Sunday, January 5, 2014

Ceiba pentandra, Shaalmali, Buruga, Silk cotton, Tellaburaga, Capoc, Koo, Gwe

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.
Family: Malvaceae

Synonyms: Bombax cumanense Kunth, Bombax guineense Schum. & Thonn., Bombax guineensis Schumach., Bombax inerme L., Bombax mompoxense Kunth, Bombax occidentale Spreng. [Illegitimate], Bombax orientale Spreng., Bombax pentandrum L., Bombax pentandrum Jacq., Ceiba anfractuosa (DC.) M.Gómez, Ceiba caribaea (DC.) A.Chev., Ceiba casearia Medik., Ceiba guineensis (Thonn.) A.Chev., Ceiba occidentalis (Spreng.) Burkill, Ceiba thonnerii A. Chev., Ceiba thonningii A.Chev., Eriodendron anfractuosum DC., Eriodendron caribaeum G.Don, Eriodendron caribaeum G. Don ex Loud., Eriodendron guineense G. Don ex Loud., Eriodendron occidentale (Spreng.) G.Don, Eriodendron orientale Kostel., Eriodendron pentandrum (L.) Kurz, Gossampinus alba Buch.-Ham., Gossampinus rumphii Schott & Endl., Xylon pentandrum Kuntze, Ceiba guineensis var. ampla A. Chev., Ceiba guineensis var. clausa A. Chev., Ceiba pendrandra f. grisea Ulbr., Ceiba pentandra f. albolana Ulbr., Ceiba pentandra var. caribaea (DC.) Bakh., Ceiba pentandra var. clausa Ulbr., Ceiba pentandra var. dehiscens Ulbr., Ceiba pentandra f. grisea Ulbr., Ceiba pentandra var. indica Bakhuisen, Eriodendron anfractuosum var. africanum DC., Eriodendron anfractuosum var. caribaeum DC., Eriodendron anfractuosum var. guianense Sagot, Eriodendron anfractuosum var. indicum DC. 

Vernacular names:
Bengali: শ্ৱেত সিমল Shwet Simul
Hindi: Safed semal सफ़ेद सेमल
Kannada: Dudi
Malayalam: Pannimaram
Manipuri: মোৰেহ তেৰা Moreh Tera
Marathi: Samali
Sanskrit: Kutashalmali, Shveta Shaalmali
Tamil: Pancu
Telugu: Tellaburaga, తెల్ల బూరుగ
Arabic: Rum (Chad), Shajaret Al Kutun;
Australia: Paina;
Bambara: Bàna, Bànan (Mali);
Benin: Gounma (Bariba) Araba;
Bolivia: Hoja De Yuca, Toborochi (Spanish),
Brazil: Arvore-Da-Lã, Arvore-Da-Seda, Barriguda
De Espinho, Mai-Das-Arvores, Paina-Lisa,
Paineira, Samaúma-Cabeluda, Samaúna Da
Várzea, Samaúma-Lisa, Sumaúma, Sumaúma-
Barriguda, Sumaúma-Branca, Sumaúma-Da-
Várzea, Sumaúma-De-Macaco, Sumaúma-Rosada,
Sumaúma-Verdadeira (Portuguese); British West
Indies: Corkwood;
Burmese: Thinbawle;
Cameroon: Douma (Sangmelima, Ebolowa), Dum (Yaounde), Bouma (Douala), Djam (Bangangte), Nfuma,
Nkouma, Ogouma;
Dutch: Kapokboom;
Fijian: Semar, Vauvau Ni Vavalangi;
Finnish: Capoc, Kapokkipuu, Seiba;
French: Bois Coton, Capoc, Faux Contonni
Portuguese: Barriguda, Mafumeira, Paina,
Indonesia: Randu (Java), Randu (Sundanese),
Kapuek, Kapeh Panji, Panji (Sumatra);
Italian: Albero Del Kapok, Pianta Del Kapok;
Japanese: Kapokku, Kiwata Kapokku;
Khmer: Koo, Kor;
Kosraean: Cutin, Kuhtin;
Laotian: Kokuiyu, Nguiz Baanz;
Liberia: Gwe, Gwèh

Desctiption: Tree to 40 m tall, trunk to 1.5 m diameter, crown broad, bark pale grayish brown, with horizontal lines, young trunks with warty, conical spines; older, buttressed trunks have rows of warty-flaky bumps about 1.5 cm diameter; buttresses large, thick, to 10 m tall, extending out to 10 m from base.
Leaves alternate, crowded at branch tips, stalk 5–23 cm long, blade palmately compound, leaflets 10–21 cm long, 2–4 cm wide, lance-shaped, pointed at both ends; leafless during dry season.
Flowers white, pale yellow, or pink, brown inside, showy, radially symmetrical, 5-parted, petals 3–4 cm long, 1 cm wide; pollinated by bats, visited by many insects; blooms Jan.–Feb. as leaves drop.
Fruit dry, 5-parted, 10–26 cm long, to 4 cm wide, opening to expose grayish kapok fibers and seeds; fruits Mar.–Apr.

Uses: Anti-inflammatory, Hypoglycaemic,Antiangiogenic, Antimicrobial, Antiulcerogenic, Antidrepanocytary, Hepatoprotective, Antivenom Activity.

Young leaves, buds, and fruits eaten like okra. Seeds roasted and eaten, used in
soups or fermented into “kantong”; presscake used in making some types of tempeh. Seed oil
used in cooking. Flowers and dried stamens also eaten, the latter in curries; used in coconut
milk sauce. Ashes used as salt substitute (FAC; TAN; UPW).
Asian Indians suggest the root j • uice for diabetes (KAB).
• Ayurvedic suggest the gum for blood disorders, cancer, hepatosis, obesity, pain, and
splenosis (KAB).
• Brazilians suggest the sap in conjunctivosis (MPB).
• Cambodians prescribe the fruit in migraine and vertigo (KAB).
• Filipinos use bark as aphrodisiac (IHB).
• Haitians bathe or poultice leaf decoction onto bites, boils, dermatosis, erysipelas, fatigue,infections, and sprains, drinking the tea for cough, hoarseness, and sore throat (VOD).
• Haitians mix fruit pulp with 1/3 lemon juice as antiseptic in nervousness and yellow fever (VOD).
• Haitians use a compress or lotion of the leaves to alleviate dizziness (VOD).
• Haitians use tender shoot decoction as a contraceptive (VOD). Conversely (perhaps because of the tree’s rapid growth, or more probably the fecundity of the seed), the bark sap is given to sterile women to promote conception in Congo, Ivory Coast, and Upper Volta (UPW).
• Javanese take bark, with areca, nutmeg, and sugar candy as a diuretic for bladder stones (IHB).
• Javanese take leaf tea for catarrh, cough, enterosis, hoarseness, and urethritis (IHB).
• Latinos apply decoction (4 g bark/l water, boil 15 min) to leg ulcers and hemorrhoids (JFM).
• Malayans use leaf decoction or tea in childbirth, fever, and syphilis (IHB).
• Singaporans pound leaves with onions and turmeric for cough (IHB).
• Yunani suggest the gum or roots for biliousness, boils, blood disorders, dysuria, fever, gonorrhea, impotence, and leprosy. [Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America]

Uses: The roots are useful in gonorrhoea, dysuria, intermittent fevers. The bark is useful in hepatopathy, abdominal complaint, tumours and colic. [HERBAL CURES: TRADITIONAL APPROACH]

In Burma, the roots are used to invigorate and the leaves are used to treat gonorrhea. In Cambodia, the root is used to reduce fever. The bark is used to promote urination, to treat gonorrhea, to reduce fever, and to treat diarrhea. In Malaysia, the bark is used to treat asthma. In Indonesia, a decoction is used as a drink to treat gravels (small kidney calculi), and a decoction of leaves is used to treat syphilis. The juice squeezed from the leaves is used to treat asthma and coughs. In the Philippines, it is used to reduce fever and to promote libido, and the gummy exudate of the plant is eaten to treat dysentery, menorrhagia, and diabetes. Some evidence has already been presented, which lends support to the argument for its antidiabetic and antiinflammatory properties. [Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific]

Stem: The French Guiana Wayapi wash in a decoction of the bark for its febrifuge properties. Leaf: Surinam Indonesians use juice from bruised young branches in a preparation to treat asthma. Infusion for dissolving phlegm and to soothe rectal inflammation. Leaves stewed for a gonorrhoea remedy. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)]

90 Published articles of Ceiba pentandra
1.    Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra
Rao, Guodong; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; et al. - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY REPORTS  Volume: 39   Issue: 6   Pages: 6887-6894   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-012-1515-1   Published: JUN 2012

2.    Optimization of catalyst-free production of biodiesel from Ceiba pentandra (kapok) oil with high free fatty acid contents
Ong, Lu Ki; Effendi, Chintya; Kurniawan, Alfin; et al. - ENERGY  Volume: 57   Pages: 615-623   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.05.069   Published: AUG 1 2013

3.    Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of phenolic extracts from Helicteres isora L. and Ceiba pentandra L.
Loganayaki, Nataraj; Siddhuraju, Perumal; Manian, Sellamuthu - JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-MYSORE  Volume: 50   Issue: 4   Pages: 687-695   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0389-x   Published: AUG 2013

4.    Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber as a resource for second generation bioethanol: Parametric optimization and comparative study of various pretreatments prior enzymatic saccharification for sugar production
Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; et al. - BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 140   Pages: 10-14   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.04.069   Published: JUL 2013

5.    Characterization and production of Ceiba pentandra biodiesel and its blends
Silitonga, A. S.; Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; et al. - FUEL  Volume: 108   Pages: 855-858   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.02.014   Published: JUN 2013

6.    Novel, Integrated Biorefinery Approach of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) Seed and Its Secondary Waste
Kurniawan, Alfin; Effendi, Chintya; Ong, Lu Ki; et al. - ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING  Volume: 1   Issue: 5   Pages: 473-480   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/sc300128c   Published: MAY 2013

7.    Individual and Temporal Variation in Outcrossing Rates and Pollen Flow Patterns in Ceiba pentandra (Malvaceae: Bombacoidea)
Lobo, Jorge; Solis, Silvia; Fuchs, Eric J.; et al. - BIOTROPICA  Volume: 45   Issue: 2   Pages: 185-194   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/btp.12001   Published: MAR 2013

8.    Synthesis and characterization of activated hollow carbon fibers from Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok)
Chung, Jong-Tae; Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Shim, Wang-Geun; et al. - MATERIALS LETTERS  Volume: 93   Pages: 401-403   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2012.09.016   Published: FEB 15 2013

9.    Optimization and kinetic studies on biodiesel production from underutilized Ceiba Pentandra oil
Sivakumar, Pandian; Sindhanaiselvan, Sathyaseelan; Gandhi, Nagarajan Nagendra; et al. - FUEL  Volume: 103   Special Issue: SI   Pages: 693-698   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.029   Published: JAN 2013

10.    EFFICIENCY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) AND CASTOR OIL PLANT (Ricinus communis L.) OILS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF Ceiba pentranda (L.) Gaerth. WOOD RESISTANCE TO XILOPHAGOUS FUNGI IN SOIL BED TEST
Paes, Juarez Benigno; de Souza, Ademilson Daniel; de Lima, Carlos Roberto; et al. - CIENCIA FLORESTAL  Volume: 22   Issue: 3   Pages: 617-624   Published: SEP 2012

11.    Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok fiber) as a resource for second generation bioethanol: Effect of various simple pretreatment methods on sugar production
Tye, Ying Ying; Lee, Keat Teong; Abdullah, Wan Nadiah Wan; et al. - BIORESOURCE TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 116   Pages: 536-539   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.025   Published: JUL 2012

12.    Removal of nickel from aqueous solutions by citric acid modified Ceiba pentandra hulls: Equilibrium and kinetic studies
Ramana, D. K. Venkata; Reddy, D. Harikishore Kumar; Kumar, B. Naresh; et al. - CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  Volume: 90   Issue: 1   Pages: 111-119   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.20565   Published: FEB 2012

13.    Ceiba pentandra
Lim, T. K. - Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Vol 1, Fruits  Pages: 540-549   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8661-7_72   Published: 2012

14.    Antihyperglycemic Effect of Isolated Fractions of Ceiba pentandra in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats
Dolui, A. K.; Das, S.; Kharat, A. R. - ASIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 23   Issue: 6   Pages: 2716-2718   Published: JUN 2011

15.    EFFICIENCY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica) AND CASTOR (Ricinus communis) OILS ON PROTECTION OF Ceiba pentandra WOOD AGAINST XYLOPHOGOUS TERMITES UNDER FEED PREFERENCE ASSAY
Paes, Juarez Benigno; de Souza, Ademilson Daniel; de Lima, Carlos Roberto; et al. - REVISTA ARVORE  Volume: 35   Issue: 3   Supplement: 1   Pages: 751-758   Published: MAY-JUN 2011

16.    Evaluation of Malaysian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. for oily water filtration using factorial design
Rahmah, Anisa Ur; Abdullah, M. A. - DESALINATION  Volume: 266   Issue: 1-3   Pages: 51-55   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.08.001   Published: JAN 31 2011

17.    Taxonomic Value of Leaf Anatomical Characteristics of Coelostegia Benth. and Ceiba pentandra Gaertn. (Bombacaceae)
Solihani, S. N.; Noraini, T.; Ruzi, A. R.; et al. - SAINS MALAYSIANA  Volume: 39   Issue: 3   Pages: 371-376   Published: JUN 2010

18.    Physicochemical and sorption characteristics of Malaysian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. as a natural oil sorbent
Abdullah, M. A.; Rahmah, Anisa Ur; Man, Z. - JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  Volume: 177   Issue: 1-3   Pages: 683-691   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.085   Published: MAY 15 2010

19.    Eremanthus erythropappus OIL EFFICIENCY TO IMPROVEMENT OF Ceiba pentandra WOOD RESISTANCE TO TERMITES
Paes, Juarez Benigno; Bastista da Fonseca, Clecio Maynard; de Lima, Carlos Roberto; et al. - CERNE  Volume: 16   Issue: 2   Pages: 217-225   Published: APR-JUN 2010

20.    Anthraquinone Sulphate Chemical Pulping of Ceiba pentandra
Walia, Yogesh Kumar; Gupta, D. K. - ASIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY  Volume: 22   Issue: 2   Pages: 1051-1054   Published: FEB 2010

21.    Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Bairwa, Nirmal K; Sethiya, Neeraj K; Mishra, S H - Pharmacognosy research  Volume: 2   Issue: 1   Pages: 26-30   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.60584   Published: 2010-Jan

22.    Chemical Resistance and Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy/PMMA Blend Coated Ceiba pentandra
Reddy, G. Venkata; Rani, T. Shobha; Khanam, P. N.; et al. - JOURNAL OF REINFORCED PLASTICS AND COMPOSITES  Volume: 28   Issue: 2   Pages: 175-182   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0731684407084205   Published: JAN 2009

23.    Phenological patterns and reproductive success of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae) in tropical dry and wet forests of Costa Rica
Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Lobo, Jorge A.; Quesada, Mauricio - REVISTA CHILENA DE HISTORIA NATURAL  Volume: 81   Issue: 4   Pages: 443-454   Published: DEC 2008

24.    Adaptability of the fine root system of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. to various sites of central Amazonia, Brazil
Noldt, Guna; de Lima, Roberval M. B.; de Souza, Cintia; et al. - JOURNAL OF APPLIED BOTANY AND FOOD QUALITY-ANGEWANDTE BOTANIK  Volume: 82   Issue: 1   Pages: 9-14   Published: NOV 2008

25.    Phenology and pollination biology of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae) in the west forest of south-eastern Costa Rica.
Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Budde, Katharina; Fernandez, Mauricio; et al. - Stapfia  Volume: 88   Pages: 539-545   Published: 9 Oktober 2008

26.    Adsorption of heavy metal ions onto chemically oxidized Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Kapok) fibers
Chung, Byung Yeoup; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Min Hee; et al. - Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry  Volume: 51   Issue: 1   Pages: 28-35   Published: FEB 29 2008

27.    Curculionid beetles in aborted flower buds and immature fruits of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae)
Fernandez, Mauricio; Lobo, Jorge; Chacon, Eduardo; et al. - PLANT ECOLOGY  Volume: 194   Issue: 1   Pages: 1-4   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11258-007-9272-2   Published: JAN 2008

28.    Activated carbon from Ceiba pentandra hulls, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of lead and zinc from aqueous solutions
Rao, M. Madhava; Rao, G. P. Chandra; Seshaiah, K.; et al. - WASTE MANAGEMENT  Volume: 28   Issue: 5   Pages: 849-858   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.01.017   Published: 2008

29.    Extreme long-distance dispersal of the lowland tropical rainforest tree Ceiba pentandra L. (Malvaceae) in Africa and the Neotropics
Dick, Christopher W.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Lemes, Maristerra R.; et al. - MOLECULAR ECOLOGY  Volume: 16   Issue: 14   Pages: 3039-3049   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03341.x   Published: JUL 2007

30.    Effect of Ceiba pentandra extract on streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetes in rats
Dzeufiet Djomeni, P. D.; Tedong, L.; Tchamadeu, M. C.; et al. - FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 21   Supplement: 1   Pages: 75-75   Meeting Abstract: 372   Published: JUN 2007

31.    Antidiabetic effect of Ceiba pentandra extract on streptozo-tocin-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) rats
Dzeufiet, Paul Desire D.; Ohandja, Dieudonne Y.; Tedong, Leonard; et al. - AFRICAN JOURNAL OF TRADITIONAL COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES  Volume: 4   Issue: 1   Pages: 47-54   Published: 2007

32.    Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup
Lim, Teik-Thye; Huang, Xiaofeng - CHEMOSPHERE  Volume: 66   Issue: 5   Pages: 955-963   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.062   Published: JAN 2007

33.    Effect of three species of climber on the performance of Ceiba pentandra seedlings in gaps in a tropical forest in Ghana
Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Swaine, M. D. - JOURNAL OF TROPICAL ECOLOGY  Volume: 23   Pages: 45-52   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467406003725   Part: 1   Published: JAN 2007

34.    Hypoglycaemic effect of methylene chloride/methanol root extract of Ceiba pentandra in normal and diabetic rats
Djomeni Dzeufiet, P. D.; Tedong, L.; Asongalem, E. A.; et al. - Indian Journal of Pharmacology  Volume: 38   Issue: 3   Pages: 194-197   Published: JUN 2006

35.    Removal of copper and cadmium from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Ceiba pentandra hulls
Rao, MM; Ramesh, A; Rao, GPC; et al. - JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  Volume: 129   Issue: 1-3   Pages: 123-129   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.08.018   Published: FEB 28 2006

36.    Antidiabetic effect of Ceiba pentandra extract on streptozotocin-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) rats.
Dzeufiet, Paul Desire D; Ohandja, Dieudonne Y; Tedong, Leonard; et al. - African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines  Volume: 4   Issue: 1   Pages: 47-54   Published: 2006 Aug 28

37.    Bat pollination of kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra
Nathan, PT; Raghuram, H; Elangovan, V; et al. - CURRENT SCIENCE  Volume: 88   Issue: 10   Pages: 1679-1681   Published: MAY 25 2005

38.    Effects of pollination by bats on the mating system of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae) populations in two tropical life zones in Costa Rica
Lobo, JA; Quesada, M; Stoner, KE - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY  Volume: 92   Issue: 2   Pages: 370-376   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.92.2.370   Published: FEB 2005

39.    Drying method influences the development of germinability, dessication tolerance and subsequent longevity of immature seeds of sumauma (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. [Bombacaceae])
Lima, MDJVJ; Ellis, RH; Hong, TD; et al. - SEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 33   Issue: 1   Pages: 147-156   Published: 2005

40.    Nectar feeding behaviour of pteropodid bats on Ceiba pentandra
Singaravelan, N.; Marimuthu, G. - Bat Research News  Volume: 45   Issue: 3   Pages: 156   Published: Autumn 2004

41.    Nectar feeding and pollen carrying from Ceiba pentandra by pteropodid bats
Singaravelan, N; Marimuthu, G - JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY  Volume: 85   Issue: 1   Pages: 1-7   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/1545-1542(2004)085<0001:nfapcf>2.0.CO;2   Published: FEB 2004

42.    A new naphthoquinone from Ceiba pentandra
Kishore, PH; Reddy, MVB; Gunasekar, D; et al. - JOURNAL OF ASIAN NATURAL PRODUCTS RESEARCH  Volume: 5   Issue: 3   Pages: 227-230   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028602031000105812   Published: JUL 2003

43.    Microsatellite markers for Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae), an endangered tree species of the Amazon forest
Brondani, RPV; Gaiotto, FA; Missiaggia, AA; et al. - MOLECULAR ECOLOGY NOTES  Volume: 3   Issue: 2   Pages: 177-179   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00389.x   Published: JUN 2003

44.    Effect of biofertilizers on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemical changes in silk cotton (Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaertn.).
Vijayakumari, B.; Janardhanan, K. - Crop Research (Hisar)  Volume: 25   Issue: 2   Pages: 328-332   Published: March 2003

45.    Hypoglycemic properties of aqueous bark extract of Ceiba pentandra in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Ladeji, O; Omekarah, I; Solomon, M - JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY  Volume: 84   Issue: 2-3   Pages: 139-142   Article Number: PII S0378-8741(02)00321-5   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00321-5   Published: FEB 2003

46.    A new isoflavone glycoside from Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertner
Ueda, H; Kaneda, N; Kawanishi, K; et al. - CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN  Volume: 50   Issue: 3   Pages: 403-404   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.50.403   Published: MAR 2002

47.    New isoflavones from Ceiba pentandra
Ngounou, FN; Meli, AL; Lontsi, D; et al. - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 54   Issue: 1   Pages: 107-110   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00035-2   Published: MAY 2000

48.    Use of soft rot fungi for studies on the microstructure of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) fibre cell walls
Khalili, S; Daniel, G; Nilsson, T - HOLZFORSCHUNG  Volume: 54   Issue: 3   Pages: 229-233   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/HF.2000.039   Published: 2000

49.    Excellent oil absorbent kapok [Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.] fiber: fiber structure, chemical characteristics, and application
Hori, K; Flavier, ME; Kuga, S; et al. - JOURNAL OF WOOD SCIENCE  Volume: 46   Issue: 5   Pages: 401-404   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00776404   Published: 2000

50.    Seed quality development in sumauma (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.)
Lima, M. de J. V., Jr.; Ellis, R. H.; Ferraz, I. D. K. - Seed Science and Technology  Volume: 28   Issue: 3   Pages: 739-751   Published: 2000

51.    Seed quality development in sumauma (Ceiba pentandra [L.] Gaertn.)
Lima, MDV; Ellis, RH; Ferraz, IDK - SEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 28   Issue: 3   Pages: 741-753   Published: 2000

52.    A contribution to the study of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn., as a source of forage to honey bees.
Lakshmi, K.; Suryanarayana, M.C. - Indian Bee Journal  Volume: 59   Issue: 3   Pages: 165-169   Published: September 1997(1999)

53.    Flowering phenology and pollination biology of Ceiba pentandra (Bombacaceae) in Central Amazonia
Gribel, R; Gibbs, PE; Queiroz, AL - JOURNAL OF TROPICAL ECOLOGY  Volume: 15   Pages: 247-263   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266467499000796   Part: 3   Published: MAY 1999

54.    Survival and early growth of Acacia mangium, Ceiba pentandra and Casuarina equisetifolia on sandy tin tailings
Majid, Nik Muhamad; Paudyal, Bimal K.; Bt Shebli, Zarina - Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science  Volume: 21   Issue: 1   Pages: 59-65   Published: April, 1998

55.    Two new isoflavones from Ceiba pentandra and their effect on cyclooxygenase-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis
Noreen, Y; El-Seedi, H; Perera, P; et al. - JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS  Volume: 61   Issue: 1   Pages: 8-12   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np970198+   Published: JAN 1998

56.    Polysaccharide components of the water-soluble mucilage from the bark of the silk cotton or kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra var. indica)
Raju, TS - BIOTECHNOLOGY AND APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 25   Pages: 217-221   Part: 3   Published: JUN 1997

57.    Agrobacterium tumours in Kapok (Ceiba pentandra L.) in Sri Lanka
Bandara, J. M. R. S.; Bandara, J. M. D. - Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka  Volume: 25   Issue: 2   Pages: 105-112   Published: 1997

58.    Effect of seed size, rooting medium and fertilizers on containerised seedlings of Ceiba pentandra
Sudhakara, K.; Mammen, Wesley; Santoshkumar, A. V.; et al. - Indian Forester  Volume: 121   Issue: 12   Pages: 1135-1142   Published: 1995

59.    Fertilizer trial on Ceiba pentandra seedlings on ex-tin-mining land in peninsular Malaysia
Paudyal, Bimal K.; Nik Muhamad, M. - Journal of Tropical Forest Science  Volume: 7   Issue: 4   Pages: 570-579   Published: 1995

60.    PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF A TROPICAL CANOPY TREE, CEIBA-PENTANDRA, IN A LOWLAND FOREST IN PANAMA
ZOTZ, G; WINTER, K - TREE PHYSIOLOGY  Volume: 14   Issue: 11   Pages: 1291-1301   Published: NOV 1994

61.    WOOD SPECIFIC-GRAVITY VARIABILITY IN CEIBA-PENTANDRA
FIMBEL, RA; SJAASTAD, EO - WOOD AND FIBER SCIENCE  Volume: 26   Issue: 1   Pages: 91-96   Published: JAN 1994

62.    2 NEW SESQUITERPENE LACTONES FROM CEIBA-PENTANDRA
RAO, KV; SREERAMULU, K; GUNASEKAR, D; et al. - JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS  Volume: 56   Issue: 12   Pages: 2041-2045   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np50102a003   Published: DEC 1993

63.    AN OUTBREAK OF DIEBACK AND CANKER IN WHITE SILK COTTON (CEIBA-PENTANDRA)
CHAKRABARTY, PK; MESHRAM, MK; RAJ, S - INDIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES  Volume: 63   Issue: 9   Pages: 599-601   Published: SEP 1993

64.    MATING SYSTEM AND PHENOLOGY OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA (BOMBACACEAE) IN CENTRAL PANAMA
MURAWSKI, DA; HAMRICK, JL - JOURNAL OF HEREDITY  Volume: 83   Issue: 6   Pages: 401-404   Published: NOV-DEC 1992

65.    RESTRICTED POLLINATION ON OCEANIC ISLANDS - POLLINATION OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA BY FLYING FOXES IN SAMOA
ELMQVIST, T; COX, PA; RAINEY, WE; et al. - BIOTROPICA  Volume: 24   Issue: 1   Pages: 15-23   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2388469   Published: MAR 1992

66.    CHARACTERIZATION OF FIBERS FROM THE PLANT CEIBA-PENTANDRA
SUNMONU, OK; ABDULLAHI, D - JOURNAL OF THE TEXTILE INSTITUTE  Volume: 83   Issue: 2   Pages: 273-274   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405009208631197   Published: 1992

67.    STUDIES ON INTERCROPPING WITH SILK COTTON TREES (CEIBA-PENTANDRA (L) GAERTN)
SURESH, KK; RAI, RSV - TROPICAL AGRICULTURE  Volume: 68   Issue: 1   Pages: 37-40   Published: JAN 1991

68.    STRUCTURE OF WATER-SOLUBLE ACIDIC POLYSACCHARIDES ISOLATED FROM THE BARK OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA VAR INDICA
RAJU, TS; GOWDA, DC; ANJANEYALU, YV - CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH  Volume: 191   Issue: 2   Pages: 321-332   Published: AUG 15 1989

69.    STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF ALKALI-SOLUBLE ACIDIC XYLANS ISOLATED FROM THE BARK OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA VAR INDICA
RAJU, TS; GOWDA, DC; ANJANEYALU, YV - CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH  Volume: 191   Issue: 2   Pages: 333-341   Published: AUG 15 1989

70.    CORYNESPORA-CASSIICOLA LEAF SPOT OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA AND ITS CONTROL IN THE NURSERY
MEHROTRA M D - Indian Forester  Volume: 115   Issue: 12   Pages: 905-909   Published: 1989

71.    CARBOHYDRATE AND MINERAL NUTRIENT CONTENTS IN SHOOTS OF KAPOK CEIBA-PENTANDRA GAERTN. DURING FRUIT GROWTH
BHATT J G; APPUKUTTAN E - Progressive Horticulture  Volume: 18   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 83-88   Published: 1986

72.    A NEW DEFOLIATOR OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA FROM TAMIL-NADU INDIA
THAKUR M L; PILLAI S R M - Indian Forester  Volume: 110   Issue: 6   Pages: 558-560   Published: 1984

73.    THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE FEEDING VALUE OF KAPOK SEED FOR POULTRY
THANU, K; KADIRVEL, R; AYYALUSWAMI, P - ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 9   Issue: 4   Pages: 263-269   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(83)90019-6   Published: 1983

74.    THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KAPOK CEIBA-PENTANDRA SEED OIL
BERRY S K - Pertanika  Volume: 2   Issue: 1   Pages: 1-4   Published: 1979

75.    NEW LEAF-SPOT DISEASE OF KAPOK (CEIBA-PENTANDRA) CAUSED BY CORYNESPORA-CASSIICOLA
SHARMA, ND; JAIN, AC - ACTA BOTANICA INDICA  Volume: 7   Issue: 1   Pages: 94-95   Published: 1979

76.    USE OF KAPOK (CEIBA-PENTANDRA) SEED CAKE AS A SOURCE OF PROTEIN IN BROILER RATIONS
KATEGILE, JA; ISHENGOMA, M; KATULE, AM - JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE  Volume: 29   Issue: 4   Pages: 317-322   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740290404   Published: 1978

77.    CHANGES IN LIPIDS OF MATURING CEIBA-PENTANDRA SEEDS
KAIMAL, TNB; LAKSHMIN.G - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 11   Issue: 5   Pages: 1617-&   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(72)85008-8   Published: 1972

78.    FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF LIPIDS ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT PARTS OF CEIBA-PENTANDRA, STERCULIA-FOETIDA AND HYDNOCARPUS-WIGHTIANA
KAIMAL, TNB; LAKSHMIN.G - PHYTOCHEMISTRY  Volume: 9   Issue: 10   Pages: 2225-&   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)85389-3   Published: 1970

79.    CHANGES IN LIPIDS OF MATURING CEIBA-PENTANDRA SEEDS
KAIMAL, TNB; LAKSHMIN.G - JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY  Volume: 47   Issue: 7   Pages: A316-&   Published: 1970

80.    Investigations on subsidiary feeds. Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) seed as a feed for live-stock.
Sahai, B.; Kehar, N. D. - Indian Journal of Veterinary Science  Volume: 38   Pages: 670-673   Published: 1968

81.    Correlation of kapok pod characters to the yield of clean floss [Ceiba pentandra]
GARRIDO, TIBURCIO G.; AGUEDAN, HIPOLITO B. - PHILIPPINE J PLANT IND  Volume: 31   Issue: (1)   Pages: 35-45   Published: 1966

82.    Floral structure and stamens to Ceiba pentandra (Linn.) Gaerth
DAVIS, T. A.; ABANIKA, KUNDU - J BOMBAY NATUR HIST SOC  Volume: 62   Issue: (3)   Pages: 394-411   Published: 1965

83.    Ceiba [pentandra] surpasses other silk cottons
KOLUKUTTY, MENON; PADMAJA, M. P.; RAMANKUTTY, N. N. - INDIAN FARMING  Volume: 12   Issue: (8)   Pages: 14   Published: 1962

84.    THE CONSTITUTION OF A METHYL GLUCURONOXYLAN FROM KAPOK (CEIBA-PENTANDRA)
CURRIE, AL; TIMELL, TE - CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE CHIMIE  Volume: 37   Issue: 5   Pages: 922-929   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/v59-126   Published: 1959

85.    Bat-pollination of the silk-cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (Sensu Lato), in Ghana
BAKER, H. G.; HARRIS, B. J. - JOUR WEST AFRICAN SCI ASSOC  Volume: 5   Issue: (1)   Pages: 1-9   Published: 1959

86.    Notes on the water household of the Kapoktree Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn
TOXOPEUS, H. J. - NETHERLANDS JOUR AGRIC SCI  Volume: 2   Issue: (3)   Pages: 186-196   Published: 1954

87.    NOTES ON NUCLEOLAR CONDITIONS IN CEIBA-PENTANDRA
TJIO, JH - HEREDITAS  Volume: 34   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 204-208   Published: 1948

88.    The floral biology, spontaneous hybridization and breeding of the kapok tree
TOXOPEUS, H. J. - MEDEDEL ALGEM PROEFSTA LANDBOUW [BUITENZORG]  Volume: 77   Pages: 3-28   Published: 1948

89.    Pollination of C. pentandra and M. paradisiaca by bats
van der PIJL, L. - TROPISCHE NATUUR  Volume: 24   Issue: (3)   Pages: 37-48   Published: 1935

90.    Propagation of kapok(Ceiba pentandra (L)) by budding and grafting
MERCADO, TORIBIO - PHILIPPINE AGRIC  Volume: 23   Issue: (2)   Pages: 131-139   Published: 1934

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