Monday, August 17, 2015

Grewia tenax, Gangeruki, Gondni, Kanger


Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori
Family: Malvaceae

Synonyms: Chadara tenax Forssk., Grewia betulifolia Juss., Grewia chadara Lam., Grewia populifolia Vahl, Grewia ribesiifolia Hochst. ex Mast., Grewia tenax var. capillipes Lanza, Grewia tenax var. glechomifolia Chiov., Grewia tenax var. ribesifolia Fiori

Common name: White Crossberry, Phalsa Cherry, Raisin bush
Hindi: गोंडनी Gondni
Telugu: Kaladi
Kannada: Kanger
Arabic: تبع، جديم
Sanskrit: Gangeruki
Malayalam: Oorakan

Description: A suberect to erect shrub, up to 3 m tall. Stem with ash-grey bark, young twigs stellate hairy. Leaves 3-5-costate, almost glabrous to sparsely or densely stellate hairy on both sides, ovate-elliptic or obovate to almost orbicular, 0.6-4.5 cm long, 0.4-4 cm broad, sharply serrate, cuneate at the base, acute to obtuse, rarely emarginate at the apex; petiole 2-14 mm long, hairy; stipules linear-lanceolate, caducous. Flowers solitary or rarely paired, on solitary, antiphyllous, (0.6-) 1.2 cm long, hairy peduncle, white, rarely yellowish-white, 2-2.5 cm across; pedicel c. half as long as peduncle, stellate tomentose. Sepals linear-oblong, (1-) 1.4 (-1.6) cm long, c. 3-4 mm broad, stellate hairy outside. Petals linear, (0.8-) 1.1-1.4 cm long, c. 2 mm broad, claw much smaller than limb, with somewhat reniform densely ciliate gland, bilobed at the apex. Stamens numerous, filaments slightly shorter than style or subequal. Torus angular. Ovary 4-lobed, glabrous, rarely stellate hairy; style c. 8-10 mm long, clavate, glabrous, rarely sparsely stellate hairy, stigma somewhat cupular. Drupe usually 2-4-lobed, lobes c. 5-7 mm in diameter, glabrous, rarely with sprinkled stellate hairs, orange yellow with red-dish tinge.

Bark and fruit as Antiseptic and Dysentery [Compendia of World’s Medicinal Flora]

Used  in  Ayurveda  and  Sidha.  Wood  decoction  a  remedy  against cough. Sticky substance under the bark used as an  insect repellent. For snakebite, root decoction drunk; roots  mixed with those of Diospyros scabra, boiled and used to  treat tuberculosis; roots boiled in milk and given to children  as a tonic; roots for bone fracture. Seeds known for their con- stipating property and ingesting large amounts may lead to  serious severe constipation. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Used in tuberculosis, anemia, tonic, purgative, anthelmintic [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Used in constipation and stomach inflammation. [Medicinal Plant Biodiversity of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan]

Leaves  used in Hepatitis and boil [Medicinal Plants of Sindh : Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Facts]

19 Published articles of Grewia tenax
1.    SEED DORMANCY ALLEVIATION OF GREWIA TENAX (FORSSK.): A WILD FRUIT TREE SPECIES OF PAKISTAN Sohail, M., et al., Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2015. 47(2): p. 417-420.
2.    Seed dormancy alleviation of Grewia tenax (Forssk.): a wild fruit tree species of Pakistan Muhammad, S., et al., Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2015. 47(2): p. 417-420.
3.    Anthelmintic activity of crude extract of Grewia Tenax Basri, T.S.J., G.V.S. Reddy, and K.N. Jayaveera, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (WJPPS), 2014. 3(8): p. 1710-1715.
4.    A study on phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Grewia Tenax Basri, T.S.J., G.V.S. Reddy, and K.N. Jayaveera, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bio-Science, 2014. 3(4): p. 703-710.
5.    Ameliorative Effect of Grewia tenax (Forssk) Fiori Fruit Extract on CCl4-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatotoxicity in Rats Al-Said, M.S., et al., Journal of Food Science, 2011. 76(9): p. T200-T206.
6.    Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Grewia tenax Ahmed, E., et al., Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 2011. 33(5): p. 676-681.
7.    Response of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori to NaCl-induced Salinity Saied, A.S., et al., European Journal of Horticultural Science, 2010. 75(1): p. 42-50.
8.    Characteristic Studies of Ligno-Cellulosic Fabric Grewia tenax Prasad, C.V., et al., Journal of Natural Fibers, 2010. 7(3): p. 194-215.
9.    Effects of NaCl on surface properties, c.f.a.l.r., and cellular compounds of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori and Tamarindus indica L. leaves Hunsche, Mauricio, et al., Plant Growth Regulation, 2010. 61(3): p. 253-263.
10.    First record of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori in northern Oman, a.v.f.p.s.G., J., et al., Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2007. 54(6): p. 1153-1158.
11.    Exploiting the potential of indigenous fruit trees: Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori in Sudan Gebauer, J., et al., Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2007. 54(8): p. 1701-1708.
12.    Study of the effect of aqueous extract of Grewia tenax fruit on iron absorption by everted gut sac Khemiss, F., et al., Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006. 103(1): p. 90-98.
13.    Establishment of Grewia tenax (Forssk.) fiori from seeds and stem cuttings in the nursery Elkhalifa, K.F. and S.M. Mahmoud, Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 1999. 17(1): p. 85-94.
14.    Effect of seed treatment on germination and growth behaviour of Grewia tenax Forssk. under nursery conditions Singh, R.S., J.C. Tewari, and S.K. Sharma, Myforest, 1993. 29(2): p. 151-154.
15.    BIOLOGY OF GREWIA-TENAX COMPLEX (TILIACEAE) FROM PAKISTAN Hashmi, R.Y. and M. Qaiser, Pakistan Journal of Botany, 1990. 22(2): p. 179-188.
16.    STUDIES IN THE BIOLOGY OF GREWIA-TENAX COMPLEX FROM PAKISTAN Qaiser, M. and R. Yusuf, International Botanical Congress Abstracts, 1987. 17: p. 337-337.
17.    CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARKS OF GREWIA-TENAX (FORSK) ASCHERS AND GREWIA-FLAVESCENS JUSS Prakash, L., N.N. Sharma, and G. Goyal, Indian Journal of Chemistry Section B-Organic Chemistry Including Medicinal Chemistry, 1979. 17(5): p. 537-538.
18.    VASCULAR ANATOMY OF THE FLOWER OF GREWIA-TENAX (FERSK) FIORI Joshi, B.M. and N.K. Dwivedi, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B, 1979. 88(1): p. 57-61.
19.    IDENTITY OF NAGBALA AN INDIGENOUS DRUG ABSTRACT SIDA-VERANACEFOLIA-D SIDA-SPINOSA-D GREWIA-TENAX-D TRIUMFETTA-BARATMIA-D Pandey, G., Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 1967. 29(12): p. 352-352

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