Saturday, October 6, 2012

Salvadora persica Pilu Gudaphala Gunnangi Miswak

Salvadora persica L.
Family: Salvadoraceae
Common Name: Meswak, tooth brush tree, Salt Bush tree,
Arabic: أراك
Assamese: Arak, Irak
Deutch: Zahnbürstenbaum
Gujarati: Peelu, Khareejal
Hausa: Ashuwaki
Hebrew: סלוודורה פרסית
Hindi: मेस्वाक meswak, पिलु pilu
Kannada: ಗೊನಿಮರ gonimara, Kankhina, Genumar
Malayalam: ഉകമരം
Marathi: khakan, पिलु pilu
Persian: اراک (درخت)
Punjabi: Peelu
Russian: Сальвадора персидская
Sanskrit: गुडफल gudaphala, पिलु pilu
Siddha: Perungoli
Sindhi: Khabbar/Jhaar
Tamil: உகாய்  ukay
Telugu: గున్నంగి gunnangi
Turkey: Misvak ağacı

Ayurvedic Uses: Asmari, Arsha, Anaha, Gulma, Jvara, Mutrakrucchra, Sarpavisa, Udararoga, Vishavikara, Bastivikara, Apaci, Bhagandara, Naadivrana, Udaravata, Yonivyapat, Dustavrana, Vranasotha, Mukhapaka, Pliharoga, Sarva Kushta.

Fruit—carminative (used in biliousness), deobstruent (used for rheumatism, tumours, splenomegaly), diuretic, lithotriptic. Leaves—decoction used for cough and asthma, poultice in painful piles and tumours; juice in scurvy. Flowers— stimulant, laxative. Applied in painful rheumatic conditions. Seeds—diuretic; purgative; fatty oil applied locally on rheumatic swellings. Root bark—topically vesicant. Bark—emmenagogue, ascarifuge, febrifuge. Biological activity of stem bark—spasmolytic. Plant—anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antibacterial.

Leaves are used against chronic fever, heat stroke and against internal pain of bones due to injury or by any means. (Medicinal Plants of Sindh)

The bark of the stem is acrid and used in decoction for low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhoea. In Punjab, the shoot and leaves are considered as antidotes for poisons and the juice of the leaves is given for scurvy. In Persia, the fruit is employed as a deobstruent, carminative and diuretic. In Africa, the root bark is used as a remedy for ankylostomiasis and the stem bark for gastritis and as an ascarifuge. The powdered root is applied like mustard plaster and a decoction of the root given for gonorrhoea and vesical catarrh. The leaf is a reputed diuretic. (Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon)

Unani uses: Mohallile Auram, Mudirre Baul, Muqawwie Meda, Habise Ishal, Nazla, Wajaul Mafasil, Warme Raham, Bawaseer, Zofe Dandan.

127 Published articles on Salvadora persica
1.    Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom disease of Salvadora persica in India
Kumar, Sachin; Singh, Vibhuti; Lakhanpaul, Suman - JOURNAL OF GENERAL PLANT PATHOLOGY  Volume: 78   Issue: 4   Pages: 294-297   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10327-012-0381-y   Published: JUL 2012
2.    Characterisation of some exotic fruits (Morus nigra, Morus alba, Salvadora persica and Carissa opaca) used as herbal medicines by neutron activation analysis and estimation of their nutritional value
Wasim, Mohammad; Daud, Muhammad; Arif, Mohammad; et al. - JOURNAL OF RADIOANALYTICAL AND NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY  Volume: 292   Issue: 2   Pages: 653-659   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10967-011-1461-8   Published: MAY 2012
3.    Anti-biofilm activity of Salvadora persica on cariogenic isolates of Streptococcus mutans: in vitro and molecular docking studies
Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Murugan, Kasi - BIOFOULING  Volume: 28   Issue: 1   Pages: 29-38   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2011.647308   Published: 2012
4.    Micropropagation of Salvadora persica-a tree of arid horticulture and forestry
Phulwaria, M.; Ram, Kheta; Gahlot, Priyanka; et al. - NEW FORESTS  Volume: 42   Issue: 3   Pages: 317-327   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11056-011-9254-z   Published: NOV 2011
5.    Short term clinical effect of active and inactive Salvadora persica miswak on dental plaque and gingivitis
Sofrata, Abier; Brito, Fernanda; Al-Otaibi, Meshari; et al. - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 137   Issue: 3   Pages: 1130-1134   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.034   Published: OCT 11 2011
6.    Antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities of Salvadora persica and Juglans regia L. extracts
Noumi, Emira; Snoussi, Mejdi; Trabelsi, Najla; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 5   Issue: 17   Pages: 4138-4146   Published: SEP 9 2011
7.    Benzyl Isothiocyanate, a Major Component from the Roots of Salvadora Persica Is Highly Active against Gram-Negative Bacteria
Sofrata, Abier; Santangelo, Ellen M.; Azeem, Muhammad; et al. - PLOS ONE  Volume: 6   Issue: 8     Article Number: e23045   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023045   Published: AUG 1 2011
8.    Molecular Screening of Anti-quorum Sensing Capability of Salvadora Persica on Enterococcus Faecalis
Rezaei, Afsaneh; Oyong, Glenn G.; Borja, Virgilio B.; et al. - JOURNAL OF HARD TISSUE BIOLOGY  Volume: 20   Issue: 2   Pages: 115-123   Published: AUG 2011
9.    PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SALVADORA PERSICA
Ahmad, Mansoor; Imran, Hina; Yaqeen, Zahra; et al. - PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES  Volume: 24   Issue: 3   Pages: 323-330   Published: JUL 2011
10.    Antioxidant activities and RP-HPLC identification of polyphenols in the acetone 80 extract of Salvadora persica
Noumi, Emira; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Trabelsi, Najla; et al. - AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 5   Issue: 7   Pages: 966-971   Published: JUL 2011
11.    Salvadora persica (Meswak): Chewing Stick for Complete Oral Care
Goyal, Manoj; Sasmal, D.; Nagori, B. P. - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 7   Issue: 4   Pages: 440-445   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2011.440.445   Published: MAY 15 2011
12.    Ethnobotanical and antibacterial potential of Salvadora persica I: A well known medicinal plant in Arab and Unani system of medicine
Sher, Hassan; Al-yemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 5   Issue: 7   Pages: 1224-1229   Published: APR 4 2011
13.    Influence of Salvadora persica (miswak) extract on physical and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cement.
El-Tatari, A; de Soet, J J; de Gee, A J; et al. - European archives of paediatric dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry  Volume: 12   Issue: 1   Pages: 22-5   Published: 2011-Feb
14.    Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Anthelmintic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Salvadora persica and Terminalia avicennoides Against Strongyline Nematodes of Small Ruminants in Nigeria
Reuben, Datsu Kalip; Aji, Slyranda Baltini; Andrew, Wycliff; et al. - JOURNAL OF ANIMAL AND VETERINARY ADVANCES  Volume: 10   Issue: 4   Pages: 437-442   Published: 2011
15.    A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn).
Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M; Bi, Salma; et al. - Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences  Volume: 3   Issue: 1   Pages: 113-7   Published: 2011-Jan
16.    Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.
Sofrata, Abier; Santangelo, Ellen M; Azeem, Muhammad; et al. - PloS one  Volume: 6   Issue: 8   Pages: e23045   Published: 2011 (Epub 2011 Aug 01)
17.    BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MISWAK (SALVADORA PERSICA)
Masood, Yaghma; Masood, Mohd; Abu Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim; et al. - CURRENT TOPICS IN NUTRACEUTICAL RESEARCH  Volume: 8   Issue: 4   Pages: 161-167   Published: NOV 2010
18.    CONTROL OF URINARY RISK FACTORS OF STONE FORMATION BY SALVADORA PERSICA IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPEROXALURIA
Geetha, K.; Manavalan, R.; Venkappayya, D. - METHODS AND FINDINGS IN EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 32   Issue: 9   Pages: 623-629   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1358/mf.2010.32.9.1549114   Published: NOV 2010
19.    Beneficial Role of beta-Amyrin from Toothbrush Tree Salvadora persica in Experimental Hyperoxaluria
Geetha, K.; Venkappayya, D.; Manavalan, R. - ASIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 22   Issue: 8   Pages: 6547-6552   Published: AUG 2010
20.    Salvadora Persica extract chewing gum and gingival health: improvement of gingival and probe-bleeding index.
Amoian, Babak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Barzi, Soozan; et al. - Complementary therapies in clinical practice  Volume: 16   Issue: 3   Pages: 121-3   Published: 2010-Aug (Epub 2009 Dec 06)
21.    Effect of mouth wash extracted from Salvadora persica (Miswak) on dental plaque formation: A clinical trail
Al-Bayaty, Fouad Hussein; Al-Koubaisi, Aiman Hamad; Ali, Nidhal Abdul Wahid; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 4   Issue: 14   Pages: 1459-1467   Published: JUL 18 2010
22.    Salvadora persica.
Khatak, M; Khatak, S; Siddqui, A A; et al. - Pharmacognosy reviews  Volume: 4   Issue: 8   Pages: 209-14   Published: 2010-Jul
23.    Ethnomedicinal and ethnoecological evaluation of Salvadora persica L.: A threatened medicinal plant in Arabian Peninsula
Sher, Hassan; Al-Yemeni, M. N.; Masrahi, Yahya S.; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 4   Issue: 12   Pages: 1209-1215   Published: JUN 18 2010
