Saturday, July 23, 2016

Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pellitory, akkalakarra, Radix Pyrethri germanici sive communis, Ανάκυκλος το πύρεθρον, Bertram

 Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Link
Family: Asteraceae
  • English: pellitory
  • Arabic: عاقر قرحا
  • Dutch: Bertram
  • Finnish: Marokonraimikki
  • French: Pyrèthre d'Afrique
  • German: Mehrjähriger Bertram
  • Greek: Ανάκυκλος το πύρεθρον
  • Hindi, Nepali: अकलकरा akalakara
  • Latin: Radix Pyrethri germanici sive communis
  • Persian: عاقرقرحا
  • Punjabi: ਅਕਰਕਰਾ
  • Russian: nemeckaja romaška, Слюногон лекарственный
  • Tamil: akkaragaram அக்கராகாரம்
  • Telugu: అక్కలకర్ర akkalakarra
Ayurvedic Uses: pratisyaya, Shotha, Ajirna, kasa, swasa, gridrasi, pakshagatha, udara roga, nastartava, sularoga, dantasula [API. part-1, Vol-II]

Rubefacient and sialagogue, it is employed in inflamed conditions of the mouth and fauces, for which it is frequently chewed in the mouth, producing in the action of chewing a copious flow of saliva, and quickly reducing the inflammation. The decoction forms at once a medicine, gargle, and external application for quinsy, relaxed, and sore, throat, to the relief of which it is Successfully applied. It is given in toothache, neuralgia, and in some forms of headache, more particularly in those arising from nervous disorders. It is not to be employed when, any irritation of the stomach exists, and in no case should it be exhibited in large doses. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Immunostimulating, insecticide, sialogogue, a tonic to the nervous system, a treatment for epilepsy, paralysis, hemiplegia, for sore throat and tonsils.  The  extracts  of  Anacyclus  pyrethrum  traditionally used in India during the preparation of chewable tobacco. Containing a volatile oil once used to relieve toothache. It is believed that application of this herb to the skin stimulates the nerve ends that may result in redness and irritation accompanied by a hot, burning sensation. Root, used as a rubefacient, is a powerful irritant to the skin; dermatitis and contact dermatitis can occur. Overdoses may result in irritation. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

According  to  Bodding,  Santals  use  the  plant  (Santal  name  :  Akor  Kora)  as  an ingredient  of  the  medicines  of  puerperal  fever  and  menorrhagia. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

Stimulant, cordial, rubefacient.A gargle of infusion is prescribed for relaxed vulva. Root—used for toothache, rheumatic and neuralgic affections and rhinitis. Roots, along with the root of Withania somnifera and Vitis vinifera, are used in epilepsy. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

The root is quite stimulating to the mucous membrane and circulation. It creates a tingling sensation in the throat and excites a good free flow of saliva. It is valuable in chronic rheumatism and facial neuralgia. For semi-paralysis of the tongue or a relaxed palate, uvula or pharynx it may be used as a gargle very frequently. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]
1.    Pharmacognostic and phytopharmacology study of Anacyclus pyrethrum: an insight Afreen, U., et al., Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2016. 6(3): p. 144-150.
2.    Evaluations of antidepressant activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract Badhe, S.R., et al., International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2010. 4(2): p. 79-82.
3.    Immuno stimulating activity of the hot water-soluble polysaccharide extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum, A.g.a.C.c.B., D., K. Lalaoui, and D. Satta, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2003. 88(2-3): p. 155-160.
4.    New N-alkylamides from Anacyclus pyrethrum Boonen, J., et al., Planta Medica, 2011. 77(12): p. 1355-1355.
5.    LC-MS N-alkylamide Profiling of an Ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum Root Extract Boonen, J., et al., Planta Medica, 2012. 78(16): p. 1787-1795.
6.    The content in pyrethrins of cultivated pellitory Anacyclus pyrethrum. Note 3. New data on the influence of ammonium nitro- sulfate as a fertilizer Cabo Torres, J., M. Del Pilar Pardo Garcia, and J.N. Nava, Farmacognosia, 1957. 17((45)): p. 377-380.
7.    Pellitorine, t.p.p.o.A.p.G., John Masson and G.U. Hopton, Jour Chem Soc [London], 1930. 1930((Jan)): p. 6-11.
8.    LOCAL ANESTHETIC ACTIVITY WITH ANACYCLUS-PYRETHRUM IN DENTAL SURGERY Krishna, G.G., et al., Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 1982. 14(1): p. 89-90.
9.    In vitro study on alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, A.p.D.r.K., V. Kishor and K.G. Lalitha, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2014. 46(3): p. 350-U113.
10.    Toxicological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino wistar rats Kuttan, S., D. Ronald, and S. Venkatesan, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2012. 2(6): p. 437-441.
11.    Protective effect of Anacyclus pyrethrum against seizures and seizure-induced cognitive impairment in rats Pahuja, M., et al., European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2010. 20: p. S246-S247.
12.    Root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum ameliorates seizures, s.-i.o.s.a.c.i.i.e.a.P., Monika, et al., Epilepsy Research, 2012. 98(2-3): p. 157-165.
13.    Effect of Anacyclus pyrethrum on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Kindling, S.M., Oxidative Stress and Rho-Kinase II Expression in Mice Pahuja, Monika, et al., Neurochemical Research, 2013. 38(3): p. 547-556.
14.    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of sodium valproate with Anacyclus pyrethrum Pahuja, M., et al., Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer and Itinerary Planner, 2011. 41.
16.    Local anaesthetic activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum in laboratory animals: A preliminary study Panchal, G.M., et al., Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2001. 33(4): p. 296-296.
17.    Local anaesthetic activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum in laboratory animals: A preliminary study Panchal, G.M., et al., Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2001. 33(4): p. 296-296.
18.    ), P.c.o.c.p.A.p.N.I.I.o.s.o.f.o.y.i.p.f.p.C.i.-., et al., Farmacognosia [Madrid], 1951. 17((46)): p. 419-423.
19.    A CLINICAL APPRAISAL OF ANACYCLUS-PYRETHRUM ROOT EXTRACT IN DENTAL PATIENTS Patel, V.K., et al., Phytotherapy Research, 1992. 6(3): p. 158-159.
20.    Antimicrobial activity and evolution of the composition of essential oil from Algerian Anacyclus pyrethrum L. through the vegetative cycle Selles, C., et al., Natural Product Research, 2013. 27(23): p. 2231-2234.
21.    Anti-diabetic activity of aqueous root extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats Selles, C., et al., Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2012. 6(16): p. 3193-3198.
22.    The effects of aqueous extract of anacyclus pyrethrum on sperm count and reproductive organs in adult male rats Shahraki, M.R., et al., Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2015. 17(2): p. 42-46.
23.    Androgenic and Spermatogenic Activity of Alkylamide-Rich Ethanol Solution Extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC Sharma, V., et al., Phytotherapy Research, 2013. 27(1): p. 99-106.
24.    Effect of ethanolic extract Anacyclus pyrethrum DC on reproductive parameter of male rats Sharma, V., et al., Planta Medica, 2010. 76(12): p. 1214-1214.
25.    Immunomodulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum Sharma, V., et al., Pharmaceutical Biology, 2010. 48(11): p. 1247-1254.
26.    Effects of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. on sexual behavior in male rats Sharma, V., et al., Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine, 2010. 8(8): p. 767-73.
27.    Micropropagation of Anacyclus pyrethrum and chemical profiling of the regenerated plants for pellitorine, t.a.p.S., Deepak K., S. Nirwan, and S.B. Babbar, Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 2015. 122(1): p. 249-255.
28.    Memory-enhancing activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino Wistar rats Sujith, K., et al., Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2012. 2(4): p. 307-311.
29.    Inhibitory effect of Anacyclus pyrethrum extract on acetylcholinesterase enzyme by in vitro methods Sujith, K., C.R. Darwin, and V. Suba, Pharmacognosy Journal, 2012. 4(33): p. 31-34.
30.    Neuropharmacological profile of ethanolic extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum in albino Wistar rats Sujith, K., V. Suba, and C.R. Darwin, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (IJPSR), 2011. 2(8): p. 2109-2114.
31.    TOXICITY OF ANACYCLUS-PYRETHRUM IN MICE Venkatakrishnabhatt, H., G.M. Panchal, and V.K. Patel, Current Science, 1988. 57(16): p. 912-913.
32.    Quantitative transdermal behavior of pellitorine from Anacyclus pyrethrum extract Veryser, L., et al., Phytomedicine, 2014. 21(14): p. 1801-1807.
33.    Evaluation of the anabolic, a.a.r.a.o.A.p.D.i.m.r.V., Sharma, et al., Scientia Pharmaceutica, 2009. 77(1): p. 97-110.
34.    Effects of petroleum ether extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. on sexual behavior in male rats Vikas, S., et al., Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010. 8(8): p. 767-773.
35.    Anticonvulsant, a.a.n.p.o.A.A.p.D.C.r.e.e.Z., S. M. A., et al., Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 2013. 4(7): p. 535-541.

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