Friday, December 20, 2013

Tabebuia avellanedae, Handroanthus impetiginosus, Lapacho

Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos (Accepted name)
Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb. (Popularly known name)
Family: Bignoniaceae

Synonyms: Gelseminum avellanedae (Lorentz ex Griseb.) Kuntze , Handroanthus avellanedae (Lorentz ex Griseb.) Mattos , Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb. , Tabebuia dugandii Standl. , Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. , Tabebuia ipe var. integra (Sprague) Sandwith , Tabebuia nicaraguensis S.F.Blake , Tabebuia palmeri Rose , Tabebuia schunkevigoi D.R.Simpson , Tecoma adenophylla Bureau & K.Schum. , Tecoma avellanedae (Lorentz ex Griseb.) Speg. , Tecoma avellanedae var. alba Lillo , Tecoma impetiginosa Mart. , Tecoma impetiginosa Mart. ex DC. , Tecoma integra (Sprague) Hassl. , Tecoma ipe var. integra Sprague , Tecoma ipe var. integrifolia Hassl. , Tecoma ipe f. leucotricha Hassl. 

Other names: Pau D'arco, Pink Ipê Or Pink Lapacho, Pink Trumpet Tree, Dwarf Pink Tabebuia, cabroé, Lapacho negro

Description: The Pink Lapacho is a rather large deciduous tree, with trunks sometimes reaching 8 dm width and 30 m height. Usually a third of that height is trunk, and two thirds are its longer branches. It has a large, globous, but often sparse canopy. The tree has a slow growth rate. Leaves are opposite and petiolate, 2 to 3 inches long, elliptic and lanceolate, with lightly serrated margins and pinnate venation. The leaves are palmately compound with usually 5 leaflets.

Its bark is brownish grey, tough and hard to peel. The wood is of a pleasant yellowish colour, barely knotted and very tough and heavy (0,935 kg/dm³). It's rich in tannins and therefore very resistant to weather and sun.[2] It is not very useful for furniture since it is so hard to work by hand. It can be found as beams or fulfilling other structural uses where needed outdoors.

Pink Lapacho flowers between July and September, before the new leaves appear. In India, the flowering season is December to January, after the leaves are shed. The flower is large, tubular shaped, its corolla is often pink or magenta, though exceptionally seen white, about 2 inches long. There are 4 stamens and a staminode. The fruit consists of a narrow dehiscent capsule containing several winged seeds.

Lapacho is used traditionally for infectious diseases of bacterial, protozoal, fungal and viral origin, to enhance the immune system, and as an anti-inflammatory agent. It is also used as an anticancer therapy, especially in South America, and, although there is experimental evidence to support some of these uses, good clinical evidence is not available. Lapachol is toxic in high doses.  Lapachol is reported to have anticoagulant properties, which may be additive with those of conventional anticoagulants. {Stockley’s Herbal Medicines Interactions]

Dried bark, decoction: for urinary tract infections, diuretic; infusion: laxative, anti-hypoglycemic, hypotensive, stimulant, anti-emetic, abortifacient,
Leaf: astringent, vulnerary, antiseptic, for psoriasis, antihaemorrhoidal; decoction: against cancer
Flowers: antitussive, expectorant. [Medicinal plants:  Argentine Flora]

58 Published articles of Tabebuia avellanedae
1.    Larvicidal Activity of the Active Constituent Isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae Bark and Structurally Related Derivatives against Three Mosquito Species.
Kim, Min-Gi; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon - Journal of agricultural and food chemistry  Volume: 61   Issue: 45   Pages: 10741-5   DOI:   Published: 2013-Nov-13 (Epub 2013 Nov 01)

2.    NMDA Receptors and the L-Arginine-Nitric Oxide-Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Pathway Are Implicated in the Antidepressant-Like Action of the Ethanolic Extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in Mice
Freitas, Andiara E.; Moretti, Morgana; Budni, Josiane; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD  Volume: 16   Issue: 11   Pages: 1030-1038   DOI:   Published: NOV 1 2013

3.    Antiulcer Effect of Bark Extract of Tabebuia avellanedae: Activation of Cell Proliferation in Gastric Mucosa During the Healing Process
Pereira, Isabela Tiemy; Burci, Ligia Moura; da Silva, Luisa Mota; et al. - PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH  Volume: 27   Issue: 7   Pages: 1067-1073   DOI:   Published: JUL 2013

4.    Antidepressant-like action of the bark ethanolic extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in the olfactory bulbectomized mice
Freitas, Andiara E.; Machado, Daniele G.; Budni, Josiane; et al. - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 145   Issue: 3   Pages: 737-745   DOI:   Published: FEB 13 2013

5.    Bioactive phenylpropanoid glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae.
Suo, Maorong; Ohta, Tomihisa; Takano, Fumihide; et al. - Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)  Volume: 18   Issue: 7   Pages: 7336-45   DOI:   Published: 2013 Jun 24