24.    ECOLOGY OF SEED GERMINATION OF MISWAK-SALVADORA PERSICA LINN.
Tripathi, Mayank; Joshi, Hema - Indian Forester  Volume: 136   Issue: 5   Pages: 682-686   Published: MAY 2010
25.    Implications of Calcium Nutrition on the Response of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae) to Soil Salinity
Vaghela, Pratiksha M.; Patel, Ashish D.; Pandey, Indu Bhushan; et al. - COMMUNICATIONS IN SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT ANALYSIS  Volume: 41   Issue: 22   Pages: 2644-2660   Article Number: PII 930154213   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2010.517881   Published: 2010
26.    Antifungal properties of Salvadora persica and Juglans regia L. extracts against oral Candida strains
Noumi, E.; Snoussi, M.; Hajlaoui, H.; et al. - EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES  Volume: 29   Issue: 1   Pages: 81-88   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-009-0824-3   Published: JAN 2010
27.    Chemical Characterization of the Seed and Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of Salvadora persica
Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Matthaeus, Bertrand; Hussein, I. H. - JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY  Volume: 86   Issue: 9   Pages: 857-865   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-009-1422-3   Published: SEP 2009
28.    Analysis of Phytoalexins by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) following Induction in Salvadora persica
Eltayeb, Mudawi; Elsadig, Abdalla; Al Barwani, Fatma M.; et al. - Plant Biology (Rockville)  Volume: 2009   Issue: Suppl. S   Pages: 324   Published: 2009
29.    Salvadora persica, a potential species for industrial oil production in semiarid saline and alkali soils
Reddy, Muppala P.; Shah, Mukesh T.; Patolia, Jinalal S. - INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS  Volume: 28   Issue: 3   Pages: 273-278   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.03.001   Published: NOV 2008
30.    Preliminary phytochemical and propagation trial with Salvadora persica L.
Ahmed, Salah Sayed; El-Gengaihi, Soaad Esmaeil Essawy; Ibrahim, Mohamed El-Sayed; et al. - LANDBAUFORSCHUNG VOLKENRODE  Volume: 58   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 135-138   Published: JUN 2008
31.    LOCALIZATION OF METABOLITES AND ENZYMES IN LEAF OF SALVADORA PERSICA
Kumar, Sanjay; Mathur, Anil - Journal of Phytological Research  Volume: 21   Issue: 2   Pages: 191-196   Published: 2008
32.    In vitro antimicrobial activity of Salvadora persica L. extracts against some isolated ora pathogens in Iraq
Al-Bayati, Firas A.; Sulaiman, Khudir D. - TURKISH JOURNAL OF BIOLOGY  Volume: 32   Issue: 1   Pages: 57-62   Published: 2008
33.    Effect of dietary addition of Arak (Salvadora persica) on growth and reproductive performance in Black Baladi rabbit males
El-Kholy, K. H.; Seleem, T. S. T.; El-Aasar, T. A.; et al. - WORLD RABBIT SCIENCE  Volume: 16   Issue: 1   Pages: 21-27   Published: JAN-MAR 2008
34.    Free radical scavenging activity of Salvadora persica Linn
Arora, Saahil; Kaushik, D. - ASIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 19   Issue: 6   Pages: 4638-4644   Published: NOV 2007
35.    Effects of the root extracts of Malva Sylvesteris and Salvadora Persica on two oral streptococci
Vahabi, S. - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION FOR CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS  Pages: 87-94   Published: 2007
36.    Benzylamides from Salvadora persica
Khalil, Ashraf Taha - ARCHIVES OF PHARMACAL RESEARCH  Volume: 29   Issue: 11   Pages: 952-956   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02969277   Published: NOV 2006
37.    Bassanite from Salvadora persica: A new evaporitic biomineral
Dogan, AU; Dogan, M; Chan, DCN; et al. - CARBONATES AND EVAPORITES  Volume: 20   Issue: 1   Pages: 2-7   Published: JUN 2005
38.    Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous twigs extract of Salvadora persica
Hammad, M; Sallal, AK - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 43   Issue: 2   Pages: 121-124   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200590919410   Published: MAR 2005
39.    Effect of salinization of soil on growth and macro- and micro-nutrient accumulation in seedlings of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae)
Ramoliya, PJ; Patel, HM; Pandey, AN - FOREST ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT  Volume: 202   Issue: 1-3   Pages: 181-193   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.07.020   Published: DEC 1 2004
40.    GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the stem of the Jordanian toothbrush tree Salvadora persica
Alali, F; Hudaib, M; Aburjai, T; et al. - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 42   Issue: 8   Pages: 577-580   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880200490901834   Published: DEC 2004
41.    An in vivo study of the plaque control efficacy of Persica (TM): a commercially available herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Salvadora persica
Khalessi, AM; Pack, ARC; Thomson, WM; et al. - INTERNATIONAL DENTAL JOURNAL  Volume: 54   Issue: 5   Pages: 279-283   Published: OCT 2004
42.    Effect on growth performance and biochemical contents of Salvadora persica when irrigated with water of different salinity
Dagar, J. C.; Bhagwan, Hari; Kumar, Yogendra - Indian Journal of Plant Physiology  Volume: 9   Issue: 3   Pages: 234-238   Published: July 2004
43.    Biologically active chloroform fraction of an extract obtained from a mangrove plant Salvadora persica L
Patent Number: US 6753021
Patent Assignee: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi, India - Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents  Volume: 1283   Issue: 4   Published: June 22, 2004
44.    Growth and yield of Salvadora persica, a facultative halophyte grown on saline black soil (Vertic Haplustept)
Rao, GG; Nayak, AK; Chinchmalatpure, AR; et al. - ARID LAND RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT  Volume: 18   Issue: 1   Pages: 51-61   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15324980490245013   Published: JAN-MAR 2004
45.    Inhibition of streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous twigs extract of salvadora persica.
Hammad, MM; Sallal, AK - JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH  Volume: 82   Special Issue: C   Pages: 440-440   Published: DEC 2003
46.    Bioactivity of methyl palmitate obtained from a mangrove plant Salvadora persica L
Patent Number: US 6638546
Patent Assignee: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi, India - Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents  Volume: 1275   Issue: 4   Published: Oct. 28, 2003
47.    Effects of spacing and irrigation levels on growth and biomass production in Salvadora persica
Kasera, PK; Prakash, J; Chawan, DD - JOURNAL OF TROPICAL FOREST SCIENCE  Volume: 15   Issue: 4   Pages: 626-629   Published: OCT 2003
48.    Volatile compounds in crude Salvadora persica extracts
AbdELRahman, HF; Skaug, N; Whyatt, AM; et al. - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 41   Issue: 6   Pages: 399-404   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/phbi.41.6.399.17826   Published: SEP 2003
49.    Method for extraction and purification of biologically useful molecules from a mangrove plant Salvadora persica L
Patent Number: US 6586021
Patent Assignee: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi, India - Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents  Volume: 1272   Issue: 1   Published: July 1, 2003
50.    Response of nutritional treatments on growth and biomass of Salvadora persica, an important medicinal plant of Thar desert, India.
Prakash, Jai; Kasera, Pawan K. - Advances in Plant Sciences  Volume: 16   Issue: 1   Pages: 247-252   Published: June 2003
51.    GC-MS analysis and bioactivity testing of the volatile oil from the leaves of the toothbrush tree Salvadora persica L.
Alali, F; Al-Lafi, T - NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH  Volume: 17   Issue: 3   Pages: 189-194   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1057563021000040790   Published: JUN 2003
52.    The effect of an extract of Salvadora persica (Meswak, chewing stick) on fertility of male and female mice
Darmani, H; Al-Hiyasat, AS; Elbetieha, AM; et al. - PHYTOMEDICINE  Volume: 10   Issue: 1   Pages: 62-65   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/094471103321648683   Published: JAN 2003
53.    The effect of an extract of Salvadora persica (Meswak, chewing stick) on fertility of male and female mice.
Darmani, H; Al-Hiyasat, A S; Elbetieha, A M; et al. - Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology  Volume: 10   Issue: 1   Pages: 63-5   Published: 2003-Jan
54.    Salvadora persica seed oil: A rich source of oil and minor source of cyclopropenoid fatty acids.
Hosamani, K. M.; Pattanashettar, R. S. - Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences  Volume: 24   Issue: 3   Pages: 713-715   Published: September 2002
55.    The effect of Salvadora persica extract (miswak) and chlorhexidine gluconate on human dentin: a SEM study.
Almas, Khalid - The journal of contemporary dental practice  Volume: 3   Issue: 3   Pages: 27-35   Published: 2002 Aug 15
56.    Biologically active aqueous fraction of an extract obtained from a mangrove plant Salvadora persica L
Patent Number: US 6428823
Patent Assignee: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India - Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents  Volume: 1261   Issue: 1   Published: Aug. 6, 2002
57.    An efficient in vitro method for mass propagation of Salvadora persica via apical meristern
Mathur, S; Shekhawat, GS; Batra, A - JOURNAL OF PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY  Volume: 11   Issue: 2   Pages: 125-127   Published: JUL 2002
58.    Anticonvulsant and sedative effects of Salvadora persica L. stem extracts
Monforte, MT; Trovato, A; Rossitto, A; et al. - PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH  Volume: 16   Issue: 4   Pages: 395-397   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.977   Published: JUN 2002
59.    The composition of the root oil of Salvadora persica L.
Bader, A; Flamini, G; Cioni, PL; et al. - JOURNAL OF ESSENTIAL OIL RESEARCH  Volume: 14   Issue: 2   Pages: 128-129   Published: MAR-APR 2002
60.    An in vivo study of the plaque control efficacy of PersicaTM: a commercially available herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Salvadora persica.
Khalessi, AM; Pack, ARC; Thomson, WM; et al. - JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH  Volume: 81   Special Issue: SI   Pages: A127-A127   Meeting Abstract: 0842   Published: MAR 2002
61.    Effect of nutritional treatments on growth and yield of tooth-brush tree (Salvadora persica)
Prakash, J; Kasera, PK; Chawan, DD - INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES  Volume: 71   Issue: 9   Pages: 621-623   Published: SEP 2001
62.    Antiulcer activity of Salvadora persica on experimental ASA-induced ulcer in rats: Ultrastructural modifications
Monforte, MT; Miceli, N; Mondello, MR; et al. - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 39   Issue: 4   Pages: 289-292   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/phbi.39.4.289.5918   Published: 2001
63.    The effects of extracts of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine: a SEM study.
Almas, K - Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research  Volume: 12   Issue: 3   Pages: 127-32   Published: 2001 Jul-Sep
64.    Salt tolerance in Salvadora persica: Osmotic constituents and growth during immature phase
Rao, G. Gururaja; Babu, V. Ravindra; Nath, Abhay; et al. - Indian Journal of Plant Physiology  Volume: 6   Issue: 2   Pages: 131-135   Published: April-June, 2001
65.    Anti-gastric ulcer and cytoprotective properties of Aarak tree (Salvadora persica) and Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in rats
Islam, M. W.; Zakaria, M. N. M.; Radhakrishnan, R.; et al. - Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology  Volume: 52   Issue: Supplement   Pages: 269   Published: September, 2000
66.    Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in the halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity
Maggio, A; Reddy, MP; Joly, RJ - ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BOTANY  Volume: 44   Issue: 1   Pages: 31-38   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(00)00051-4   Published: AUG 2000
67.    Isolation and identification of a flavonol glycoside using high speed counter current chromatographic technique from the leaves of Salvadora persica
Kamil, M.; Ahmad, F.; Jayaraj, A. F.; et al. - Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research  Volume: 43   Issue: 4   Pages: 255-257   Published: August, 2000
68.    The effect of Meswak (Salvadora persica) use on oral streptococci.
Elhably, BM; Dolheguy, MR; Tompkins, GR - JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH  Volume: 79   Issue: 5   Pages: 1048-1048   Published: MAY 2000
69.    The effect of Salvadora persica extract and chlorhexidine on human dentin
Almas, K - JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH  Volume: 79   Issue: 5   Pages: 1278-1278   Published: MAY 2000
70.    Application of spectroscopic techniques for the identification of organic and inorganic constituents of salvadora persica from Saudi Arabia
Bahabri, FS - PHYSICA A  Volume: 276   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 346-351   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4371(99)00278-2   Published: FEB 1 2000
71.    Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the Persian tooth brush tree (Salvadora persica)
Galati, EM; Germano, MP; Rossitto, A; et al. - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 37   Issue: 5   Pages: 325-328   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/phbi.37.5.325.6055   Published: DEC 1999
72.    Antiulcer activity of Salvadora persica L.: structural modifications
Sanogo, R; Monforte, MT; d'Aquino, A; et al. - PHYTOMEDICINE  Volume: 6   Issue: 5   Pages: 363-366   Published: NOV 1999
73.    Pharmacognistical and phytochemical studies on Salvadora persica L
Kamil, L. M.; Jayaraj, A. F.; Ahmed, F.; et al. - Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology  Volume: 51   Issue: SUPPL.   Pages: 227   Published: Sept., 1999
74.    Salvadora persica L.: hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat
Galati, EM; Monforte, MT; Forestieri, AM; et al. - PHYTOMEDICINE  Volume: 6   Issue: 3   Pages: 181-185   Published: JUL 1999
75.    Growth and development of Salvadora persica on highly saline black soils: Salt tolerance during immature phase
Rao, G. Gururaja; Polra, V. N.; Babu, V. Ravindra; et al. - Indian Journal of Plant Physiology  Volume: 4   Issue: 3   Pages: 152-156   Published: July-Sept., 1999
76.    In vitro antimicrobial effects of extracts of freshly cut and one month old miswak (Salvadora persica)
Almas, K; Al-Bagieh, NH; Akpata, ES - JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH  Volume: 78   Issue: 5   Pages: 1154-1154   Published: MAY 1999
77.    The antimicrobial effects of bark and pulp extracts of miswak, Salvadora persica
Almas, K; Al-Bagieh, NH - BIOMEDICAL LETTERS  Volume: 60   Issue: 235   Pages: 71-75   Published: 1999
78.    The antimicrobial effects of extracts of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Salvadora persica (Arak) chewing sticks.
Almas, K - Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research  Volume: 10   Issue: 1   Pages: 23-6   Published: 1999 Jan-Mar
79.    Hypoglycemic effects of Salvadora persica L. in the rat
Trovato, A; Galati, EM; Rossitto, A; et al. - PHYTOMEDICINE  Volume: 5   Issue: 2   Pages: 129-132   Published: APR 1998
80.    Salvadora persica - A boon to wasteland development (vol 56, pg 657, 1997)
Zodape, ST - JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH  Volume: 56   Issue: 12   Pages: 778-778   Published: DEC 1997
81.    Salvadora persica - A boon to wasteland development
Zodape, ST; Indusekhar, VK - JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH  Volume: 56   Issue: 11   Pages: 657-661   Published: NOV 1997
82.    Leaf epicuticular wax of Salvadora persica grown on saline black soils
Rao, G. Gururaja; Babu, V. Ravindra - Indian Journal of Plant Physiology  Volume: 2   Issue: 4   Pages: 290-292   Published: Oct.-Dec., 1997
83.    Salvadora persica: A new host record for Catopsilia crocale Cram. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
Kumar, Seema; Ahmed, S. I. - Indian Forester  Volume: 122   Issue: 1   Pages: 83-84   Published: 1996
84.    The great reed warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus (Hemprich and Ehrenberg) feeding of fruits of Salvadora persica
Parasharya, B. M.; Sukhadia, A. G.; Mehta, D. M.; et al. - Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society  Volume: 92   Issue: 3   Pages: 420-421   Published: 1995
85.    Developmental morphology of lead midvein galls of Salvadora persica Linn. (Salvadoraceae) incited by Thomasiniana salvadorae Rao (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera)
Gupta, Jagdish Prasad - Journal of Phytological Research  Volume: 8   Issue: 2   Pages: 171-176   Published: 1995
86.    A study comparing the efficacy of a toothpaste containing extract of Salvadora persica with a standard fluoride toothpaste.
Quinlan, R; Robson, G; Pack, A R - Journal of the New Zealand Society of Periodontology  Issue: 77   Pages: 7-14   Published: 1994-May
87.    EFFECT OF SEAWATER ON SALVADORA-PERSICA LINN
JOSHI, AJ; KUMAR, MK - ANNALS OF ARID ZONE  Volume: 32   Issue: 3   Pages: 167-170   Published: SEP 1993
88.    PYROLYSIS-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ION-TRAP MASS-SPECTROMETRY OF THE TOOTH BRUSH TREE (SALVADORA-PERSICA L)
GALLETTI, GC; CHIAVARI, G; KAHIE, YD - RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY  Volume: 7   Issue: 7   Pages: 651-655   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.1290070719   Published: JUL 1993
89.    The efficacy of Salvadora persica in promoting oral hygiene
El-Menshawi, B. S.; Moustafa, M. H. - Planta Medica  Volume: 59   Issue: 7 SUPPL.   Pages: A676-A677   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959955   Published: 1993
90.    Seasonal changes in proteins, amino acids and minerals in Salvadora persica Linn. with reference to saline habitats
Joshi, A. J.; Krishnakumar, M.; Mali, B. S. - Indian Journal of Plant Physiology  Volume: 36   Issue: 3   Pages: 202-204   Published: 1993
91.    LIGNAN GLYCOSIDES FROM STEMS OF SALVADORA-PERSICA
KAMEL, MS; OHTANI, K; ASSAF, MH; et al. - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 31   Issue: 7   Pages: 2469-2471   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(92)83301-E   Published: JUL 1992
92.    SUITABILITY OF SALVADORA-PERSICA FOR SALINE COASTAL WASTELAND
MALIWAL G L; NADIADARA C M - Indian Forester  Volume: 116   Issue: 12   Pages: 969-973   Published: 1990
93.    A NOTE ON ROSERINGED PARAKEET PSITTACULA-KRAMERI FEEDING ON THE LEAVES OF SALVADORA-PERSICA IN THE POINT CALIMERE INDIA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
BALASUBRAMANIAN P - Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society  Volume: 86   Issue: 1   Pages: 103   Published: 1989
94.    Salvadora persica, Linn. (siwak)--its position and heritage in Islamic dentistry.
Saeed, A - Hamdard medicus  Volume: 31   Issue: 1   Pages: 75-91   Published: 1988 Jan-Mar
95.    THE ANTIPLAQUE EFFECT OF TOOTHPASTE CONTAINING SALVADORA-PERSICA COMPARED WITH CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE A PILOT STUDY
GAZI M I; LAMBOURNE A; CHAGLA A H - Clinical Preventive Dentistry  Volume: 9   Issue: 6   Pages: 3-8   Published: 1987
96.    SEM, XRF AND EMPA EVALUATION OF MIDDLE-EASTERN TOOTHBRUSH SALVADORA PERSICA
CHAN, DCN; DOGAN, AU; DOGAN, MM - JOURNAL OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE  Volume: 7   Issue: 2   Pages: 145-145   Published: OCT 1987
97.    SALVADORICINE - A NEW INDOLE ALKALOID FROM THE LEAVES OF SALVADORA-PERSICA
MALIK, S; AHMAD, SS; HAIDER, SI; et al. - TETRAHEDRON LETTERS  Volume: 28   Issue: 2   Pages: 163-164   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)95675-2   Published: 1987
98.    EFFECTS OF SALVADORA-PERSICA EXTRACTS ON MICE EXPLORATORY LOCOMOTION ACTIVITIES
SULAIMAN, MI; AJABNOOR, MA; KHATEEB, TA - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 17   Issue: 3   Pages: 263-268   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(86)90114-5   Published: SEP 1986
99.    In vitro evaluation of Saudi Arabian toothbrush tree (Salvadora persica).
Mohammad, A R; Turner, J E - Odonto-stomatologie tropicale = Tropical dental journal  Volume: 6   Issue: 3   Pages: 145-8   Published: 1983-Sep
100.    ROLE OF ETHEPHON, CYTOKININS AND DERIVATIVES OF BENZOTHIADIAZOLES IN SEED-GERMINATION OF SALVADORA-PERSICA
HARSH, GD; SANKHLA, N; CHATTERJI, UN - COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY  Volume: 5   Issue: 2   Pages: 86-88   Published: 1980
101.    SAUDI-ARABIAN MEDICINAL-PLANTS - SALVADORA-PERSICA
EZMIRLY, ST; CHENG, JC; WILSON, SR - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 35   Issue: 2   Pages: 191-192   Published: 1979
102.    ION REGULATION IN SALVADORA-PERSICA
AMONKAR D V; KARMARKAR S M - Journal of Biological Sciences (Bombay)  Volume: 21   Issue: 1   Pages: 13-18   Published: 1978
103.    SAUDI-ARABIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS SALVADORA-PERSICA
EZMIRLY S T; CHENG J C; WILSON S R - Planta Medica  Volume: 35   Issue: 2   Pages: 191-192   Published: 1978
104.    SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF CAMBIUM IN SOME TROPICAL TREES .3. SALVADORA-PERSICA L
PALIWAL, GS; SAIWAN, VS; AGGARWAL, SK - ACTA SOCIETATIS BOTANICORUM POLONIAE  Volume: 45   Issue: 3   Pages: 303-312   Published: 1976
105.    OCCURRENCE OF STRATIFIED CAMBIUM IN SALVADORA-PERSICA L
SAJWAN, VS; PALIWAL, GS - CURRENT SCIENCE  Volume: 45   Issue: 7   Pages: 267-268   Published: 1976
106.    EL-ARAKAH AN ECOLOGICAL HISTORICAL NOTE ON THE NORTHERN LIMIT OF SALVADORA-PERSICA
KARSCHON R; WEINGSTEIN A; KOYUMDJISKY H - Agricultural Research Organization Division of Forestry Ilanot Leaflet  Volume: 58   Pages: 1-7   Published: 1976
107.    SALVADOUREA - NEW UREA DERIVATIVE FROM SALVADORA-PERSICA LINN
RAY, AB; CHAND, L; DUTTA, SC - CHEMISTRY & INDUSTRY  Issue: 12   Pages: 517-518   Published: 1975
108.    STUDIES ON SALVADORA-PERSICA FLOWER GALLS INDUCED BY ERIOPHYES
KANT U - Indian Phytopathology  Volume: 28   Issue: 1   Pages: 142   Published: 1975
109.    EFFECT OF SLATS ON THE ACTIVITY DEHYDROGENASES AND TRANS AMINASES IN SALVADORA-PERSICA AND CRESSA-CRETICA
AMONKAR D V - Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings  Volume: 62   Pages: 108-109   Published: 1975
110.    EFFECT OF UNIVALENT AND DIVALENT IONS ON ENZYME ACTIVITY IN SALVADORA-PERSICA AND CRESSA-CRETICA
KARMARKAR S M; AMONKAR D V - Maharashtra Vidnyan Mandir Patrika  Volume: 9   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 77-82   Published: 1974
111.    SOME NOTES ON SALVADORA-PERSICA L IN SINAI AND ITS USE AS A TOOTHBRUSH
EVENARI, M; GUTTERMA.Y - FLORA  Volume: 162   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 118-125   Published: 1973
112.    MINERAL CONTENTS IN HALOPHYTES PART 1 CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT IN CRESSA-CRETICA AND SALVADORA-PERSICA
AMONKAR D V; KARMARKAR S M - Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings  Volume: 60   Pages: 370   Published: 1973
113.    GROWTH PROMOTION SPECIFICITY EXHIBITED BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GALLS IN SALVADORA-PERSICA L
SHARMA, KD; SEN, DN - ACTA AGRONOMICA ACADEMIAE SCIENTIARUM HUNGARICAE  Volume: 21   Issue: 1 2   Pages: 153-&   Published: 1972
114.    ROLE OF CYTO KININS GIBBERELLIN A-3 AND LEVO KAUR-16-EN-19-OIC-ACID ON THE CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHESIS IN EXCISED COTYLEDONS OF SALVADORA-PERSICA
CHAWAN D D; SEN D N - Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen (BPP)  Volume: 163   Issue: 6   Pages: 611-613   Published: 1972
115.    STUDIES ON SALVADORA-PERSICA STEM GALL INDUCED BY THOMASINIANA-SALVADORAE
KANT U; ARORA D K - Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings  Volume: 59   Issue: PART 3   Pages: 328   Published: 1972
116.    ANATOMY OF THE LEAF GALL ON SALVADORA-PERSICA-D INDUCED BY ERIOPHYES
KANT U; ARYA H C - Marcellia  Volume: 37   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 47-57   Published: 1971
117.    SEARCH FOR SUPPLEMENTARY USEFUL PLANTS IN INDIAN DESERT AND THEIR ECOLOGY PART 1 SALVADORA-PERSICA-D AND SALVADORA-OLEOIDES-D
SEN D N; CHAWAN D D - Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings  Volume: 57   Issue: 4   Pages: 325   Published: 1970
118.    DETECTION OF GROWTH REGULATORS IN GALLS OF SALVADORA PERSICA LINN
SEN, DN; SHARMA, KD - CURRENT SCIENCE  Volume: 38   Issue: 10   Pages: 250-&   Published: 1969
119.    PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON TITRABLE ACIDITY IN XEROPHYTIC PLANTS - SALVADORA PERSICA LINN AND PROSOPIS JULIFLORA DC
GAUR, YD - EXPERIENTIA  Volume: 24   Issue: 3   Pages: 239-&   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02152791   Published: 1968
120.    THE TOOTH-BRUSH TREE-D SALVADORA-PERSICA-D
FAROOQI M I H; SRIVASTAVA J G - Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research  Volume: 8   Issue: 4   Pages: 1297-1299   Published: 1968
121.    RESOURCE SURVEY OF SALVADORA-OLEOIDES-D AND SALVADORA-PERSICA-D FOR NON EDIBLE OIL IN WESTERN RAJASTHAN
GUPTA R K; SAXENA S K - Tropical Ecology  Volume: 9   Issue: 2   Pages: 140-152   Published: 1968
122.    HISTOGENESIS OF CALLUS FROM STEM GALL OF SALVADORA PERSICA L INDUCED BY THOMASINIANA SALVADORAE RAO IN TISSUE CULTURE
KANT, U; ARYA, HC - INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 5   Issue: 3   Pages: 131-&   Published: 1967
123.    STUDIES ON ERYOPHYES GALLS IN PLANTS ABSTRACT SALVADORA-PERSICA-D PONGAMIA-GLABRA-D
KANT U; ARYA H C - Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings  Volume: 53   Issue: 3   Pages: 253   Published: 1966
124.    CHROMOSOME NUMBER IN SALVADORA PERSICA L.
KOUL, AK; SINGHCHA.BP - CURRENT SCIENCE  Volume: 31   Issue: 11   Pages: 476-&   Published: 1962
125.    Some interesting fungi on Salvadora persica Linn
PRASAD, N.; SINGH, R. D.; BHATNAGAR, G. C. - PROC NATL INST SCI INDIA PART B BIOL SCI  Volume: 27   Issue: (5)   Pages: 281-286   Published: 1961
126.    A contribution to the anatomy of Salvadora persica L. with special reference to the origin of the included phloem
Balwant, Singh - JOUR INDIAN BOT SOC  Volume: 23   Issue: (2)   Pages: 71-78   Published: 1944
127.    The seed fats of salvadora oleoldes and salvadora persica
Gunde, BG; Hilditch, TP - JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY  Pages: 1015-1016   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/jr9390001015   Part: Part 1   Published: 1939

1 comment:

Mukarram said...

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pictures are attached..


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Awaititng for your reply
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indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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