Monday, January 28, 2013

Elephantopus scaber prastarini hasti pada Tapak liman aanaccuvati yanai ccuvati gobhi sahasra buti


Elephantopus scaber Linn.
Family: Asteraceae
Vernacular names:
Bengali: হস্তী পাদ hasti pada, Gojialata, Shamdulum ,
Chinese: 地胆草, ku di dan
English: Elephant foot, False tobacco, Prickly-leaved elephant’s foot
Gujarati: Bhopathari
Hindi: अधोमुख adhomukha, बन तम्बाखू ban-tambakhu, गोभी gobhi
Jawa: Tapak liman
Kannada: ಆನೆಕಾಲು ಗಿಡ aanekaalu gida, ಹಸ್ತಿ ಪಾದ hasti pada, Hakkarike
Konkani: hakkarike
Malayalam: ആനച്ചുവടി aanaccuvati
Marathi: हस्तीपात hastipata, पातरी OR पाथरी pathari
Nepalese: सहस्त्र बुटि sahasra buti
Oriya: mayurachula
Sanskrit: अधपातः adhapata, गोजिह्वा gojihva OR गोजिव्हा gojivha, खरपर्णिनी kharaparnini, प्रस्तरिणी prastarini, Karipadam
Tamil: யானைச்சுவடி yanai-c-cuvati
Telugu: Enugu tamara ఏనుగు తామర
Urdu: گوبهی gobhi
Burmese: Katoopin
French: lastron marron
Taiwan: teng khia
Filipino: dila dila

Ayurvedic Uses: Astringent, alterative, febrifuge, Antimicrobial.
In Burma, a decoction of the aerial parts is drunk to treat irregular menses. In China, the plant is eaten as a salad and is a believed to improve general health. In several Southeast Asian countries the plant is used to break fevers and prompt urination. [Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants Asia and the Pacific]

The effect of aqueous ethanol extracts and the isolated compound deoxyelephantopin from E. scaber Linn. was evaluated on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. The wound-healing activity was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, skin-breaking strength, weight of the granulation tissue, and collagen content. Histological study of the granulation tissue was carried out to know the extent of collagen formation in the wound tissue.

Plant—astringent, cardiac tonic, diuretic, mucilaginous, emmolient (used in dysuria, diarrhoea, dysentery. Leaves applied to ulcers and eczema. Roots—given to patients with heart and liver affections; topically in rheumatism. Root and leaf— used in dysuria and other urethral complaints. An infusion of the whole plant is used to stimulate diuresis, reduce fever and to eliminate bladder stones. The decoction is also used in peptic ulcers, swelling or pain in stomach. Plant is also used in piles and scabies. [Indian Medicinal Plants Ayurveda]

In Burma, a decoction of the stems and leaves is drunk to regulate menses. In Malaysia, the scraping of the roots in betel quid is used to curb vomiting and the leaves are eaten as salad by Chinese. InVietnam, the plant is used to promote urination and recovery from childbirth. A decoction of the entire plant is used to treat pulmonary diseases and to soothe inflamed parts. A decoction of the leaves is used to treat venereal diseases. In India, the plant is used to invigorate health, relieve the bowels from costiveness, assuage pain, soothe inflammation and to stimulate venereal desire. In the Philippines, the plant is used to combat fever and to promote urination. In Taiwan, the roots are used to assuage pain in the chest. In Indonesia, the roots pounded in water are used to treat leucorrhea and anemia. The plant is used to promote urination and to combat fever. In China, the plant is used to promote urination and to soothe inflammation. [Medicinal Plants of The Aisa-Pacific: Drugs For The Future? ]

Whole plant: Decoction applied on mycoses (fungal diseases).[Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)]

Chemical Constituents: The plant contains germacranolide dilactones. Hydroxylated germacanolides, molephantin andmolephantinin, exhibited cytotoxic and antitumour properties. The plant also gave epifriedelanol, lupeol, stigmasterol, triacontan-l-ol and dotriacontan-l-ol.  Plant contains deoxyelephantopine, an antitumoral sesquiterpene lactone.

45 Published articles of Elephantopus scaber
1.    Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. leaves
Sagar, Rakesh; Sahoo, H. B. - INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 44   Issue: 3   Pages: 398-401   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.4103/0253-7613.96347   Published: MAY-JUN 2012
2.    Hepatoprotective Activity of Elephantopus scaber on Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Mice
Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Chai Ling; et al. - EVIDENCE-BASED COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE    Article Number: 417953   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1155/2012/417953   Published: 2012
3.    Hepatoprotective Activity of Elephantopus scaber on Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage in Mice.
Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Chai Ling; et al. - Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM  Volume: 2012   Pages: 417953   Published: 2012 (Epub 2012 Aug 29)
4.    Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) HG Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L.
Anitha, Vimala Thankappan; Antonisamy, Johnson Marimuthu; Jeeva, Solomon - ASIAN PACIFIC JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE  Volume: 5   Issue: 1   Pages: 52-57   Published: JAN 2012
5.    Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. inhibits human lymphocyte proliferation and the growth of tumour cell lines and induces apoptosis in vitro.
Geetha, B S; Nair, Mangalam S; Latha, P G; et al. - Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology  Volume: 2012   Pages: 721285   Published: 2012 (Epub 2012 Feb 01)
6.    Sesquiterpene Lactones Isolated from Elephantopus scaber L. Inhibits Human Lymphocyte Proliferation and the Growth of Tumour Cell Lines and Induces Apoptosis In Vitro
Geetha, B. S.; Nair, Mangalam S.; Latha, P. G.; et al. - JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICINE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY    Article Number: 721285   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1155/2012/721285   Published: 2012
7.    Elephantopus scaber induces cytotoxicity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells via p53-induced apoptosis
Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Chai Ling; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 5   Issue: 24   Pages: 5741-5749   Published: OCT 30 2011
8.    A study on the regenerative potential of the root and leaf extracts of Elephantopus scaber L.: An antidiabetic approach
Daisy, P.; Priya, Cecilia Edel; Vargese, Lily - AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 5   Issue: 16   Pages: 1832-1837   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.5897/AJPP10.332   Published: OCT 2011
9.    Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber L. induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells
Su, Miaoxian; Chung, Hau Yin; Li, Yaolan - BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS  Volume: 411   Issue: 2   Pages: 342-347   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.144   Published: JUL 29 2011
10.    Antiviral dicaffeoyl derivatives from Elephantopus scaber
Geng, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Guo-Cai; et al. - JOURNAL OF ASIAN NATURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH  Volume: 13   Issue: 7   Pages: 665-669   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1080/10286020.2011.584310   Published: 2011
11.    Elephantopus scaber Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury by Suppression of Signaling Pathways in Rats
Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Hou, Chien-Wei; Chen, Yi-Ling; et al. - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE  Volume: 39   Issue: 4   Pages: 705-717   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1142/S0192415X11009147   Published: 2011
12.    Evaluation of Elephantopus scaber on the inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis and tumor development in mice
Geetha, B. S.; Latha, P. G.; Remani, P. - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY  Volume: 48   Issue: 3   Pages: 342-348   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.3109/13880200903133845   Published: MAR 2010
13.    Elephantopus scaber Linn.: From Ground to the Clay Pot
Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Keong, Yeap Swee; Yong, Ho Wan - Drug Plants I  Book Series: Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants   Volume: 27   Pages: 119-139   Published: 2010
14.    Traditional practice, bioactivities and commercialization potential of Elephantopus scaber Linn.
Ho, Wan Yong; Ky, Huynh; Yeap, Swee Keong; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 3   Issue: 13   Pages: 1212-1221   Published: DEC 2009
15.    Antiproliferative Activities of Five Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Active Compounds in Elephantopus scaber
Su, Miaoxian; Wu, Xia; Chung, Hau Yin; et al. - NATURAL PRODUCT COMMUNICATIONS  Volume: 4   Issue: 8   Pages: 1025-1030   Published: AUG 2009
16.    A novel Steroid from Elephantopus scaber L. an Ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic activity
Daisy, P.; Jasmine, R.; Ignacimuthu, S.; et al. - PHYTOMEDICINE  Volume: 16   Issue: 2-3   Pages: 252-257   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1016/j.phymed.2008.06.001   Published: MAR 2009
17.    A new elemanolide sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber
Liang, Qiao-Li; Min, Zhi-Da; Tang, Yu-Ping - JOURNAL OF ASIAN NATURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH  Volume: 10   Issue: 5   Pages: 403-407   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1080/10286020801966526   Published: 2008
18.    [Structure modification on sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber].
Liang, Qiao-li; Min, Zhi-da - Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica  Volume: 42   Issue: 11   Pages: 1159-61   Published: 2007-Nov
19.    Structure modification on sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber
Qiao-li, Liang; Zhi-da, Min - Yaoxue Xuebao  Volume: 42   Issue: 11   Pages: 1159-1161   Published: NOV 2007
20.    Genetic diversity and population structure in Elephantopus scaber (Asteraceae) from South China as revealed by ISSR markers
Wang, L.; Liu, J.; Zhang, W.; et al. - PLANT BIOSYSTEMS  Volume: 140   Issue: 3   Pages: 273-279   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1080/11263500600947699   Published: NOV 2006
21.    Anti diarrheal activity of root extracts of Elephantopus scaber L
Vrushabendra Swamy, B. M.; Jayaveera, K. N.; Kumar, G. S.; et al. - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 72   Issue: 11   Pages: 1067-1067   Meeting Abstract: P289   Published: SEP 2006
22.    Antitumor activities of the four sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber L.
Xu, G.; Liang, Q.; Gong, Z.; et al. - Experimental Oncology  Volume: 28   Issue: 2   Pages: 106-109   Published: JUN 2006
23.    Chemotypical variabiulity of leaf oils in Elephantopus scaber from 12 locations in China
Wang, L; Jian, SG; Nan, P; et al. - CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL COMPOUNDS  Volume: 41   Issue: 5   Pages: 491-493   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1007/s10600-005-0190-z   Published: SEP-OCT 2005
24.    Wound healing activity of the leaf extracts and deoxyelephantopin isolated from Elephantopus scaber Linn.
Singh, S. D. J.; Krishna, V.; Mankani, K. L.; et al. - Indian Journal of Pharmacology  Volume: 37   Issue: 4   Pages: 238-242   Published: AUG 2005
25.    A study of the antimicrobial activity of Elephantopus scaber
Avani, K.; Neeta, S. - Indian Journal of Pharmacology  Volume: 37   Issue: 2   Pages: 126-127   Published: APR 05
26.    Sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber
Than, NN; Fotso, S; Sevvana, M; et al. - ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG SECTION B-A JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL SCIENCES  Volume: 60   Issue: 2   Pages: 200-204   Published: FEB 2005
27.    Chemical composition of the essential oil of Elephantopus scaber from Southern China
Wang, L; Jian, SG; Nan, P; et al. - ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG C-A JOURNAL OF BIOSCIENCES  Volume: 59   Issue: 5-6   Pages: 327-329   Published: MAY-JUN 2004
28.    ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER Linn.
Kumar, S Suresh; Perumal, P; Suresh, B - Ancient science of life  Volume: 23   Issue: 3   Pages: 6-8   Published: 2004-Jan
29.    Sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber
Liang, QL; Da Min, Z - CHINESE CHEMICAL LETTERS  Volume: 13   Issue: 4   Pages: 343-344   Published: APR 2002
30.    Antitumour activity of Elephantopus scaber Linn against Dalton's ascitic lymphoma.
Rajkapoor, B.; Jayakar, B.; Anandan, R. - Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences  Volume: 64   Issue: 1   Pages: 71-73   Published: January-February 2002
31.    Hepatoprotection by Elephantopus scaber Linn. in CCl4-induced liver injury
Rajesh, M. G.; Latha, M. S. - Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology  Volume: 45   Issue: 4   Pages: 481-486   Published: October, 2001
32.    Sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus scaber
But, PPH; Hon, PM; Cao, H; et al. - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 44   Issue: 1   Pages: 113-116   Published: JAN 1997
33.    GUAIANOLIDE GLUCOSIDES FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER
HISHAM, A; PIETERS, L; CLAEYS, M; et al. - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 58   Issue: 5   Pages: 474-475   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1055/s-2006-961521   Published: OCT 1992
34.    PRELIMINARY PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRUDE WHOLE PLANT-EXTRACTS OF ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER .1. INVIVO STUDIES
POLI, A; NICOLAU, M; SIMOES, CMO; et al. - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 37   Issue: 1   Pages: 71-76   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1016/0378-8741(92)90005-C   Published: AUG 1992
35.    THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL-STUDIES ON TAIWAN FOLK MEDICINE .6. THE EFFECTS OF ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER SUBSP-OBLANCEOLATA, E-MOLLIS AND PSEUDOELEPHANTOPUS-SPICATUS
LIN, CC; YEN, MH; CHIU, HF - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE  Volume: 19   Issue: 1   Pages: 41-50   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1142/S0192415X91000065   Published: 1991
36.    A NEW CYTOTOXIC GUAIANOLIDE GLUCOSIDE FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER
HISHAM A; PIETERS L A C; DOMMISSE R; et al. - Planta Medica  Volume: 56   Issue: 6   Pages: 542   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1055/s-2006-961113   Published: 1990
37.    PARTIAL-PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE FROM CABBAGE (ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABAR) LEAVES
KUMAR, A - INDIAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY  Volume: 27   Issue: 2   Pages: 209-213   Published: 1984
38.    A NEW SESQUITERPENE LACTONE FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER
DESILVA, LB; HERATH, WHMW; JENNINGS, RC; et al. - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 21   Issue: 5   Pages: 1173-1175   Published: 1982
39.    A NEW SESQUI TERPENE LACTONE FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER
DE SILVA L B; HERATH W H M W; JENNINGS R C; et al. - Phytochemistry (Oxford)  Volume: 21   Issue: 5   Pages: 1173-1175   Published: 1982
40.    A NEW SESQUI TERPENE LACTONE FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER
DE SILVA L B; HERATH W H M W; JENNINGS R C; et al. - Phytochemistry (Oxford)  Volume: 21   Issue: 5   Pages: 1173-1175   Published: 1982
41.    ISODEOXYELEPHANTOPIN, A NEW GERMACRANEDIOLIDE FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER LINN
GOVINDAC.TR; VISWANAT.N; FUHRER, H - INDIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 10   Issue: 3   Pages: 272-&   Published: 1972
42.    DEOXYELEPHANTOPIN, A NEW SESQUITERPENE FROM ELEPHANTOPUS-SCABER LINN
GOVINDAC.TR; SIDHAYE, AR; VISWANAT.N - INDIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 8   Issue: 8   Pages: 762-&   Published: 1970
43.    CONSTITUENTS OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER (COMPOSITAE)
SIM, KY; LEE, HT - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 8   Issue: 5   Pages: 933-&   DOI : http://dx.doi.org/: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85888-4   Published: 1969
44.    ON OCCURRENCE OF CHROMOSOMAL VARIABILITY IN SOMATIC CELLS OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER LINN
AYYANGAR, KR; SAMPATHK.R - CURRENT SCIENCE  Volume: 36   Issue: 17   Pages: 470-&   Published: 1967
45.    CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER LINN
GHANIM, A; KIDWAI, AR; ZAMAN, A - INDIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 1   Issue: 7   Pages: 320-&   Published: 1963

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Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana