Saturday, July 8, 2017

Cuscuta reflexa, Giant Dodder, kodiyar kundal, Swarna lata, Amarvalli,

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
Family: Convolvulaceae

Synonyms: Cuscuta elatior Choisy, Cuscuta hookeri Sweet, Cuscuta macrantha G. Don, Cuscuta megalantha Steud.,

Cuscuta reflexa var. grandiflora Engelm., Cuscuta reflexa var. reflexa, Cuscuta verrucosa Sweet, Monogynella reflexa (Roxb.) Holub
  • English name: Giant Dodder
  • Arabic: حامول منعكس
  • Assamese: Amarlati
  • Bengali: Swarna lata
  • Chinese: 大花菟丝子
  • Hindi: अमर बेल Amar bel, आकाश बेल Akashbel, Amarvalli
  • Malayalam: ആകാശവല്ലി, Akasavalli
  • Manipuri: Uri sanamacha
  • Marathi: निर्मली Nirmali
  • Oriya: Kolanirmuli
  • Tamil: கொடியார் கூந்தல் kodiyar kundal
  • Telugu: Sitamma pogunalu

Distribution: A common parasite found on many bushes and trees in hills and in plains of tropical India. A leafless yellow colored thread like complete stem parasite found on many herbs and small shrubs. Flowers small, white, sessile in lateral fascicles; Calyx 5 lobes, subequal, connate at the base, corolla lobes 5,companulate, with a ring of fimbriate lobes at the base, stamens as many as corolla lobes at the mouth of corolla throat, anthers exerted, ovary 2 celled, fruit a capsule.

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant juice poisonous, emetic, purgative, given for abortion, bilious- ness, fevers, jaundice and hematuria; a decoction of fruits of Emblica officinalis  with roots of Solanum indicum and stems of Cuscuta reflexa given in influenza; salted plant juice given in vomiting and purulent discharge from vagina; bark extract of Alstonia scholaris with Cuscuta reflexa and bark of Rhamnus napalensis given to kill intestinal worms; plant infusion as a wash for sores; ash of burnt plant applied to treat cuts, warts and wounds; in polio, ashes ground in mustard oil and the affected part is massaged with the medicated oil; whole plant paste applied to cure swelling of the testicle, reddening of the eyes, to relieve body pain, boils and head- ache; whole plant with Centella asiatica and Vitex peduncu- laris powdered with black peppers given to avoid childbirth; Mallotus philippensis stem bark decoction together with Cuscuta reflexa , stem bark of Mangifera indica and leaves of Dendrocalamus strictus used as bath for the treatment of jaundice. Roots and the whole plant in case of fractures, dis- located bone treated by binding the plant around the affected part. Juice of the stem applied on wounds; crushed stem for jaundice; stem crushed into paste and given to girls to cure menstrual disorders. Stem and leaves juice used to kill head lice. Seeds carminative, anthelmintic, powdered seeds for stomachache and coughs; seeds pasted with water and taken against intestinal worms. Veterinary medicine, crushed whole plant to treat uterine prolapse; plant infusion fed to birds for treating poultry disease; plant paste given against diarrhea of domestic animals; crushed leaves and stem applied on bone fractures and bone dislocation. Plant fed to enemy’s livestock for killing purpose. Medico-religious beliefs, plant and turmeric crushed and massaged on the whole body of weak and thin children. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Whole plant is used against diabetes, against hepatitis, retention of urine, hair fall and dandruff
and against laziness. 
1.    Method of use for hepatitis and retention of urine:  Take 8-10 g of the plant and grind that in claypot and slowly add 1 glass of water and then filter it, drink that water twice a day for 40 days, for retention of urine just drink 1-2 glass of that water, urine will pass quickly. 
2.    Method of use for hair fall and dandruff:  Take 15 grams of fresh plant and add 250 mL of hair oil and heat them together gently for 10-15 minutes. Keep them in metal pot together just use that hair oil every day and keep doing that practice for 40 days.
3.    Method of use against laziness:  Just 2-3 grams of the fresh plant grind that and take it in fasting with butter or 15-20 days. [Medicinal Plants of Sindh : Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Facts]

316 Published articles of Cuscuta reflexa

Friday, July 7, 2017

Viscum album, Амяла белая, Mistelten, Weißbeerige Mistel, Имела, Jemioła pospolita, ヤドリギ, 겨우살이, Ghi trắng, داروش اروپایی

Viscum album L.
Family: Santalaceae
  • English: Druid's Herb, mistletoe
  • Arabic: دبق أبيض
  • Armenian: Ճագում սպիտակ
  • Azerbaijani: Ağ öksəotu
  • Basque: Mihura
  • Belarusian: Амяла белая
  • Bulgarian: Бял имел
  • Catalan: Vesc
  • Chinese: 槲寄生
  • Corsican: Vischju
  • Czech: Jmelí bílé
  • Danish: Mistelten
  • Esperanto: Blanka visko
  • Estonian: Harilik puuvõõrik
  • Finnish: Misteli
  • French: Gui
  • German: Weißbeerige Mistel
  • Greek: Ιξός
  • Hungarian: Fehér fagyöngy
  • Japanese: ヤドリギ
  • Korean: 겨우살이
  • Limburgish: Haamsjeut
  • Lithuanian: Paprastasis amalas
  • Macedonian: Имела
  • Norwegian: Misteltein
  • Persian: داروش اروپایی
  • Polish: Jemioła pospolita
  • Romanian: Vâsc european
  • Russian: Омела белая
  • Serbian: Имела
  • Slovac: Imelo biele
  • Slovenian: Bela omela
  • Swedish: Mistel
  • Turkish: Ökse otu
  • Ukrenian: Омела біла
  • Vietnamese: Ghi trắng
Description: Plant shrubby, yellowish-green; stem jointed, dichotomously branched, swollen at the nodes. Leaves sessile, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, 2.5-7 cm long, 0.5-3.5 cm broad, entire, obtuse, 3-5-nerved. Flowers sessile, in 3-5 flowered fascicles; bracts 2, concave, 2 mm long, obtuse, ciliate. Perianth lobes 3-4, free, 1 mm long, triangular, thick, deciduous. Anthers 4, dehiscing by numerous pores. Ovary. 2 mm long, obovoid; stigma 1 mm long, conical. Berry c. 1 cm broad, globose; seed 5-6 mm long, embedded in a white viscid pulp.

This parasite grows primarily on the trunks of deciduous trees, particularly the apple. Stems are much branched, and the leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, thick, leathery, and usually a pale yellowish-green. The fruit is a sticky white berry. [Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants, 2nd Ed]

An antispasmodic nervine. The infusion is given with benefit in epilepsy, fits, paralysis, and other diseases of the nervous system; it has been employed in tooth and face aches, neuralgia, and similar complaints of the bead and face, but does not appear to have found such successful employment in the latter complaints as in the more serious and distressing ones already enumerated. It is popularly supposed that the mistletoe growing upon the oak is of greater efficacy as a medicine than that growing elsewhere; but in actual practice it is found that no difference exists whatever between that growing upon this particular tree and that derived from any other source of growth. As the properties of mistletoe by exposure to the air become considerably impaired, it should always, after drying, be preserved in as air tight a condition as possible. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Anticancer, cardiac tonic and tonic, : Immunomodulator, cytotoxic and hypogiycemic. [Compendia of World’s Medicinal Flora]

Used in Ayurveda and Unani. Whole plant as a poultice for the treatment of muscular pain; plant decoction given in body ache and joint pain; whole plant paste applied on fractured bone as a plaster. Leaves contraceptive, for infertility and sterility; leaves paste applied on abdomen for abortion. Extract of the leaves and berries in the treatment of hypertension, hysteria and epilepsy. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The leaves of the plant have special value in cases of epilepsy (convulsions during unconsciousness), hysteria (nervous condition marked by alternate crying and laughing, usually during emotional stress), and other nervous conditions. This herb acts as a tonic and is also a narcotic, tending to induce a stupor, sleep or unconsciousness. It has also been recommended for female ailments, including hemorrhages of the uterus, amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation) and dysmenorrhea (painful or difficult menstruation). It has also been recommended as a heart tonic in cases of typhoid fever and has also been suggested for excessive or high blood pressure. [Encyclopedia of medicinal herbs, with the herb-o-matic locator index]

Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic. Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy. [Herbal Manual]

Mistletoe is stated to possess hypotensive, cardiac-depressant and sedative properties. Traditionally, it has been used for high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive head- ache, chorea and hysteria. Modern use of mistletoe preparations is focused on use as a treatment and as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. Clinical studies of mistletoe preparations have assessed mistletoe preparations as a treatment, or as an adjunctive treatment, in patients with different types of cancers. A small number of other clinical trials have been conducted involving patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and respiratory infections. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

The main therapeutic value of mistletoe lies in treating high blood pressure, although it has traditionally been used to treat epilepsy, insomnia, and tinnitus. [Herbal Remedies]

Vasodilator, cardiac depressant, tranquiliser, stimulates the vagus nerve which slows the pulse, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, immune enhancer, antineoplastic. Used for hypertension and tachycardia, as a nervine tonic. The extract of leafy twigs is antiinflammatory exerting an action upon capillary permeability and oedema. It stimulates granulation and the neoformation of connective tissue. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

It is given by the Hakims in enlargement of the spleen, in cases of wound, tumour, diseases of the ear, etc. [Indian medicinal plants]

Parts used. Leaf, stem. Traditional uses.   Antihypertension, stomach cancer. [Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea]

The leaves are a stimulating and relaxing antispasmodic nervine. It seems to give its especial influence where it is most needed by the vital force. During parturition when the pains are light, it produces prompt uterine contractions and well anticipates hemorrhage. It is also valuable in all uterine hemorrhages, and assists much in the expulsion of the placenta when retained. As an antispasmodic it will be found useful in the relief of the extra, effort put forth in asthma, epilepsy and other spasmodic conditions. Nervine, tonic and narcotic properties make it of great value in hysteria, St. Vitus Dance and other nervous diseases. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]

1259 Published articles of Viscum album

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Artemisia japonica, Japanese mugwort, otoko-yomogi, garkrek


Artemisia japonica Thunb.
Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Artemisia  cuneifolia  DC.; Artemisia  glabrata  Wallich  ex  Besser;  Artemisia  glabrata, Wight;  Artemisia  japonica  Kitam.;  Artemisia  japonica Lauener;  Artemisia  japonica  Schmidt;  Artemisia  japonica  f.  manshurica  Komarov;  Artemisia  japonica  var. lanata  Pampanini;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  macrocephala Pampanini; Artemisia japonica var. manshurica (Komarov), M.  Kitagawa;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  manshurica  Kom.; Artemisia japonica var. microcephala Pampanini; Artemisia morrisonensis  Hayata  var.  minima  Pampanini;  Artemisia parviflora   Aitchison;  Artemisia  parviflora   Buch.-Ham.  ex Roxb.;  Artemisia  subintegra  Kitamura;  Chrysanthemum japonicum  Thunberg;  Dendranthema  japonense  (Nakai) Kitam.; Oligosporus japonicus (Thunberg) Poljakov)
  • English: Japanese mugwort
  • Azərbaycanca: Yapon yovşanı
  • China: chi tou hao, mou hao, mu hao, wei
  • India: niapfu, pamasi, patee
  • Japan: otoko-yomogi
  • Tibet: garkrek, kirmani, nireha, pamasi
  • Vietnamese: Ngải Nhật
Upper parts of plants used to cure convulsions among children. Leaves cooling, bitter, antiviral, used for making antitoxifying and antifebrile drugs; young leaves wound-healing, to  cure  skin  diseases;  ash  of  leaves  applied  on  wounds  to hasten healing; leaves decoction carminative and vermifuge. Roots for throat-related problems. Leaves and flower heads used as incense and insecticide.[CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

89 Published articles of Artemisia japonica
If you find objectionable content on this blog please Email me anandkumarreddy at gmail dot com I will remove it. The contents of this blog are meant for students and researchers of Indian system of Medicine for educational purpose and not for commercial use.

This site uses cookies from Google to deliver its services, to personalise ads and to analyse traffic. Information about your use of this site is shared with Google. By using this site, you agree to its use of cookies.


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artemisia japonica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana