Sunday, January 25, 2015

Consolida ajacis, Delphinium ajacis, Dauphinelle des jardins

Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur
Synonym: Delphinium ajacis L.
Family: Ranunculaceae

  • Common name: Larkspur, rocket larkspur, annual delphinium, doubtful knight's-spur
  • Chinese: 飞燕草
  • Dutch: Valse ridderspoor
  • Finnish: Tarhakukonkannus
  • French: Dauphinelle des jardins
  • Italian: calcitrappa, fiorcappuccia
  • Picard: Pyidaloehéte
  • Portuguese: Esporinha
  • Swedish: romersk riddarsporre
Description: Stems 3-8(-10) dm, glabrous to sparsely puberulent. Leaves 5-20 or more. Leaf blade orbiculate, 12-60-lobed or more, 1-5 cm wide, glabrous to puberulent, lobes less than 1.5 mm wide. Inflorescences 6-30(-75)-flowered, simple or with 3 or fewer branches; bracts (at least lowermost 2) with 5 or more lobes; pedicel ascending-spreading, 1-3(-5) cm, ± puberulent; bracteoles not touching sepals, 4-20mm from flower, ± linear, 1-3mm, ± puberulent. Flowers: sepals blue to purple, rarely pink or white, nearly glabrous, lower sepal 8-18 × 4-8mm, lateral sepals 8-18 × 6-14 mm, spur 12-20 mm; petals of same color as sepals or whiter, lateral lobes 3-6mm, terminal lobes 5-8 × 2-4 mm, sinus 0.2-1 mm. Follicles 12-25 mm, puberulent.

Whole  plant  very  poisonous,  parasiticide,  insecticidal. Toxic,  cattle  are  the  primary  animals  affected,  toxin  can also affect other ruminants as well as horses. Dangerous all parts, especially seeds and young leaves; roots believed to kill cows. Used in infusions to treat heart problems, wounds. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Seed and leaf can induce dermatosis. Alkaloids ajacine and delphinine, occurring in  seed  and  young  plants  of  most  Delphinium  spp.  Ingestion  may  cause  stomach  upset  and nervous  symptoms;  death  may  occur  if  the  plant  is  eaten  in  large  quantities,  especially  by children. In Asia the seeds are reported to poison cattle; still they are used as cathartic and emetic. [Handbook of Medicinal Herbs]

60 Published articles of Consolida ajacis
1.    2 NEW NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE ROOTS OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Pelletier, S.W., et al., Journal of Natural Products, 1992. 55(6): p. 736-743.
2.    A bacterial disease of Delphinium ajacis Dodge, B.O., Journal of the New York Botanical Garden, 1935. 36(431): p. 257-260.
4.    An effective storage protocol for improving the postharvest performance in cut spikes of Consolida ajacis Nieuwl cv. Violet blue Shahri, W. and I. Tahir, Scientia Horticulturae, 2011. 129(1): p. 154-158.
5.    Antibacterial activity of plant part extracts of Delphinium ajacis Linn. Against a human and a plant pathogenic bacterium Jain, N. and A. Bohra, Advances in Plant Sciences, 2006. 19(1): p. 171-174.
6.    ANTI-METABOLITES AND CHIASMA FORMATION IN DELPHINIUM Singh, U. and H.K. Jain, Cytologia, 1979. 44(1): p. 123-133.
7.    Behaviour of two mutable genes of Delphinium ajacis Demerec, M., Journal of Genetics, 1931. 24(2): p. 179-193.
8.    Biosynthesis of diterpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium ajacis Frost, G.M. and et al., Chemistry and Industry, 1967(8): p. 320-1.
9.    Biosynthesis of diterpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium ajacis Frost, G.M., et al., Chemistry & Industry, 1967. 8: p. 320-1.
12.    Control of intranuclear genetic recombination in larkspur Delphinium ajacis Anonymous, Agric Res, 1962. 2((1)): p. 4-4.
13.    DELPHINIUM ALKALOIDS .4. THE ALKALOIDS OF THE SEEDS OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Goodson, J.A., Journal of the Chemical Society, 1945(MAR-): p. 245-246.
14.    DIFFERENTIAL RADIOSENSITIVITY ON A TISSUE-LEVEL IN DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Mandal, S.K. and R.K. Basu, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 1980. 18(9): p. 940-943.
15.    Diseases of rajanigandha (Polianthes tuberosa L.) and larkspur (Delphinium ajacis L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc Das, A.C., Sci and Cult, 1961. 27((11)): p. 549-550.
16.    Effect of cycloheximide on postharvest performance of cut spikes of Consolida ajacis cv. Violet Blue Shahri, W. and I. Tahir, Journal of Applied Horticulture (Lucknow), 2011. 13(2): p. 134-138.
17.    Effect of dry and wet storage at cool temperatures on postharvest performance of Consolida ajacis cv. Violet blue spikes Waseem, S., T. Inayatullah, and G. Fahima, Journal of Plant Biology, 2009. 36(1/2): p. 5-9.
18.    EFFECT OF LOW-TEMPERATURE ON THE NUCLEOLUS OF LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM-AJACIS L) MEIOCYTES Gabara, B., Folia Histochemica Et Cytochemica, 1980. 18(4): p. 259-&.
19.    Further observation on the abnormal flowers of Delphinium ajacis Linn Bhandari, M.M., Sci and Culture, 1956. 21((7)): p. 371-372.
20.    Identification of delsoline from Delphinium ajacis Sastry, S.D. and G.R. Waller, Phytochemistry, 1971. 10(8): p. 1961-1962.
21.    IDENTIFICATION OF DELSOLINE FROM DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Sastry, S.D. and G.R. Waller, Phytochemistry, 1971. 10(8): p. 1961-&.
22.    INDUCED AUTOTETRAPLOIDY IN DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Anis, M., Acta Botanica Indica, 1982. 10(2): p. 188-191.
23.    Influence of ethylene and 1-MCP on senescence and longevity of Consolida ajacis inflorescences Dos Santos, V.R., et al., Bragantia, 2005. 64(1): p. 33-38.
24.    Influence of temperature on respiration, e.p.a.l.o.C.a.i.F., F. L., et al., Bragantia, 2006. 65(3): p. 363-368.
25.    Irregularities in the floral structure in the garden variety of Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur In Ukrainian with Russian and English summ. Kordyum, Y.L., Ukrain Bot Zhur, 1961. 18((4)): p. 59-62.
26.    MASS SPECTRA OF LYCOCTONINE TYPE DI TERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM DELPHINIUM-AJACIS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES Waller, G.R., S.D. Sastry, and K.F. Kinneberg, Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science, 1973. 53: p. 92-97.
27.    MASS-SPECTRAL STUDIES OF DITERPENOID ALKALOID, A., FROM DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Sastry, S. D. and G.R. Waller, Chemistry & Industry, 1972(9): p. 381-&.
28.    NATURE OF INTER CHROMOSOME CHIASMA DISTRIBUTION IN INVERSION HETERO ZYGOTES OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Prodhan, H.S., S. Dana, and S.L. Basak, Cell and Chromosome Newsletter, 1980. 3(2): p. 28-30.
29.    NEW NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Lu, J., et al., Journal of Natural Products, 1993. 56(12): p. 2098-2103.
30.    NEW OR UNCOMMON PLANT DISEASES AND PESTS Ryan, C.L.J., Plant Pathology, 1966. 15(2): p. 96-&.
31.    NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE STEMS AND LEAVES OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Liang, X.H., et al., Journal of Natural Products, 1991. 54(5): p. 1283-1287.
32.    NUCLEAR REGULATION OF ENDOSPERM OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS L Lecoq, C., C. Guervin, and M. Brouland, Bulletin De La Societe Botanique De France, 1976. 123(9): p. 477-489.
33.    Nuclear regulation of the albumen of Delphinium ajacis Coq, C.L., C. Guervin, and M. Brouland, Bulletin De La Societe Botanique De France, 1976. 123(9): p. 477-489.
34.    OCCURRENCE OF DITERPENOID ALKALOIDS IN DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Waller, G.R. and R.H. Lawrence, Plant Physiology, 1972. 49: p. 43-&.
35.    ON THE PRESENCE OF LATHRAEA-SQUAMARIA AND CONSOLIDA-AJACIS IN THE LUMDA VALLEY WEST GERMANY Arnold, H., Hessische Floristische Briefe, 1984. 33(4): p. 63-63.
36.    ONTOGENESIS OF ENDOSPERM IN DELPHINIUM-AJACIS L - PROBLEM OF REGULATION OF CHROMOSOME-NUMBER AND OF QUANTITY OF INTRA-NUCLEAR DNA Guervin, C., C. Lecoq, and M. Brouland, Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires Des Seances De L Academie Des Sciences Serie D, 1976. 282(12): p. 1175-1178.
37.    ORGAN FORMATION FROM THE ANTHERS OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS-D IN-VITRO ABSTRACT IAA 2 4 D HERBIC Konar, R.N. and K. Nataraja, Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings, 1967. 54(3): p. 327-327.
38.    Paerpi pill, c.c.a., sandalwood, clove, acacia gum, cephaelis ipecacuanha, pepper, cinnamon bark Maimaitibakealima, M. Maimaitibakealima M.
39.    PATTERN OF MUTATION OF UNSTABLE GENE IN DELPHINIUM AJACIS Dawson, G.W.P., Genetical Research, 1964. 5(3): p. 423-&.
40.    Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in Consolida ajacis Nieuwl cv. Violet blue Shahri, W. and I. Tahir, Frontiers of Agriculture in China, 2011. 5(2): p. 201-208.
41.    Postharvest senescence of Consolida ajacis inflorescences Finger, F.L., T.F. Carneiro, and J.G. Barbosa, Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 2004. 39(6): p. 533-537.
42.    Preliminary studies on colchicine induced polyploids in larkspur (Delphinium ajacis) Kumar, S., Sci and Culture, 1959. 25((5)): p. 334-334.
43.    Pulsing with sucrose and silver thiosulfate extended the vase life of Consolida ajacis Finger, F.L., et al., in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Postharvest Physiology of Ornamental Plants, T.A. Nell and D.G. Clark, Editors. 2001. p. 63-67.
44.    QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE CYTOLOGICAL STUDY ON FERTILIZATION IN DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Brouland, M., C. Guervin, and C. Le Coq, Revue de Cytologie et de Biologie Vegetales, 1976. 39(1-2): p. 121-138.
45.    Qualitative inheritance of sepal and petal colour in Delphinium ajacis L Madhi, M.Z., et al., Technical Bulletin, Qubba Botanic Garden, 1977(1): p. 23-24.
46.    SCHIZOKOTYLIE UND PLEIOKOTYLIE BEI DELPHINIUM AJACIS Haccius, B., Zeitschrift Fur Induktive Abstammungs Und Vererbungslehre, 1955. 86(4): p. 498-520.
47.    Seed mycoflora of ornamental plants. II. Seed mycoflora of mallow ( Althaea rosea Car.) and larkspur ( Delphinium ajacis L.) Lacicowa, B., I. Kiecana, and D. Pieta, Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. Seria B, Rosliny Ozdobne, 1991. 16: p. 117-122.
48.    STEROLS AND TRITERPENES OF DELPHIMIUM-AJACIS Waller, G.R., S. Mangiafico, and R.C. Foster, Lloydia-the Journal of Natural Products, 1978. 41(6): p. 649-649.
50.    STRUCTURES OF AJACUSINE AND AJADINE, N.C.-D.A.F.D.-A.L.P., S. W. and R.S. Sawhney, Heterocycles, 1978. 9(4): p. 463-468.
51.    STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY OF RANALES 6. HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE SHOOT APEX OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS DURING TRANSITION TO FLOWERING Kavathekar, K.Y. and A. Pillai, Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Part B Biological Sciences, 1979. 45(6): p. 577-585.
52.    STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY OF RANALES PART 1 APICAL MERISTEMS OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Pillai, A. and K.Y. Kavathekar, Journal of the Indian Botanical Society, 1976. 55(2-3): p. 125-132.
53.    Synergistic Effect of STS and Cool Storage on Postharvest Performance of Cut Spikes of Consolida ajacis cv. Violet Blue Shahri, W., et al., Horticulture Environment and Biotechnology, 2011. 52(5): p. 466-470.
54.    THE EFFECT OF ACTINOMYCIN-D ON CHROMOSOME BEHAVIOR IN DELPHINIUM Singh, U., Cytologia, 1982. 47(3-4): p. 595-602.
55.    The influence of the length of the photoperiod on the vegetative and reproductiive development of Rudbeckia bicolor superba, D.a., Cosmos sulphureus, and Impatiens balsamina Austin, J. P., American Journal of Botany, 1941. 28(3): p. 244-250.
56.    THE NUCLEAR REGULATION OF THE ALBUMIN OF DELPHINIUM-AJACIS Le Coq, C., C. Guervin, and M. Brouland, Bulletin De La Societe Botanique De France, 1976. 123(9): p. 477-490.
57.    The qualitative inheritance of some floral characteristics in Delphinium ajacis L Mahdi, M.Z., W.A. Warid, and S.H. Elsayed, XI International Botanical Congress, Seattle, 1969, 1969: p. p-138 p.
58.    THE QUALITATIVE INHERITANCE OF SOME FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS IN DELPHINIUM-AJACIS-D Mahdi, M.Z., W.A. Warid, and S.H. Elsayed, XI International Botanical Congress, 1969: p. 138-138.
59.    THE STRUCTURE OF AJABICINE, A.N.D.A.F.D.-A.J., B. S., et al., Tetrahedron Letters, 1993. 34(9): p. 1441-1444.
60.    VEGETATIVE CELL NUCLEUS, G.C.O.M.E.P.-T.I.C.-A.L.S.P., G., B. Barnabas, and M. Taller, Acta Agronomica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1972. 21(1 2): p. 63-&.

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tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica 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antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus 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cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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