6.    Anti-inflammatory constituents from Tabebuia avellanedae
Suo, Maorong; Isao, Hasegawa; Kato, Hikaru; et al. - FITOTERAPIA  Volume: 83   Issue: 8   Special Issue: SI   Pages: 1484-1488   DOI:   Published: DEC 2012

7.    Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo, the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae
Lee, Mu Hong; Choi, Hyun Mi; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; et al. - MOLECULAR MEDICINE REPORTS  Volume: 6   Issue: 4   Pages: 791-796   DOI:   Published: OCT 2012

8.    Chemoprevention of herb tea, Tabebuia avellanedae on in vitro and in vivo carcinogenesis system
Tokuda, H.; Iida, A.; Yamashita, M.; et al. - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 78   Issue: 11   Pages: 1177-1177   Published: AUG 2012

9.    Insecticidal Effects of Tabebuia avellanedae-derived Constituent and Its Analogues against Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus
Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Oh, Min-Seok; Lee, Hoi-Seon - JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY FOR APPLIED BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY  Volume: 54   Issue: 5   Pages: 822-826   DOI:   Published: OCT 2011

10.    Study of the antineoplastic action of Tabebuia avellanedae in carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane in mice
Higa, Roberta Alves; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Silva, Iandara Schettert; et al. - ACTA CIRURGICA BRASILEIRA  Volume: 26   Issue: 2   Pages: 125-128   Published: MAR-APR 2011

11.    Chemopreventive effects of traditional herb tea, Tabebuia Avellanedae on in vitro and in vivo carcinogenesis system
Tokuda, H.; Iida, A.; Yamashita, M.; et al. - ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM  Volume: 58   Supplement: 3   Pages: 99-99   Published: 2011

12.    Lapachol and isomeric 5-and 8-hydroxy-2-(1'-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b] furan-4,9-diones are effective antileishmanial constituents of Tabebuia avellanedae
Ali, A.; Kiderlen, A.; Kolodziej, H. - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 76   Issue: 12   Pages: 1312-1312   Published: AUG 2010

13.    Structural differences between hyperhydric and normal in vitro shoots of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC) Mattos (Bignoniaceae)
Jausoro, Veronica; Llorente, Berta E.; Apostolo, Nancy M. - PLANT CELL TISSUE AND ORGAN CULTURE  Volume: 101   Issue: 2   Pages: 183-191   DOI:   Published: MAY 2010

14.    Prevention of MAPK pathway by Brazilian medicinal plant, Tabebuia avellanedae, on peroxynitrite induced carcinogenesis
Tokuda, Harukuni; Kaneko, Masafumi; Yamashita, Mituaki; et al. - Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting  Volume: 51   Pages: 705   Published: APR 2010

15.    Regulation of macrophage and monocyte immune responses by water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae
Kim, Byung Hun; Lee, Jaehwi; Kim, Kook Hyun; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH  Volume: 4   Issue: 6   Pages: 431-438   Published: MAR 18 2010

16.    Antidepressant-like action of the ethanolic extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system
Freitas, Andiara E.; Budni, Josiane; Lobato, Kelly R.; et al. - PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY  Volume: 34   Issue: 2   Pages: 335-343   DOI:   Published: MAR 17 2010

17.    [Effects of silver sulfadiazine, ipe roxo (tabebuia avellanedae) extract and barbatimao (stryphnodendron adstringens) extract on cutaneous wound healing in rats].
Coelho, Julice Medeiros; Antoniolli, Andreia Brochado; Nunes e Silva, Daniel; et al. - Revista do Colegio Brasileiro de Cirurgioes  Volume: 37   Issue: 1   Pages: 45-51   Published: 2010-Feb

18.    Seasonal chlorophyll variations in Tabebuia avellanedae and Anadenanthera colubrine leaves
Freiberger, Mariangela Brito; Castoldi, Gustavo; Marini, Deniele; et al. - SEMINA-CIENCIAS AGRARIAS  Volume: 31   Supplement: 1   Pages: 1343-1347   Published: 2010

19.    Synthesis and evaluation of bioactive naphthoquinones from the Brazilian medicinal plant, Tabebuia avellanedae
Yamashita, Mitsuaki; Kaneko, Masafumi; Tokuda, Harukuni; et al. - BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY  Volume: 17   Issue: 17   Pages: 6286-6291   DOI:   Published: SEP 1 2009

20.    Expression inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein useful as pharmaceutical composition and health food for treating inflammatory disease e.g. arthritis, comprises Tabebuia avellanedae extract
Patent Number: KR2008092263-A
Patent Assignee: KOOK H K

21.    Delimitation and status of Handroanthus heptaphyllus and H. impetiginosus. (Bignoniaceae, Tecomeae)
Lozano, Evangelina C.; Zapater, Maria A. - Darwiniana (San Isidro)  Volume: 46   Issue: 2   Pages: 304-317   Published: DEC 2008

22.    In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae
Byeon, Se Eun; Chung, Joo Young; Lee, Yong Gyu; et al. - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 119   Issue: 1   Pages: 145-152   DOI:   Published: SEP 2 2008

23.    Antiulcerogenic activity of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, Lorentz ex Griseb
Twardowschy, Andre; Freitas, Cristina Setim; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; et al. - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 118   Issue: 3   Pages: 455-459   DOI:   Published: AUG 13 2008

24.    Tabebuia avellanedae and its constituents as antagonists of human derived tumour cells
Tokuda, H.; Kaneko, M.; Yamashita, M.; et al. - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 74   Issue: 9   Pages: 1007-1007   Published: JUL 2008

25.    Comparative studies of the effects of Tabebuia avellanedae bark extract and beta-lapachone on the hematopoietic response of tumour-bearing mice
Queiroz, Mary L. S.; Valadares, Marize C.; Torello, Cristiane O.; et al. - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 117   Issue: 2   Pages: 228-235   DOI:   Published: MAY 8 2008

26.    Tabebuia avellanedae extracts inhibit IL-2-independent T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation
Boehler, Torsten; Nolting, Jochen; Gurragchaa, Purevtseren; et al. - TRANSPLANT IMMUNOLOGY  Volume: 18   Issue: 4   Pages: 319-323   DOI:   Published: FEB 2008

27.    Stereoselective synthesis and cytotoxicity of a cancer chemopreventive naphthoquinone from Tabebuia avellanedae
Yamashita, Mitsuaki; Kaneko, Masafumi; Iida, Akira; et al. - BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS  Volume: 17   Issue: 23   Pages: 6417-6420   DOI:   Published: DEC 1 2007

28.    Height of the Tabebuia avellanedae in the conventional handling and site specific handling using the geoestatistics analysis
Klein, Wagner Lopes; De SouzaZ, Eduardo Godoy; Uribe-Opazo, Miguel Angel; et al. - CIENCIA FLORESTAL  Volume: 17   Issue: 3-4   Pages: 299-309   Published: SEP-DEC 2007

29.    Chemopreventive effects of a Brazilian traditional medicinal plant, Tabebuia avellanedae, on in vitro and in vivo carcinogenesis systems
Tokudo, H.; Iida, A. - PLANTA MEDICA  Volume: 73   Issue: 9   Pages: 801-801   Meeting Abstract: KL003   Published: AUG 2007

Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha; Moratelli, Eliane Maria; Costa, Murilo Dalla; et al. - Insula Revista do Horto Botanico  Volume: 36   Pages: 21-25   Published: 2007

31.    beta-lapachone, a quinone isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae, induces apoptosis in HepG2 hepatoma cell line through induction of Bax and activation of caspase
Woo, Hyun Joo; Park, Kun-Young; Rhu, Chung-Ho; et al. - JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD  Volume: 9   Issue: 2   Pages: 161-168   DOI:   Published: SUM 2006

32.    Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis.
Pereira, Eliezer Menezes; Machado, Thelma de Barros; Leal, Ivana Correa Ramos; et al. - Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials  Volume: 5   Pages: 5   DOI:   Published: 2006 Mar 22

33.    Tabebuia avellanedae processing method involves extracting tabebuia avellandae components from ultrafine-particlized bark particles using ultrafine-particlized bark
Patent Number: JP2006223109-A
Patent Assignee: KOIDE K

34.    Dendrometry of native species in homogeneous stands in the Roraima State - andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl), castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl), ipe-roxo (Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb) and jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril L.)
Tonini, Helio; Arco-Verde, Marcelo Francia; de Sa, Sergio Pedreira Pereira - Acta Amazonica  Volume: 35   Issue: 3   Pages: 353-362   DOI:   Published: JUL-SEP 2005

35.    Nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory constituents of Tabebuia avellanedae from Brazil
Awale, S; Kawakami, T; Tezuka, Y; et al. - CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN  Volume: 53   Issue: 6   Pages: 710-713   DOI:   Published: JUN 2005

36.    Manufacture of canned beverage, involves extracting Tabebuia avellanedae seeds with hot water, removing turbidity and precipitate, blending with water, antioxidant and pH regulator and packing cooled and sterilized solution
Patent Number: JP2005034017-A
Patent Assignee: SUICHION KK

37.    Seedlings morphology and anatomy of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb and T-chrysotricha (Mart. ex Dc.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae)
de Souza, Luiz Antonio; de Oliveira, Jonathas Henrique Georg - Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences  Volume: 26   Issue: 2   Pages: 217-226   Published: April 2004

38.    Health food for preventing and treating adenoma, contains fragment of Tabebuia avellanedae as active ingredient, and filler
Patent Number: JP2004187600-A

39.    Extraction of lapachol from Tabebuia avellanedae wood with supercritical CO2: An alternative to Soxhlet extraction?
Viana, LM; Freitas, MR; Rodrigues, SV; et al. - BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  Volume: 20   Issue: 3   Pages: 317-325   DOI:   Published: JUL-SEP 2003

40.    Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) submitted at the flooding and the "Ethrel" and silver nitrate application
Davanso, VM; Medri, ME; de Souza, LA; et al. - BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 46   Issue: 1   Pages: 57-64   DOI:   Published: JAN 2003

41.    Photosynthesis, growth and development of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) in flooded soil
Davanso, VM; de Souza, LA; Medri, ME; et al. - BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 45   Issue: 3   Pages: 375-384   Published: 2002

42.    Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract
de Miranda, Fabio Guilherme Goncalves; Vilar, Jeane Carvalho; Alves, Ivana Andrea Nunes; et al. - BMC Pharmacology  Volume: 1   Issue: 6 Cited April 30, 2002   Pages: 1-6   Published: September 13, 2001

43.    Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract.
de Miranda, F G; Vilar, J C; Alves, I A; et al. - BMC pharmacology  Volume: 1   Pages: 6   Published: 2001 (Epub 2001 Sep 13)

STEINERT, J; KHALAF, H; RIMPLER, M - JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY A  Volume: 693   Issue: 2   Pages: 281-287   DOI:   Published: FEB 24 1995

45.    Susceptibility and damage caused in Tabebuia aff. avellanedae by Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenaria
Oliveira, Claudio M. G.; Goulart, Alexandre M. C.; Monteiro, Ailton R.; et al. - Nematologia Brasileira  Volume: 19   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 89-92   Published: 1995

UEDA, S; UMEMURA, T; DOHGUCHI, K; et al. - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 36   Issue: 2   Pages: 323-325   DOI:   Published: MAY 1994

NAKANO, K; MARUYAMA, K; MURAKAMI, K; et al. - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 32   Issue: 2   Pages: 371-373   DOI:   Published: JAN 1993

UEDA S; TOKUDA H - Planta Medica  Volume: 56   Issue: 6   Pages: 669-670   DOI:   Published: 1990

WAGNER, H; KREHER, B; LOTTER, H; et al. - HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA  Volume: 72   Issue: 4   Pages: 659-667   DOI:   Published: 1989

KREHER B; LOTTER H; CORDELL G A; et al. - Planta Medica  Volume: 54   Issue: 6   Pages: 562-563   DOI:   Published: 1988

KREHER, B; LOTTER, H; CORDELL, GA; et al. - PLANTA MEDICA  Issue: 6   Pages: 562-563   Published: DEC 1988

52.    Antitumour drug comprising active saponin component|derived form Tabebuia avellanedae or tabebuia impetiginosa
Patent Number: JP63101329-A; JP94043333-B2
Patent Assignee: NICHIREI KK

53.    [Antitumoral and toxicological properties of extracts of bark and various wood components of Pau d'arco (Tabebuia avellanedae)].
de Santana, C F; de Lima, O g; d' Albuquerque, I L; et al. - Revista do Instituto de Antibioticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco  Volume: 8   Issue: 1   Pages: 89-94   Published: 1968-Dec

BURNETT, AR; THOMSON, RH - JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY C-ORGANIC  Issue: 21   Pages: 2100-&   DOI:   Published: 1967

MOREIRA E A; BEATRIZ D; MARI C R - Tribuna Farmaceutica (Curitiba)  Volume: 35   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 23-26   Published: 1967

56.    On quinones isolated from the wood of Tabebuia avellanedae [Bignoniaceae] [English summ.]
CASINOVI, C. G.; MARINI-BETTOLO, G. B.; DA LIMA, O. GONCALVES; et al. - REND IST SUPER SANITA  Volume: 26   Issue: (1/2)   Pages: 5-10   Published: 1963

CASINOVI, CG; DALBUQUE.IL; GONCALVESDALIMA, O; et al. - ANNALES DE CHIMIE FRANCE  Volume: 52   Issue: 11   Pages: 1184-&   Published: 1962

58.    Antimicrobial substances from higher plants. XX. Antimicrobial activity of some derivatives of lapachol in comparison with xyloidone, a new natural orthonaphthoquinone isolated from extracts of Tabebuia avellanedae [English and German summ.]
GONCALVES de LIMA, O.; D'ALBUQUERQUE, I. L.; GONCALVES de LIMA, CLAUSIUS; et al. - REV INST ANTIBIOT UNIV RECIFE  Volume: 4   Issue: (1/2)   Pages: 3-17   Published: 1962

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Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana