Sunday, November 26, 2017

Tylophora indica, Indian ipecacuanha, Antamul, dum vel, jangli pikvan, vallippala, bedaki, mekameyani aaku, nayppalai, antrapachaka

Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family:  Asclepiadoideae

  • English: emetic swallow-wort, Indian ipecacuanha
  • Assamese: অংতমূল Antamul
  • Bengali: অন্তমূল antomula
  • Gujarati: દમ વેલ dum vel
  • Hindi: अंतमूल antamul, जंगली पीकवान jangli pikvan
  • Kannada: ಅಡುಮುಟ್ಟದಗಿಡ adumuttadagida, ಅಂತಮೂಲ antamula, ಕಿರುಮಂಜಿ kirumanji, ನಾಯಿಹಾಲೆ naayihaale, ನೆಪಾಳದಬೇರು naepalada baeru
  • Konkani: पितवेल pitvel
  • Malayalam: വള്ളിപ്പാല vallippala
  • Marathi: अंतमूळ antamul, बेडकी bedaki, खडकी रास्‍ना khadaki rasna, पितमारी pitamari
  • Oriya: ମେହେନ୍ଦି mehendi, Mulini
  • Sanskrit: अन्त्रपाचक antrapachaka, लताक्षीरी latakshiri
  • Tamil: கழுதைப்பாலை kalutai-p-palai, நச்சறுப்பான் naccaruppan, நாய்ப்பாலை nay-p-palai
  • Telugu: మేక మేయని ఆకు, కొండబెండ
4 morphological variations in floral structure of Tylophora indica; 1 is normal , widely available; another 2 rarely seen, one is completely yellow, hairy; another one more purplish; last one with hairs on innerside of petals, the petals are not yellow, pinkish; this is to show the intra species variation in a species

Used in Ayurveda. Intake of any part of the plant causes fatal  poisoning; when drunk the juice produces nausea, vomiting.  Roots stimulant, emetic, expectorant, potentially antitumor,  stomachic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, used for the treatment  of asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, dysentery, diarrhea.  Leaves emetic, diaphoretic, chewed for asthma; leaf decoction taken for body pain. Roots and leaves used in hydrophobia. Tylophora alkaloids inhibit cellular immune responses  like contact sensitivity to dinitro-flurobenzene and delayed  hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells, in vivo; these alkaloids suppress cellular immune responses when administered  at any stage during the immune response, have been shown  to  have  antiasthmatic,  antiinflammatory  and  antianaphy lactic properties. Cytotoxic alkaloids. Veterinary medicine,  leaves ground with those of Tinospora cordifolia and goat  milk, given in insect bite; leaves along with pepper and garlic  made into a paste and given as antidote; entire plant for lung  problems and asthma. (CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants)

The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyltylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaempferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, dsepticine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpenoids alpha-and beta-amyrin; betasitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.

The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyaxenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14-hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochloride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans. Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. Desmethyltylophorinegave promising results in leukaemia. The drug irritates the digestive tract. (Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary)

Tylophora indica (Burm. f.)  Merr. : Folklore: Yanandi people in Andhra Pradesh chew  leaves  daily  in  the  morning in severe  bronchitis. Modem Use  : Leaf powder is  used in bronchitis. (Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach)

157 Published papers on  Tylophora indica

1.    Umamaheswari, P., et al., ROLE OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHAMA. International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research, 2017. 7(1): p. 17-21.
2.    Gantait, S. and S. Kundu, Neoteric trends in tissue culture-mediated biotechnology of Indian ipecac Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill. 3 Biotech, 2017. 7.
3.    Basu, A., et al., Effects of cryptogein gene on growth, phenotype and secondary metabolite accumulation in co-transformed roots and plants of Tylophora indica. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 2017. 39(1).
4.    Manikkoth, S., et al., Assessment of brain dopamine levels to evaluate the role of Tylophora indica ethanolic extract on alcohol induced anxiety in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 2016. 8(2): p. 91-95.
5.    da Silva, J.A.T. and S. Jha, Micropropagation and genetic transformation of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.: a review. Plant Cell Reports, 2016. 35(11): p. 2207-2225.
6.    Roychowdhury, D., A. Basu, and S. Jha, Morphological and molecular variation in Ri-transformed root lines are stable in long term cultures of Tylophora indica. Plant Growth Regulation, 2015. 75(2): p. 443-453.
7.    Oke, R.S., R.S. Thombre, and A.K. Pande, Synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Tylophora indica Merr. (Pittakari) leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 2015. 6(1): p. P-311-P-318.
8.    Dipasree, R., C. Binay, and J. Sumita, The fate of integrated Ri T-DNA rol genes during regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in Tylophora indica. Journal of Botany, 2015. 2015: p. 707831-Article ID 707831.
9.    Sharma, M.M., et al., Assessment of clonal fidelity of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill "in vitro" plantlets by ISSR molecular markers. Springerplus, 2014. 3.
10.    Rangasamy, D., P. Muthusamy, and D. Joseph, A study of total phenolic content of Tylophora indica leaf extracts and it's correlation with in vitro DPPH scavenging activity. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2014. 8(4): p. 448-451.
11.    Pooja, P. and N. Rajani, Development of simple, cost effective protocol for micropropagation of Tylophora indica (Burm f.) Merill., an important medicinal plant. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2014. 4(11): p. 1356-1366.
12.    Mehandru, P., et al., Evaluation of aeroponics for clonal propagation of Caralluma edulis, Leptadenia reticulata and Tylophora indica - three threatened medicinal Asclepiads. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 2014. 20(3): p. 365-373.
13.    Joginder, S., et al., Biochemical characterization of Tylophora indica and its immunomodulatory effect. South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014. 4(2): p. 61-67.
14.    Umadevi, U. and T. Umakanthan, Efficacy of Tylophora indica in skin diseases of cows. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 2013. 4(2): p. 656-656.
15.    Stoye, A., T.E. Peez, and T. Opatz, Left, Right, or Both? On the Configuration of the Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloid Tylophorine from Tylophora indica. Journal of Natural Products, 2013. 76(2): p. 275-278.
16.    Siraj, A., et al., Antimicrobial activity of in vitro raised callus of Tylophora indica Merr. against resistant bacteria harbouring bla genes and comparison with its parent plant. Medicinal Plants - International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 2013. 5(4): p. 187-193.
17.    Shyamjith, M., R. Chandrashekar, and S.N. Rao, Antianxiety effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tylophora indica in Wistar albino rats. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy (IJRAP), 2013. 4(1): p. 127-129.
18.    Sellathurai, T., S. Rathinavel, and K.K. Natarajan, Screening of antimicrobial potential of in vitro calli and adult leaf extracts of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merril. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2013. 12(9): p. 958-962.
19.    Saraswati, S., et al., Tylophorine, a phenanthraindolizidine alkaloid isolated from Tylophora indica exerts antiangiogenic and antitumor activity by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis. Molecular Cancer, 2013. 12.
21.    Razia, K., et al., Comparison of antifungal activity of medicinal plant Tylophora indica Merr. with its in vitro raised plant and callus. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013. 3(8): p. 41-45.
22.    Pratibha, C. and C. Abhay, Enhancement of antioxidant compound in Tylophora indica (Asclepeadaceae) callus. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2013. 4(2): p. 325-330.
23.    Noor, J., et al., Comparison of antibacterial activity of parent plant of Tylophora indica Merr. with its in vitro raised plant and leaf callus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2013. 12(31): p. 4891-4896.
24.    Kathuria, V., et al., Evaluation of bio efficacy of Tylophora indica leaf extracts, fractions and pure alkaloids against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). Industrial Crops and Products, 2013. 46: p. 274-282.
25.    Haque, S.M. and B. Ghosh, Field Evaluation and Genetic Stability Assessment of Regenerated Plants Produced Via Direct Shoot Organogenesis from Leaf Explant of an Endangered 'Asthma Plant' (Tylophora indica) Along with Their In Vitro Conservation. National Academy Science Letters-India, 2013. 36(5): p. 551-562.
26.    Dhiman, M., A. Khanna, and S.L. Manju, A new phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid from Tylophora indica. Chemical Papers, 2013. 67(2): p. 245-248.
27.    Chowdary, U.N., et al., Phytochemical evaluation of Calotropis gigantea, Tylophora indica, Sarcostemma secommone. International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences, 2013. 3(6): p. 24-26.
28.    Ashutosh, P., et al., DNA isolation from fresh leaf tissue of Tylophora indica and Bacopa monnieri. Environmental and Experimental Biology, 2013. 11(1): p. 69-71.
29.    Ashutosh, P., et al., Detection of somaclonal variants using RAPD marker in Bacopa monnieri and Tylophora indica. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 2013. 9(5): p. 1253-1260.
30.    Aruna, B., et al., Antioxidant activity of native and micropropagated Tylophora indica leaves extract: a comparative study. Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources, 2013. 3(1): p. 1-7.
31.    Sharma, M.M., et al., An anti-asthmatic plant: Tylophora indica Burm. f. Merrill - a review. Agricultural Reviews, 2012. 33(3): p. 192-201.
32.    Sellathurai, T. and S. Rathinavel, In vitro micropropagation of Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merril through shoot tip explants. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 2012. 13(1/2): p. 65-68.
33.    Sangeeta, R., R. Smita, and G. Alekha, Phytoceutical evaluation and antimicrobial properties of Eclipta alba and Tylophora indica. International Journal of Microbiology Research, 2012. 4(5): p. 227-230.
34.    Pratibha, C., et al., Effect of different kind of sugars on in vitro production of stigmasterol in Tylophora indica Callus. International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry & Pharmacology, 2012. 2(3): p. 125-128.
35.    Pratibha, C., C. Abhay, and K. Hemant, Molecular characterization of Tylophora indica regenerated plants in vitro by RAPD and ISSR analysis. International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry & Pharmacology, 2012. 2(4): p. 175-179.
36.    Manju, A., K. Harmanjit, and G. Dinesh, A micropropagation system for Tylophora indica and extraction and purification of tylophorine from cultures and in vitro regenerated plants. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering (IPCBEE), 2012. 41: p. 14-17.
37.    Kalimuthu, K. and S. Jeyaraman, Morphogenetic callus and multiple shoot regeneration; and thin layer chromatography studies of Tylophora indica (Burn.f) Merill. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2012. 6(37): p. 5094-5098.
38.    Joshi, G.S., et al., Tylophora indica - a review. Pharma Science Monitor, 2012. 3(3): p. 94-108.
39.    Harmanjit, K. and S. Karanveer, A brief phytopharmacological overview of Tylophora indica - an endangered medicinal plant. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (IJPSR), 2012. 3(11): p. 4073-4076.
40.    Dhiman, M., et al., Antioxidant activity of hydrochloride salt of tylophorinidine and tylophorinine isolated from aerial parts of Tylophora indica. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy (IJRAP), 2012. 3(1): p. 121-124.
41.    Suhas, G., et al., Tylophora indica: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2011. 1(3): p. 405-414.
42.    Singh, S.R., et al., Changes in protein profiles during shoot differentiation in callus cultures from Tylophora indica Wight & Arn. (Antamul). Progressive Agriculture, 2011. 11(2): p. 367-372.
43.    Sanjeet, K., Qualitative studies of bioactive compounds in leaf of Tylophora indica (Burm. F.) Merr. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, 2011. 2(3): p. 1188-1192.
44.    Ravikumar, A. and K. Abbulu, Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Calotropis gigantean, Tylophora indica and Sarcostemma secomone. International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences, 2011. 1(1): p. 34-42.
46.    Mayank, G., H.M. Mukhtar, and A. Sayeed, In-vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Tylophora indica (Burm f.) Merill. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (IJPSR), 2011. 2(1): p. 135-140.
47.    Kumar, S., et al., Isolation, characterization, and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of Tylophora indica. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2011. 27(3): p. 571-577.
48.    Kaur, H., M. Anand, and D. Goyal, Extraction of tylophorine from in vitro raised plants of Tylophora indica. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011. 5(5): p. 729-734.
49.    Kaur, H., M. Anand, and D. Goyal, Establishment of an efficient protocol for micropropagation of stem explants of Tylophora indica, an important medicinal plant. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2011. 10(36): p. 6928-6932.
50.    Harmanjit, K., A. Manju, and G. Dinesh, Optimization of potting mixture for hardening of in vitro raised plants of Tylophora indica to ensure high survival percentage. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 2011. 1(2): p. 83-88.
51.    Gole, N.S. and B.K. Das, Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica. The Journal of Plant Protection Sciences, 2011. 3(2): p. 14-19.
52.    Devendra, B.N., N. Srinivas, and G.R. Naik, Direct Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed Production from Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill an Endangered, Medicinally Important Plant. International Journal of Botany, 2011. 7(3): p. 216-222.
53.    Deshwal, V.K. and M.M.M. Siddiqui, SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN TYLOPHORA INDICA AND CASSIA SOPHERA. Biochemical and Cellular Archives, 2011. 11(2): p. 461-464.
54.    Chander, A.P., et al., Effect of alcholic extract of Tylophora indica on STZ induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2011. 4(11): p. 4018-4020.
55.    Ananthi, T. and J.S. Kumar, In Vitro Clonal Propagation of Tylophora indica (L.). Advances in Plant Sciences, 2011. 24(1): p. 27-29.
56.    Spatia, R. and M. Anand, Direct Rhizogenesis from Leaf Explant of an Important Medicinal Plant Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill. Annals of Biology (Hissar), 2010. 26(1): p. 61-64.
57.    Sellathurai, T. and S. Rathinavel, In vitro propagation and antimicrobial property of Tylophora indica (Burm. f) Merril. Plant Archives, 2010. 10(2): p. 661-666.
58.    Sahai, A., A. Shahzad, and S. Sharma, Histology of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in excised root cultures of an endangered species Tylophora indica (Asclepiadaceae). Australian Journal of Botany, 2010. 58(3): p. 198-205.
59.    Sahai, A., A. Shahzad, and M. Anis, High frequency plant production via shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from callus in Tylophora indica, an endangered plant species. Turkish Journal of Botany, 2010. 34(1): p. 11-20.
60.    Reddy, B.K., et al., An efficient protocol for shoot bud induction and regeneration of Tylophora indica, an endangered medicinal plant. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 2010. 4(4): p. 922-929.
61.    Patel, I.C. and N. Shweta, Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro regeneration of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.: a medicinal plant. Plant Archives, 2010. 10(1): p. 475-477.
62.    Mayank, G., et al., HPTLC fingerprinting of different leaf extracts of Tylophora indica (Burm f.) Merill. Pharmacognosy Journal, 2010. 2(11): p. 381-385.
63.    Faisal, M. and M. Anis, Effect of light irradiations on photosynthetic machinery and antioxidative enzymes during ex vitro acclimatization of Tylophora indica plantlets. Journal of Plant Interactions, 2010. 5(1): p. 21-27.
64.    Thomas, T.D., Isolation, callus formation and plantlet regeneration from mesophyll protoplasts of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill: an important medicinal plant. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 2009. 45(5): p. 591-598.
65.    Sulekha, R. and J.S. Rana, Micropropagation of Tylophora indica, from petiolar explants without callus intervention. Journal of Applied Bioscience, 2009. 35(2): p. 127-131.
66.    Singh, S.R., S. Rohtas, and A.K. Dhawan, Callus induction and micropropagation from different explants of Tylophora indica Wight and Arn. (Antamul). Environment and Ecology, 2009. 27(2A): p. 945-948.
67.    Shrivijayakirubha, T., D. Nagavalli, and S. Hemalatha, Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Tylophora indica Linn. Hamdard Medicus, 2009. 52(1): p. 102-107.
68.    Reddy, B.K., et al., Antifeedant and antimicrobial activity of Tylophora indica. African Journal of Biochemistry Research (AJBR), 2009. 3(12): p. 393-397.
69.    Mujeeb, M., et al., Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merill. leaves. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 2009. 3(2): p. 125-127.
70.    Kumar, S., N. Kaushik, and P. Proksch, Antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Tylophora indica in India. Crop plant resistance to biotic and abiotic factors: current potential and future demands. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Plant Protection and Plant Health in Europe, Julius Kuhn-Institut, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, 14-16 May 2009, ed. F. Feldmann, D.V. Alford, and C. Furk. 2009. 167-174.
71.    Kulkarni, M.P. and A.R. Juvekar, Studies on nootropic activity of roots of Tylophora indica in mice. Journal of Natural Remedies, 2009. 9(1): p. 62-67.
73.    Sowmya, K.S. and S.M.B. Asdaq, Effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Tylophora indica leaves in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial damage using isolated rat heart. Journal of Traditional Medicines, 2008. 25(5/6): p. 152-159.
74.    Priyanka, B., et al., Quality standards of the leaves of Tylophora indica. Hamdard Medicus, 2008. 51(4): p. 175-181.
75.    Kumar, E.P., et al., Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous root extract of Tylophora indica. Indian Journal of Natural Products, 2008. 24(1): p. 29-32.
76.    Beevi, P.A.N. and A. Anoosha, In vitro propagation of Tylophora indica - a plant of high medicinal value. Biomed, 2008. 3(3/4): p. 210-213.
77.    Wakade, A.S., M.P. Kulkarni, and A.R. Juvekar, Anti-stress, anxiolytic and nootropic activity of roots of Tylophora indica. Planta Medica, 2007. 73(9): p. 962-962.
78.    Sandeep, A. and H.K. Singh, Lysosomal enzyme inhibiting activity of alkaloidal fraction from Tylophora indica leaves in arthritic rats. Natural Product Sciences, 2007. 13(4): p. 289-294.
79.    Patel, N., et al., Hepatoprotective effect of root extracts of Tylophora Indica (wight & arn) against ethanol induced liver damage in rats. Toxicology International, 2007. 14(1): p. 57-62.
80.    Nema, R.K., et al., Rapid micropropagation of Tylophora indica. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2007. 3(9): p. 52-55.
81.    Gujrati, V., et al., Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Tylophora indica (Linn.) in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2007. 39(1): p. 43-47.
82.    Faisal, M. and M. Anis, Regeneration of plants from alginate-encapsulated shoots of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an endangered medicinal plant. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology, 2007. 82(3): p. 351-354.
83.    Faisal, M., N. Ahmad, and M. Anis, An efficient micropropagation system for Tylophora indica: an endangered, medicinally important plant. Plant Biotechnology Reports, 2007. 1(3): p. 155-161.
84.    Arora, S. and A.K.S. Rawat, Lysosomal enzyme inhibiting activity of flavone fraction from Tylophora indica leaves in arthritic rats. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2007. 3(12): p. 226-232.
85.    Thomas, D.T., Effect of sugars, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid on somatic embryogenesis in Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill. Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 2006. 22(3): p. 465-71.
86.    Sharathbabu, K. and C. Manoharachary, Impact of AM fungi and Rock-phosphate on mycorrhizal colonization, growth and nutrition of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merril. under glass house conditions. Indian Phytopathology, 2006. 59(4): p. 427-431.
87.    Rathinavel, S., et al., In vitro plantlets formation through adult nodal explants of Tylophora indica (Burm. F.) Merr. - a valuable medicinal plant. Plant Archives, 2006. 6(2): p. 487-490.
88.    Raj, C.D., et al., Anti-inflammatory activity of Tylophora indica in Albino rats. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2006. 1(5): p. 490-492.
89.    Chaudhuri, K.N., et al., Spontaneous plant regeneration in transformed roots and calli from Tylophora indica: changes in morphological phenotype and tylophorine accumulation associated with transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plant Cell Reports, 2006. 25(10): p. 1059-1066.
90.    Vanit, K. and K. Nutan, Feeding inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera (HiJbner) by Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Tylophora indica extracts. Insect Science, 2005. 12(4): p. 249-254.
91.    Thomas, T.D. and B. Philip, Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency shoot organogenesis from leaf-derived callus of a medicinal climber, Tylophora indica (Burm. F.) Merrill. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 2005. 41(2): p. 124-128.
92.    Kathuria, V. and N. Kaushik, Feeding inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) by Eucalyptus camaidulensis and Tylophora indica extracts. Insect Science, 2005. 12(4): p. 249-254.
93.    Faisal, M., S. Singh, and M. Anis, In vitro regeneration and plant establishment of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill: Petiole callus culture. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 2005. 41(4): p. 511-515.
94.    Faisal, M. and M. Anis, An efficient in vitro method for mass propagation of Tylophora indica. Biologia Plantarum, 2005. 49(2): p. 257-260.
95.    Chaudhuri, K.N., et al., Genetic transformation of Tylophora indica with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4: growth and tylophorine productivity in different transformed root clones. Plant Cell Reports, 2005. 24(1): p. 25-35.
96.    Chaudhuri, K.N., B. Ghosh, and S. Jha, The root: a potential new source of competent cells for high-frequency regeneration in Tylophora indica. Plant Cell Reports, 2004. 22(10): p. 731-740.
97.    Zafar, R. and S. Ahmad, Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merill: A review. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 2003. 27(1): p. 42-48.
98.    Sridhar, V. and B.J. Rani, New record of Canthecona parva (Distant) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) as a predator of Hypena quadralis (Walker), a pest of Antamul, Tylophora indica (Burm. f) Merr. Journal of Biological Control, 2003. 17(2): p. 179-180.
99.    Mohd, F. and A. Mohammad, Rapid mass propagation of Tylophora indica Merrill via leaf callus culture. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 2003. 75(2): p. 125-129.
100.    Faisal, M. and M. Anis, Rapid mass propagation of Tylophora indica Merrill via leaf callus culture. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 2003. 75(2): p. 125-129.
101.    Dhandapani, R. and S. Balu, MASS MULTIPLICATION OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT Tylophora Indica (Burm.f.) Merr. Ancient science of life, 2002. 22(2): p. 12-20.
102.    Shivananda, T.N. and B.J. Rani, Record of Hypena quadralis (Walker) on Tylophora indica - a medicinal plant. Insect Environment, 2001. 6(4): p. 151-151.
103.    Jayanthi, M. and P.K. Mandal, Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis and RAPD analysis of regenerated plants in Tylophora indica (Burm. f. Merrill.). In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 2001. 37(5): p. 576-580.
104.    Ganguly, T. and K.B. Sainis, Inhibition of cellular immune responses by Tylophora indica in experimental models. Phytomedicine, 2001. 8(5): p. 348-355.
105.    Ganguly, T., L.P. Badheka, and K.B. Sainis, Immunomodulatory effect of Tylophora indica on Con A induced lymphoproliferation. Phytomedicine, 2001. 8(6): p. 431-437.
106.    Ali, M., S.H. Ansari, and M.R. Grever, Cytotoxic alkaloids from Tylophora indica. Pharmazie, 2001. 56(2): p. 188-190.
107.    Manjula, S., A. Job, and G.M. Nair, Somatic embryogenesis from leaf derived callus of Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2000. 38(10): p. 1069-1072.
108.    Nandi, M., Physical, chemical and biological assay of Tylophora indica mother tincture--a comparative study. The British homoeopathic journal, 1999. 88(4): p. 161-5.
109.    Parani, M. and A. Parida, Allozyme and RAPD polymorphism in Tylophora indica (Burm f) Merr. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 1997. 6(1): p. 29-33.
110.    Bera, T.K. and S.C. Roy, Nucleic acids and protein synthesis during early stages of somatic embryogenesis in Tylophora indica. Cell and Chromosome Research, 1995. 18(2-3): p. 59-66.
111.    Pal, M., C.L. Goel, and H.C.S. Bhandari, Effect of auxins on rooting branch cuttings of antamul (Tylophora indica). Indian Journal of Forestry, 1993. 16(3): p. 243-245.
113.    Sharma, N. and K.P.S. Chandel, EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC-ACID ON AXILLARY SHOOT INDUCTION IN TYLOPHORA-INDICA (BURM F) MERRILL. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 1992. 29(2): p. 109-113.
114.    Chattopadhyay, S., S.K. Datta, and M. Ray, In vitro effect of NH-4NO-3 on growth and alkaloid content of Tylophora indica Merr. Phytomorphology, 1992. 42(1-2): p. 139-144.
116.    Jain, D.C. and P.K. Agrawal, CONSTITUENTS OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Fitoterapia, 1991. 62(1): p. 93-93.
117.    Ali, M., S.H. Ansari, and J.S. Qadry, RARE PHENANTHROINDOLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS AND A SUBSTITUTED PHENANTHRENE, TYLOINDANE, FROM TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Journal of Natural Products, 1991. 54(5): p. 1271-1278.
118.    Ali, M. and K.K. Bhutani, INVESTIGATION OF MEDICINAL-PLANTS .11. ALKALOIDS FROM TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Phytochemistry, 1989. 28(12): p. 3513-3517.
119.    Sandhya, T., Studies on the effect of certain growth regulants on the total alkaloid contents of the leaves of Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 1988. 4(2): p. 170-176.
120.    Sandhya, T., Artificial induction of fruit and seed setting in Tylophora indica (Burm. F.) Merr. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 1988. 4(1): p. 85-89.
121.    Gupta, S., A. Kumar, and S.N. Sobti, EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS ON GROWTH AND ALKALOID CONTENT OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1985. 28(3): p. 284-286.
122.    Mhatre, M., V.A. Bapat, and P.S. Rao, PLANT-REGENERATION IN PROTOPLAST CULTURES OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Journal of Plant Physiology, 1984. 115(3): p. 231-235.
124.    Rao, S.S., A.W. Bhagwat, and S.S. Gupta, EFFECTS OF ALKALOIDS FROM TYLOPHORA-INDICA ON CARDIAC AND SMOOTH MUSCLES. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 1982. 14(1): p. 125-125.
125.    Gopalakrishnan, C., et al., EFFECT OF TYLOPHORINE, A MAJOR ALKALOID OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA, ON IMMUNOPATHOLOGICAL AND INFLAMMATORY REACTIONS. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1980. 71(JUN): p. 940-948.
126.    Gupta, S., et al., TYLOPHORA INDICA IN BRONCHIAL-ASTHMA - DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1979. 69(JUN): p. 981-989.
127.    Gopalakrishnan, C., et al., PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF TYLOPHORINE, THE MAJOR ALKALOID OF TYLOPHORA INDICA. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1979. 69(MAR): p. 513-520.
128.    Benjamin, B.D., M.R. Heble, and M.S. Chadha, ALKALOID SYNTHESIS IN TISSUE-CULTURES AND REGENERATED PLANTS OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA MERR (ASCLEPIADACEAE). Zeitschrift Fur Pflanzenphysiologie, 1979. 92(1): p. 77-84.
129.    Thiruvengadam, K.V., et al., Tylophora indica in bronchial asthma (a controlled comparison with a standard anti-asthmatic drug). Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 1978. 71(7): p. 172-6.
130.    Shah, N.C. and L.D. Kapoor, BOTANY OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research, 1976. 14(1): p. 27-34.
131.    Chaudhary, B.L., MICRO ANATOMY AND VARIETAL DIFFERENTIATION IN TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Geobios (Jodhpur), 1976. 3(6): p. 190-192.
132.    Benjamin, B.D. and N.B. Mulchandani, EFFECT OF GAMMA-IRRADIATION ON BIOSYNTHETIC POTENTIAL OF CALLUS-CULTURES OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Planta Medica, 1976. 29(1): p. 37-40.
133.    Dhananjayan, R., C. Gopalkrishnan, and L. Kameswaran, PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 1974. 36(6): p. 167-167.
134.    Bhide, M.B., et al., PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Bulletin of Haffkine Institute, 1974. 2(2): p. 82-85.
136.    Benjamin, B.D. and N.B. Mulchandani, STUDIES IN BIOSYNTHESIS OF SECONDARY CONSTITUENTS IN TISSUE-CULTURES OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Planta Medica, 1973. 23(4): p. 394-397.
137.    Shivpuri, D.N., S.C. Singhal, and D. Parkash, TREATMENT OF ASTHMA WITH AN ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TYLOPHORA INDICA - CROSSOVER, DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY. Annals of Allergy, 1972. 30(7): p. 407-&.
138.    Rao, P.S. and Narayana.S, MORPHOGENETIC INVESTIGATIONS IN CALLUS CULTURES OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Physiologia Plantarum, 1972. 27(3): p. 271-276.
139.    Chitnis, M.P., M.K. Adwankar, and D.D. Khandalekar, ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF STEM AND LEAF OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1972. 60(3): p. 359-+.
140.    Shivpuri, D.N., M.P.S. Menon, and D. Parkash, STUDIES ON TYLOPHORA-INDICA-D IN THE TREATMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AND ALLERGIC RHINITIS. Sanyal, R.K., S.N. Dutta, D.N. Shivpuri, S. Arora and B.D. Miglani. 1971. 111-117.
141.    Rao, K.V., R.A. Wilson, and B. Cummings, ALKALOIDS OF TYLOPHORA .3. NEW ALKALOIDS OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA (BURM) MERRILL AND TYLOPHORA-DALZELLII HOOK F. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1971. 60(11): p. 1725-&.
142.    Rao, P.S., S. Narayanaswamy, and B.D. Benjamin, DIFFERENTIATION EX OVULO OF EMBRYOS AND PLANTLETS IN STEM TISSUE CULTURES OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA. Physiologia Plantarum, 1970. 23(1): p. 140-+.
143.    Shivpuri, D.N., M.P.S. Menon, and D. Prakash, A CROSSOVER DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY ON TYLOPHORA INDICA IN TREATMENT OF ASTHMA. Journal of Allergy, 1969. 43(3): p. 178-&.
144.    Shivpuri, D.N., M.P.S. Menon, and D. Prakash, A CROSSOVER DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY ON TYLOPHORA INDICA IN TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND ALLERGIC RHINITIS. Journal of Allergy, 1969. 43(3): p. 145-&.
145.    Shivpuri, D.N., S.C. Singhal, and D. Parkash, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL RESEARCH STUDIES WITH CRUDE ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF TYLOPHORA-INDICA-D. Vishwanathan, R. R. K. Sanyal, G. Bazaz-Malik, S. Arora and B. D. Miglani. 1968. 47-54.
146.    Shivpuri, D.N., M.P. Menon, and D. Parkash, Preliminary studies in Tylophora indica in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 1968. 16(1): p. 9-15.
147.    Chandras.V and T.R. Seshadri, A NOTE ON COMPONENTS OF TYLOPHORA INDICA. Current Science, 1968. 37(15): p. 432-&.
148.    Sastry, K.S.M. and M.A. Khan, STUDIES ON A MOSAIC DISEASE OF TYLOPHORA INDICA (BURM F) MERR. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1967. 37(2): p. 128-&.
149.    Gupta, B. and S.N. Bal, Pharmacognostic studies of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1956. 15C: p. 111-14.
150.    Rao, P.S., A note on the aromatic principle of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.). Merr Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect A, 1948. 28((4)): p. 173-174.
151.    Zhang, C. and X. Wang, Medicine used for healing postoperative incision, contains root of Sandhill Tylophora, turpentine, fruit of princesplume ladysthumb, fasciculus vascularis luffae, Erythrina indica, millet sprout and mustard powder. Zhang C.
152.    Wei, G. and T. Yao, Air freshener comprises Azadirachta indica, Firmiana simplex, exocarpium citri grandis, Artemisia argyi, Tylophora ovata, Viola philippica, clove, mint, lavender, Telosma cordata, solubilizer and emulsifier. Nandan Environmental Health Management.
153.    Nageswarudu, A.C., Herbal formulation useful to treat e.g. cancer, tumor, headache, blood clots, sciatica, rheumatoid arthritis, paralysis and epilepsy, comprises Alocasia macrorrhiza, Merremia quinquefolia, Tylophora indica, Smilax glabra and Allium sativum. Nageswarudu a C.
154.    Fang, Y., et al., Traditional Chinese medicine for treating ischemic stroke, contains Mimosa root, Ardisia primulifolia, peach, Picris hieracioides, Cyperus cyperoides, Tylophora ovata, Waltheria indica, Gnetum parvifolium and Parasenecio palmatisecta. Guan L.
155.    Akula, C.N., Herbal medicinal composition used for, e.g. treating cancer includes Alocasia cucculata, Alocasia odora blue, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Smilax glabra, Merremia quinquifolia, Allium sativum, Tylophora indica, and Piper nigrum. Akula C N.
156.    Novel alkaloids of tylophora indica and t dalzelli|anti-cancer agents. Pfizer and Co Inc.
157.    Preparation of drug for curing asthma involves using pure extract of Tylophora indica leaves and sugar of milk. Shivaji M C; Anjula L.

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Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana