croatian: Tisa (biljka)
  • Czech: Tis červený
  • Danish: Almindelig Taks
  • Dutch: Venijnboom
  • Estonian: Harilik jugapuu
  • Finnish: Euroopanmarjakuusi
  • French: If commun
  • Georgian: ურთხელი
  • German: Europäische Eibe
  • Greek: Ίταμος (φυτό)
  • Hebrew: טקסוס מעונב
  • Hungarian: Közönséges tiszafa
  • Japanese: ヨーロッパイチイ
  • Lithuanian: Europinis kukmedis
  • Nepali: बर्मेसल्ला
  • Norwegian: Barlind
  • Pashto: اروپايي ټاکسوس
  • Persian: سرخدار
  • Polish: Cis pospolity
  • Russian: Тис ягодный
  • Swedish: Idegran
  • Turkish: Yaygın porsuk
  • Ukrainian: Тис ягідний
  • Urdu: یورپی سرخدار
  • Vietnamese: Thanh tùng châu Âu
Used for blood disorders, morbid thirst, moles, burning syndrome, worm infestations, pimples, and tumors (therapeutic uses based on texts from 1000 bc to sixteenth century). Sthauneya belonged to Elādi varga, Karpurādi varga and Chandanādi varga during the  classical period of Ayurveda. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Extremely toxic, death is likely. Taxus baccata has caused poisoning and death in cattle, horses, livestock, pets and birds, and humans. Stem and leaves abortifacient, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, antiinflammatory, purgative, for rheumatism, malaria, epilepsy, coughs, tuberculosis, cold. Tincture from the young shoots used to control headache, giddiness, diarrhea and biliousness. Bark used in cough and cold. Pounded leaves given orally for asthma, bronchial disorders and indigestion. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Rheumatism, malaria, epilepsy, purgative (in south africa) [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue. Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

The leaves contain a volatile oil, tannic and gallic acids, and a resinous substance called toxin. Yew leaves and fruits have been given for their emmenagogue, sedative and anti-spasmodic effects. Pereira says that therapeutically the yew appears to hold an intermediate position between Savin and Digitalis, being allied to the former by its acrid, diuretic and emmenagogue properties, and to the latter by the giddiness, irregular and depressed action of the heart, convulsions and insensibility, which it produces. Yew is, however, reported to have one decided advantage over Digitalis by its effects not accumulating in the system, so that it is a much more manage- able remedy than Digitalis. Besides its use as an emmenagogue and sedative in the same cases as Savin and Digitalis are administered, it has also been employed as a lithic in calculus complaints ; and as an anti-spasmodic in epilepsy and convulsions. According to Dr. Taylor the yew tree is sometimes used by ignorant persons to cause abortion. [Indian medicinal plants]

185 Pulished articles of Taxus baccata

Saturday, July 8, 2017

Cuscuta reflexa, Giant Dodder, kodiyar kundal, Swarna lata, Amarvalli,

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
Family: Convolvulaceae

Synonyms: Cuscuta elatior Choisy, Cuscuta hookeri Sweet, Cuscuta macrantha G. Don, Cuscuta megalantha Steud.,

Cuscuta reflexa var. grandiflora Engelm., Cuscuta reflexa var. reflexa, Cuscuta verrucosa Sweet, Monogynella reflexa (Roxb.) Holub
  • English name: Giant Dodder
  • Arabic: حامول منعكس
  • Assamese: Amarlati
  • Bengali: Swarna lata
  • Chinese: 大花菟丝子
  • Hindi: अमर बेल Amar bel, आकाश बेल Akashbel, Amarvalli
  • Malayalam: ആകാശവല്ലി, Akasavalli
  • Manipuri: Uri sanamacha
  • Marathi: निर्मली Nirmali
  • Oriya: Kolanirmuli
  • Tamil: கொடியார் கூந்தல் kodiyar kundal
  • Telugu: Sitamma pogunalu

Distribution: A common parasite found on many bushes and trees in hills and in plains of tropical India. A leafless yellow colored thread like complete stem parasite found on many herbs and small shrubs. Flowers small, white, sessile in lateral fascicles; Calyx 5 lobes, subequal, connate at the base, corolla lobes 5,companulate, with a ring of fimbriate lobes at the base, stamens as many as corolla lobes at the mouth of corolla throat, anthers exerted, ovary 2 celled, fruit a capsule.

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant juice poisonous, emetic, purgative, given for abortion, bilious- ness, fevers, jaundice and hematuria; a decoction of fruits of Emblica officinalis  with roots of Solanum indicum and stems of Cuscuta reflexa given in influenza; salted plant juice given in vomiting and purulent discharge from vagina; bark extract of Alstonia scholaris with Cuscuta reflexa and bark of Rhamnus napalensis given to kill intestinal worms; plant infusion as a wash for sores; ash of burnt plant applied to treat cuts, warts and wounds; in polio, ashes ground in mustard oil and the affected part is massaged with the medicated oil; whole plant paste applied to cure swelling of the testicle, reddening of the eyes, to relieve body pain, boils and head- ache; whole plant with Centella asiatica and Vitex peduncu- laris powdered with black peppers given to avoid childbirth; Mallotus philippensis stem bark decoction together with Cuscuta reflexa , stem bark of Mangifera indica and leaves of Dendrocalamus strictus used as bath for the treatment of jaundice. Roots and the whole plant in case of fractures, dis- located bone treated by binding the plant around the affected part. Juice of the stem applied on wounds; crushed stem for jaundice; stem crushed into paste and given to girls to cure menstrual disorders. Stem and leaves juice used to kill head lice. Seeds carminative, anthelmintic, powdered seeds for stomachache and coughs; seeds pasted with water and taken against intestinal worms. Veterinary medicine, crushed whole plant to treat uterine prolapse; plant infusion fed to birds for treating poultry disease; plant paste given against diarrhea of domestic animals; crushed leaves and stem applied on bone fractures and bone dislocation. Plant fed to enemy’s livestock for killing purpose. Medico-religious beliefs, plant and turmeric crushed and massaged on the whole body of weak and thin children. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Whole plant is used against diabetes, against hepatitis, retention of urine, hair fall and dandruff
and against laziness. 
1.    Method of use for hepatitis and retention of urine:  Take 8-10 g of the plant and grind that in claypot and slowly add 1 glass of water and then filter it, drink that water twice a day for 40 days, for retention of urine just drink 1-2 glass of that water, urine will pass quickly. 
2.    Method of use for hair fall and dandruff:  Take 15 grams of fresh plant and add 250 mL of hair oil and heat them together gently for 10-15 minutes. Keep them in metal pot together just use that hair oil every day and keep doing that practice for 40 days.
3.    Method of use against laziness:  Just 2-3 grams of the fresh plant grind that and take it in fasting with butter or 15-20 days. [Medicinal Plants of Sindh : Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Facts]

316 Published articles of Cuscuta reflexa

Friday, July 7, 2017

Viscum album, Амяла белая, Mistelten, Weißbeerige Mistel, Имела, Jemioła pospolita, ヤドリギ, 겨우살이, Ghi trắng, داروش اروپایی

Viscum album L.
Family: Santalaceae
  • English: Druid's Herb, mistletoe
  • Arabic: دبق أبيض
  • Armenian: Ճագում սպիտակ
  • Azerbaijani: Ağ öksəotu
  • Basque: Mihura
  • Belarusian: Амяла белая
  • Bulgarian: Бял имел
  • Catalan: Vesc
  • Chinese: 槲寄生
  • Corsican: Vischju
  • Czech: Jmelí bílé
  • Danish: Mistelten
  • Esperanto: Blanka visko
  • Estonian: Harilik puuvõõrik
  • Finnish: Misteli
  • French: Gui
  • German: Weißbeerige Mistel
  • Greek: Ιξός
  • Hungarian: Fehér fagyöngy
  • Japanese: ヤドリギ
  • Korean: 겨우살이
  • Limburgish: Haamsjeut
  • Lithuanian: Paprastasis amalas
  • Macedonian: Имела
  • Norwegian: Misteltein
  • Persian: داروش اروپایی
  • Polish: Jemioła pospolita
  • Romanian: Vâsc european
  • Russian: Омела белая
  • Serbian: Имела
  • Slovac: Imelo biele
  • Slovenian: Bela omela
  • Swedish: Mistel
  • Turkish: Ökse otu
  • Ukrenian: Омела біла
  • Vietnamese: Ghi trắng
Description: Plant shrubby, yellowish-green; stem jointed, dichotomously branched, swollen at the nodes. Leaves sessile, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, 2.5-7 cm long, 0.5-3.5 cm broad, entire, obtuse, 3-5-nerved. Flowers sessile, in 3-5 flowered fascicles; bracts 2, concave, 2 mm long, obtuse, ciliate. Perianth lobes 3-4, free, 1 mm long, triangular, thick, deciduous. Anthers 4, dehiscing by numerous pores. Ovary. 2 mm long, obovoid; stigma 1 mm long, conical. Berry c. 1 cm broad, globose; seed 5-6 mm long, embedded in a white viscid pulp.

This parasite grows primarily on the trunks of deciduous trees, particularly the apple. Stems are much branched, and the leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, thick, leathery, and usually a pale yellowish-green. The fruit is a sticky white berry. [Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants, 2nd Ed]

An antispasmodic nervine. The infusion is given with benefit in epilepsy, fits, paralysis, and other diseases of the nervous system; it has been employed in tooth and face aches, neuralgia, and similar complaints of the bead and face, but does not appear to have found such successful employment in the latter complaints as in the more serious and distressing ones already enumerated. It is popularly supposed that the mistletoe growing upon the oak is of greater efficacy as a medicine than that growing elsewhere; but in actual practice it is found that no difference exists whatever between that growing upon this particular tree and that derived from any other source of growth. As the properties of mistletoe by exposure to the air become considerably impaired, it should always, after drying, be preserved in as air tight a condition as possible. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Anticancer, cardiac tonic and tonic, : Immunomodulator, cytotoxic and hypogiycemic. [Compendia of World’s Medicinal Flora]

Used in Ayurveda and Unani. Whole plant as a poultice for the treatment of muscular pain; plant decoction given in body ache and joint pain; whole plant paste applied on fractured bone as a plaster. Leaves contraceptive, for infertility and sterility; leaves paste applied on abdomen for abortion. Extract of the leaves and berries in the treatment of hypertension, hysteria and epilepsy. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The leaves of the plant have special value in cases of epilepsy (convulsions during unconsciousness), hysteria (nervous condition marked by alternate crying and laughing, usually during emotional stress), and other nervous conditions. This herb acts as a tonic and is also a narcotic, tending to induce a stupor, sleep or unconsciousness. It has also been recommended for female ailments, including hemorrhages of the uterus, amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation) and dysmenorrhea (painful or difficult menstruation). It has also been recommended as a heart tonic in cases of typhoid fever and has also been suggested for excessive or high blood pressure. [Encyclopedia of medicinal herbs, with the herb-o-matic locator index]

Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic. Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy. [Herbal Manual]

Mistletoe is stated to possess hypotensive, cardiac-depressant and sedative properties. Traditionally, it has been used for high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive head- ache, chorea and hysteria. Modern use of mistletoe preparations is focused on use as a treatment and as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. Clinical studies of mistletoe preparations have assessed mistletoe preparations as a treatment, or as an adjunctive treatment, in patients with different types of cancers. A small number of other clinical trials have been conducted involving patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and respiratory infections. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

The main therapeutic value of mistletoe lies in treating high blood pressure, although it has traditionally been used to treat epilepsy, insomnia, and tinnitus. [Herbal Remedies]

Vasodilator, cardiac depressant, tranquiliser, stimulates the vagus nerve which slows the pulse, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, immune enhancer, antineoplastic. Used for hypertension and tachycardia, as a nervine tonic. The extract of leafy twigs is antiinflammatory exerting an action upon capillary permeability and oedema. It stimulates granulation and the neoformation of connective tissue. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

It is given by the Hakims in enlargement of the spleen, in cases of wound, tumour, diseases of the ear, etc. [Indian medicinal plants]

Parts used. Leaf, stem. Traditional uses.   Antihypertension, stomach cancer. [Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea]

The leaves are a stimulating and relaxing antispasmodic nervine. It seems to give its especial influence where it is most needed by the vital force. During parturition when the pains are light, it produces prompt uterine contractions and well anticipates hemorrhage. It is also valuable in all uterine hemorrhages, and assists much in the expulsion of the placenta when retained. As an antispasmodic it will be found useful in the relief of the extra, effort put forth in asthma, epilepsy and other spasmodic conditions. Nervine, tonic and narcotic properties make it of great value in hysteria, St. Vitus Dance and other nervous diseases. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]

1259 Published articles of Viscum album

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Artemisia japonica, Japanese mugwort, otoko-yomogi, garkrek


Artemisia japonica Thunb.
Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Artemisia  cuneifolia  DC.; Artemisia  glabrata  Wallich  ex  Besser;  Artemisia  glabrata, Wight;  Artemisia  japonica  Kitam.;  Artemisia  japonica Lauener;  Artemisia  japonica  Schmidt;  Artemisia  japonica  f.  manshurica  Komarov;  Artemisia  japonica  var. lanata  Pampanini;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  macrocephala Pampanini; Artemisia japonica var. manshurica (Komarov), M.  Kitagawa;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  manshurica  Kom.; Artemisia japonica var. microcephala Pampanini; Artemisia morrisonensis  Hayata  var.  minima  Pampanini;  Artemisia parviflora   Aitchison;  Artemisia  parviflora   Buch.-Ham.  ex Roxb.;  Artemisia  subintegra  Kitamura;  Chrysanthemum japonicum  Thunberg;  Dendranthema  japonense  (Nakai) Kitam.; Oligosporus japonicus (Thunberg) Poljakov)
  • English: Japanese mugwort
  • Azərbaycanca: Yapon yovşanı
  • China: chi tou hao, mou hao, mu hao, wei
  • India: niapfu, pamasi, patee
  • Japan: otoko-yomogi
  • Tibet: garkrek, kirmani, nireha, pamasi
  • Vietnamese: Ngải Nhật
Upper parts of plants used to cure convulsions among children. Leaves cooling, bitter, antiviral, used for making antitoxifying and antifebrile drugs; young leaves wound-healing, to  cure  skin  diseases;  ash  of  leaves  applied  on  wounds  to hasten healing; leaves decoction carminative and vermifuge. Roots for throat-related problems. Leaves and flower heads used as incense and insecticide.[CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

89 Published articles of Artemisia japonica

Hippophae rhamnoides, Sea buckthorn, Dhurchuk, Sanddorn, Argousier, Tyrni, Չիչխան սովորական, Almindelig Havtorn

Hippophae rhamnoides L.
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Synonyms: Argussiera rhamnoides Bubani; Argussiera rhamnoides (L.) Bubani; Elaeagnus rhamnoides Royle;  Elaeagnus  rhamnoides  (L.)  A.  Nelson;  Hippophae rhamnoidea  St.-Lag.;  Hippophaes rhamnoideum  (L.)  St.Lag.; Hippophaes rhamnoideum St.-Lag.; Rhamnoides hippophae Moench
  • English: Sea buckthorn, seaberry
  • Arabic: أبو فايس
  • Armenian: Չիչխան սովորական
  • Azerbaijani: Murdarçayabənzər çaytikanı
  • Bashkir: Һырғанаҡ
  • Belarusian: Абляпіха крушынападобная
  • Bulgarian: Облепиха
  • Catalan: Arç groc
  • Croatian: Pasji trn
  • Czech: Rakytník řešetlákový
  • Danish: Almindelig Havtorn
  • Dutch: Duindoorn
  • Estonian: Harilik astelpaju
  • Finnish: Tyrni
  • French: Argousier
  • Galaician: Espiñeiro marítimo
  • German: Sanddorn
  • Hindi: Dhurchuk, Chumaa, Tarwaa
  • Hungarian: Európai homoktövis
  • Italian:olivella spinosa
  • Kabardian: Къазмакъей
  • Kashubian: Sëdwina
  • Kazakh: Шырғанақ (өсімдік)
  • Kyrgyz:  Кaдимки чычыpкaнaк (Kadimki chychyrkanak)
  • Latvian: Pabērzu smiltsērkšķis
  • Lithuanian: Dygliuotasis šaltalankis
  • Manx: Bugogue varrey
  • Nepali: मलो malo
  • Norwagian: Tindved
  • Pashto: اکبار
  • Persian: سنجد تلخ
  • Polish: Rokitnik zwyczajny
  • Punjabi: Sirmaa
  • Romanian: cătină
  • Russian:oblepicha
  • Serbian: Пасји трн
  • Slovanian: Navadni rakitovec
  • Spanish: Espino Amarillo
  • Swedish: Havtorn
  • Udmurt: Вӧёпу
  • Uzbek:  Chakanda
  • Voro: Nõglapai

Description: Thorny deciduous  shrub or  small tree. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, white-downy beneath. Male flowers yellowish-brown in small catkins that appear before leaves; female in small racemes appearing with the leaves. Fruits globular, orange or red berry.

Shrub, deep penetrating strong root system, thorny branches, juicy ripe fruits edible, fodder for goats, camel and sheep. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The fruit of H. rhamnoides L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions to regulate the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal pains, etc.  It has been well documented to have antioxidant, immunostimulative, regenerative, and antiulcerogenic properties, a protective effect against injuries in mice and effects on hyperlipidemic serum cultured smooth-muscle cells in vitro.  The alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, these extracts were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

The fruits are used as an analgesic, as a remedy for stomach pain, to improve digestion, and to treat scurvy.  A decoction of the fruits is drunk to treat ulcers and is added to baths to prevent skin diseases. Fresh fruits are used to  moisturize the skin, to help heal small wounds and burns, and to treat skin diseases associated with poor metabolism. An  infusion of the leaves is drunk or the leaves are directly applied to the body to treat rheumatism. A decoction of the seeds  is used as a laxative. [Medicinal Plants of Central Asia Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan]

Fruit—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, stomachic, antitussive, antihaemorrhagic. SeaBuckthorn preparationsareused internally for stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer and other illnesses of the alimentary organs; externally in cases of burns, bedsores and other skin complications induced by the treatment with X-rays and other radiations. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Topical  application  of  1.0%  seabuckthorn leaf  extract  statistically  significantly  augmented the healing process, as evidenced by increases in the content of hydroxyproline  and protein as well as the reduction in wound area when compared with similar effects  in response to  treabnent using povidone-iodine ointment (standard care).  The  reduced  glutathione, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities  showed significant increases in seabuckthorn leaf extract-treated wounds as compared to  controls.  The  lipid  peroxide  levels  were significantly  decreased  in  leaf  extract-treated  wounds. The results suggest that aqueous leaf extract of sea buckthorn promotes wound  healing,  which  may  be  due  to  increased  antioxidant  levels in  the  granulation  tissue. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

With high levels of minerals and vitamins A and  C, sea buckthorn’s tart-tasting berries make an  ideal supplement to prevent colds and sore throats. As a natural supplement, the  juice or syrup of  sea buckthorn will  improve resistance to colds, sore throat,  and sinus problems. Rich in antioxidant  bioflavonoids, sea buckthorn supports  capillary and arterial health when taken  long-term. [Herbal Remedies]

Used in Toothache, joint pain,liver, lung and phlegm diseases, menstrual disorders,dysentery, gum infection, blood disorders, diabetes and intestinal parasites. Fruits are edible raw, also used extensively for the preparation of concentrate. [Medicinal Plants of Dolpo]

650 Published articles of  Hippophae rhamnoides

Swertia bimaculata, Twospotted swertia, Akebonoso, zhang ya cai

Swertia bimaculata (Siebold & Zucc.) Hook. f. & Thomson ex C.B. Clarke
Family: Gentianaceae

English: twospotted swertia
Chinese: 獐牙菜, 紫花青叶胆,  zhang ya cai
Japanese: Akebonoso

Uses: Roots for bone fracture, fever. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

20 published articles of  Swertia bimaculata
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pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana