Saturday, June 9, 2018

Sonchus oleraceus, दूधी, Almindelig Svinemælk, Kaalivalvatti, Laiteron maraîcher, Varapputhannal, Осот огородный

Sonchus oleraceus (L.)
Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Carduus amplexicaulis Noronha, Sonchus angustissimus Hook.f., Sonchus angustissimus H.Lindb., Sonchus asper P. Gaertn. & al., Sonchus asper  "Hall ex G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.", Sonchus australis Hort. ex Trev., Sonchus australis Trevir., Sonchus ciliatus Lam., Sonchus fabrae Sennen, Sonchus glaber, Gilib.  Sonchus gracilis Phil., Sonchus gracilis Sennen, Sonchus lacerus Willd., Sonchus laevis Vill., Sonchus laevis Garsault, Sonchus laevis camer. ex Sch.Bip., Sonchus longifolius Trevir., Sonchus longifolius Trev., Sonchus macrotus Fenzl, Sonchus oleraceus subsp. angustissimus H.Lindb., Sonchus oleraceus var. integrifolius Wallr., Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus Wallr., Sonchus oleraceus var. oleraceus, Sonchus oleraceus subsp. oleraceus, Sonchus oleraceus f. oleraceus, Sonchus oleraceus var. triangularis Wallr., Sonchus pallescens Panc., Sonchus pallescens Pančić, Sonchus parviflorus Lej. ex Rchb., Sonchus reversus E.Mey. ex DC., Sonchus rivularis Phil., Sonchus roseus Besser ex Spreng., Sonchus royleanus DC., Sonchus runcinatus (Fiori) Zenari, Sonchus schimperi A.Braun & Bouché, Sonchus schmidianus K.Koch, Sonchus spinulifoius Sennen, Sonchus subbipinnatifidus (Guss.) Zenari, Sonchus sundaicus Blume, Sonchus tenerrimus Schur, Sonchus umbellifer Thunb., Sonchus zacinthoides DC.
  • English: annual sowthistle
  • Afrikaans: Gweone sydissel
  • Arabic:جعضيض (جُعضيض)، جوع ضيع، جلوين (جَلَوين)
  • Chinese: 滇苦荬菜
  • Danish: Almindelig Svinemælk
  • Finnish: Kaalivalvatti
  • French: Laiteron maraîcher
  • German: Gemeine Gänsedistel, Gemüse-Gänsedistel
  • Hawaiian: pualele
  • Hindi: दूधी Dudhi
  • Icelandic: Gyltufífill
  • Italian: cicerbita domestica
  • Korean: 방가지똥
  • Malayalam: Varapputhannal
  • Norwegian: Haredylle
  • Portuguese: Serralha
  • Romanian: susai moale
  • Russian: osot ogorodnyj, Осот огородный
  • Swedish: mjölktistel

Discription: Annuals, to 90 cm high; stems glandular hairy. Leaves to 15 x 6 cm, runcinate-pinnatifid, with a wide hastate terminal lobe, auricled and amplexicaule at base; lobes spinulose-serrate. Heads 15 x 8 mm, few, in panicled cymes; bracts 10 x 1.5 mm, 3-seriate, oblong, obtuse. Female corolla 12 mm long, limb yellow, 5-lobed; lobes obtuse. Achenes 3 x 1 mm, narrowed to the base, truncate at apex, muriculate; pappus 10 mm long, white, cottony Used in Siddha. White latex suspected of being mildly poisonous for lambs and horses. Gum from the juice strongly cathartic; latex to treat warts. Infusion of root and leaves tonic and febrifuge; roots purgative, antibacterial, abortifacient, acaricidal and vermifuge. Leaves sedative, stomachic, diuretic, used to treat liver diseases, hepatitis, gastritis, salmonella, kwashiorkor and anemia; leaf paste given for stomachache. Veterinary medicine, to treat diarrhea, vaginal prolapse. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Used in Ophthalmic diseases, skin diseases, galactogogue,  diabetes. [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

Used as anti-infective, abortifacient, liver diseases (hepatitis), sedative, stomachic, diuretic, opium addiction, warts, genitourinary system disorders,

inflammation, cancer. [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Galactagogue, febrifuge, sedative, vermifuge. Used in indigestion and in the treatment of diseases of the liver. An ointment is made from the decoction for wounds and ulcers. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

184 Published articles of  Sonchus oleraceus

1.    Torres-Gonzalez, L., et al., Nephroprotective Effect of Sonchus oleraceus Extract against Kidney Injury Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion in Wistar Rats. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2018.
2.    Hassan, M.O., A.M. Saleh, and H. AbdElgawad, Sonchus oleraceus Residue Improves Nutritive and Health-Promoting Value of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): A Metabolic Study. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2018. 66(9): p. 2092-2100.
3.    Zhao, Z., S. Zhao, and B. Guo, Chemical constituents from Sonchus oleraceus. Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine, 2017. 39(7): p. 1423-1426.
4.    Su, B., et al., Photosynthesis and biochemical responses to elevated O-3 in Plantago major and Sonchus oleraceus growing in a lowland habitat of northern China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2017. 53: p. 113-121.
5.    Li, Q., et al., The anti-inflammatory effect of Sonchus oleraceus aqueous extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and mice. Pharmaceutical Biology, 2017. 55(1): p. 799-809.
6.    Kim, D.S., et al., Effects of Rumex axetosella, Sonchus oleraceus and Euphoibia jolkini Extracts on Melanin Synthesis in Melanoma Cells. Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering Journal, 2017. 32(3): p. 187-192.
7.    Jia, P., et al., Response of leaf physiological indexes to short-term salinity stress for seedlings of Sonchus oleraceus L. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 2017. 37(7): p. 1303-1311.
8.    Hidayaturrohmah, N., et al., The Growth and Antioxidative Responses of Sonchus oleraceus (Linnaeus, 1753) Under Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(VI) Stress Condition, in 4th International Conference on Biological Science, T.R. Nuringtyas, et al., Editors. 2017. p. 157-169.
9.    Al Juhaimi, F., et al., Comparative study of mineral and oxidative status of Sonchus oleraceus, Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina leaves. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 2017. 11(4): p. 1745-1751.
10.    Abd El-Azim, M.H.M. and Y. Selim, Antitumor, Antioxidant and Chemical Constituents Identification of the Chloroform Extract of Wild Libyan Sonchus oleraceus. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 2017. 36(9): p. 1843-1848.
11.    Zheng, C., et al., Purification and composition analysis on polyphenols from Sonchus oleraceus L. by macroporous resin. Food and Machinery, 2016. 32(4): p. 176-180,186.
12.    Zheng, C., et al., Response surface methodology for optimization of extracting polyphenol from Sonchus oleraceus L. and antioxidant evaluation. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2016. 42(3): p. 224-230.
13.    Wang, N., et al., Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus L. and Euphorbia helioscopia L. stems and leaves on three kinds of vegetables. Journal of Southern Agriculture, 2016. 47(3): p. 430-435.
14.    Wang, N., et al., Allelopathy of Sonchus oleraceus stem and leaf extracts on seed germination and seedlings growth of three kinds of lawn plants. Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences, 2016. 44(1): p. 163-165.
15.    Shaban, N.Z., et al., Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2016. 62(9): p. 11-19.
16.    Mawalagedera, S.M.M.R., et al., Effects of boiling and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant activity of Sonchus oleraceus leaves. Food & Function, 2016. 7(3): p. 1515-1522.
17.    Ma, Z., et al., Verrucosispora sonchi sp nov., a novel endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the leaves of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2016. 66: p. 5430-5436.
18.    Liu, Y. and Z. Zhang, Effects of total flavonoids in the Sonchus oleraceus L. on biochemical index of bone metabolism in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Acta Academiae Medicinae Wannan, 2016. 35(3): p. 210-213.
19.    Huyan, T., et al., Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2016. 185: p. 289-299.
20.    Guo, A., et al., Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different parts from Sonchus oleraceus. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 2016. 44(4): p. 60-62.
21.    Fang, Y. and X. Wen, Study on the brittle maintaining and green protecting of Sonchus oleraceus L. Applied Chemical Industry, 2016. 45(2): p. 316-319,331.
22.    Fang, Q., et al., Screening and Evaluation of the Bioremediation Potential of Cu/Zn-Resistant, Autochthonous Acinetobacter sp FQ-44 from Sonchus oleraceus L. Frontiers in Plant Science, 2016. 7.
23.    Akhtar, N., et al., First Report of Phyllosticta aristolochiicola Causing Leaf Spot of Sonchus oleraceus in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 2016. 100(7): p. 1503-1503.
24.    Zheng, X., X. Ye, and X. Wu, Optimization of PEG /MgSO_4 Two Aqueous Phase System Extraction of Saponins from Sonchus oleraceus L. and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Chinese Institute Of Food Science and Technology, 2015. 15(6): p. 110-116.
25.    Yang, B., et al., Optimization of natural fermentation process of Sonchus oleraceus by response surface methodology. China Condiment, 2015. 40(4): p. 29-35.
26.    Ou, Z.-Q., T. Rades, and A. McDowell, Anti-Ageing Effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. (puha) Leaf Extracts on H2O2-Induced Cell Senescence. Molecules, 2015. 20(3): p. 4548-4564.
27.    Mawalagedera, S.M.M.R. and K.S. Gould, Chilling and salinity increase extractable antioxidants in cell suspension cultures of the sow thistle, Sonchus oleraceus L. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 2015. 121(1): p. 35-44.
28.    Ma, Z., et al., Streptosporangium sonchi sp nov and Streptosporangium kronopolitis sp nov., two novel actinobacteria isolated from a root of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) and a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff). Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, 2015. 107(6): p. 1491-1499.
29.    Ma, Z., et al., Plantactinospora sonchi sp nov., an actinobacterium isolated from the leaves of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2015. 65: p. 4895-4901.
30.    Gomaa, N.H., et al., Flavonoid profiling and nodulation of some legumes in response to the allelopathic stress of Sonchus oleraceus L. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 2015. 29(4): p. 553-560.
31.    Scott, J. and N. Ota, Sonchus oleraceus - AdaptNRM module 2: Invasive plant species and climate change. CSIRO Data Access Portal, 2014. v2.
32.    Ou, Z.-Q., et al., Influence of postharvest processing and storage conditions on key antioxidants in puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2014. 66(7): p. 998-1008.
33.    Ndebia, E.J. and C. Sewani-Rusike, Radical scavenging activity and hypoglycaemic effects of two wild leafy vegetables: Sonchus oleraceus and Cleome gynandra. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2014. 103: p. S33-S33.
34.    Jin, H., et al., Study on ultrasound-assisted extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolics from sonchus oleraceus L. Food and Machinery, 2014. 30(5): p. 211-215.
35.    Jain, S.K. and G.K. Singh, Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of extracts of whole plant of Sonchus oleraceus Asteraceae. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2014. 3(3): p. 1-12.
36.    Hassan, M.O., et al., Interactions between Sonchus oleraceus L. and some weeds in agroecosystems in Egypt. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 2014. 59(2): p. 221-228.
37.    Hassan, M.O., et al., Influence of Sonchus oleraceus L. Residue on Soil Properties and Growth of Some Plants. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 2014. 97(4): p. 368-376.
38.    Gomaa, N.H., et al., Allelopathic effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the germination and seedling growth of crop and weed species. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 2014. 28(3): p. 408-416.
39.    Cook, T., B. Davidson, and R. Miller, A new glyphosate resistant weed species confirmed for northern New South Wales and the world: common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus). 19th Australasian Weeds Conference, "Science, Community and Food Security: the Weed Challenge", Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 1-4 September 2014, ed. M. Baker. 2014. 206-209.
40.    Churchett, J.D., A.R. McLean, and M.J. Widderick, Exploring herbicide alternatives to delay glyphosate resistance developing in common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) in the northern grain region. 19th Australasian Weeds Conference, "Science, Community and Food Security: the Weed Challenge", Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 1-4 September 2014, ed. M. Baker. 2014. 413-413.
41.    Zafari, D. and P. Razaghi, Septoria sonchi causes Sonchus oleraceus leaf spot in Iran. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2013. 8(1): p. 55-57.
42.    Uesugi, A., et al., Biosynthesis of Rubber in Cultured Cells of Sonchus oleraceus. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2013. 25(9): p. 5189-5191.
43.    Teugwa, C.M., et al., Antioxidant and antidiabetic profiles of two African medicinal plants: Picralima nitida (Apocynaceae) and Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae). Bmc Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013. 13.
44.    Shebli, S. and A. Badi, Survey of parasitoids associated with pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola on the sowthistle plant Sonchus oleraceus L., in Sidi EL-Masri region, Tripoli, Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 2013. 31(1): p. 95-97.
45.    Shafiq ur, R., et al., Evaluation of Acetylcholine Esterase and Protease inhibitory Potential of Sonchus oleraCeus, Melia azedarach and Citrus sinensis. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2013. 25(8): p. 4174-4176.
46.    Saravani, M., E. Shahraki, and H.H. Pur, A study on the nutritional value of the plant species Lamb's-tongue (Plantago lanceolata), European bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), and annual sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus). International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences (IJACS), 2013. 6(12): p. 808-813.
47.    Robertson, P., et al., Kellogg Biological Station site, station Kellogg Biological Station, study of aboveground net primary productivity of Sonchus oleraceus in units of gramsPerMeterSquaredPerYear on a yearly timescale. LTER Network Information System Repository, 2013.
48.    Petkova, N. and P. Denev, Evaluation of fructan contents in the taproots of plants Lactuca serriola L. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Scientific Bulletin. Series F. Biotechnologies, 2013. 17: p. 117-122.
49.    Ou, Z.-Q., et al., Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2013. 65(2): p. 271-279.
50.    Liu, Y., Z. Zhang, and J. Zhou, An experimental study on effect of sonchus oleraceus on lipid metabolism of guinea pigs. Maternal and Child Health Care of China, 2013. 28(34): p. 5703-5706.
51.    Zhao, M., et al., Components from Callus Cultures of Sonchus Oleraceus L. and Their Cytotoxicity In Vitro, in Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering, E. Zhu and S. Sambath, Editors. 2012. p. 107-112.
52.    Sun, Y., et al., Effects of Different Physical and Chemical Treatments on Seed Germination of Sonchus oleraceus L. Seed, 2012. 31(3): p. 82-83.
53.    Scott, J.K. and K. McCarren, Sonchus oleraceus L. - sowthistle. Biological Control of Weeds in Australia, ed. M. Julien, R. McFadyen, and J. Cullen. 2012. 563-568.
54.    Qi, G., et al., Study on process of Sonchus oleraceus L. paper. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University, 2012. 43(2): p. 28-33.
55.    Li, Y., et al., Extraction and content determination of flavonoids in Sonchus oleraceus L. Medicinal Plant, 2012. 3(11): p. 48-50.
56.    An, Z. and C. Jia, Research on Ultra-High-Pressure Extraction Technology of Falconoid from Sonchus Oleraceus L.with Response Surface Optimization. Journal of Chinese Institute Of Food Science and Technology, 2012. 12(2): p. 105-110.
57.    An, Z. and C. Jia, Study on separation and purification of Sonchus oleraceus L total flavonoids by AB-8 macroporous resin with response surface analysis. Food and Machinery, 2012. 28(3): p. 122-125,158.
58.    Prichoa, F.C., S.S. Roman, and V. Manfredini, Tissue injuries of wistar rats treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Sonchus oleraceus L. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011. 47(3): p. 605-613.
59.    McDowell, A., et al., Antioxidant Activity of Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) as Assessed by the Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA) Assay. Phytotherapy Research, 2011. 25(12): p. 1876-1882.
60.    Jimoh, F.O., A.A. Adedapo, and A.J. Afolayan, Comparison of the Nutritive Value, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus. Records of Natural Products, 2011. 5(1): p. 29-42.
61.    Ahmed, O.M., et al., Biochemical effects of Cichorium intybus and Sonchus oleraceus infusions and esculetin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The Journal of American Science, 2011. 7(12): p. 1124-1138.
62.    Widderick, M.J., et al., Germination, emergence, and persistence of Sonchus oleraceus, a major crop weed in subtropical Australia. Weed Biology and Management, 2010. 10(2): p. 102-112.
63.    Vilela, F.C., et al., Antidepressant-Like Activity of Sonchus oleraceus in Mouse Models of Immobility Tests. Journal of Medicinal Food, 2010. 13(1): p. 219-222.
64.    Vilela, F.C., et al., Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Sonchus oleraceus in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2010. 127(3): p. 737-741.
65.    St John-Sweeting, R.S., et al., Genetic diversity among ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistant and susceptible populations of Sonchus oleraceus L. (sowthistle) in Australia. 17th Australasian weeds conference. New frontiers in New Zealand: together we can beat the weeds. Christchurch, New Zealand, 26-30 September, 2010, 2010: p. 281-284.
66.    Qin, C., J. Gao, and X. Luo, Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from Sonchus oleraceus and Determination of Rutin Content by HPLC. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 2010. 38(5): p. 199-201.
67.    Liu, Z. and X. Zhao, Effects of different extraction methods on extraction rate of polysaccharide from Sonchus oleraceus L. Medicinal Plant, 2010. 1(5): p. 31-35.
68.    Han, Y., et al., Antioxidant Activity Assessment of Extracts from Different Parts of Sonchus oleraceus L. Food Science, 2010. 31(19): p. 45-48.
69.    Bai, L., et al., OLEANANE-, URSANE-, LUPANE-, AND TARAXASTERANE-TYPE PENTACYCLIC TRITERPENES ISOLATED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANTS NERIUM OLEANDER, IXERIS CHINENSIS, SONCHUS OLERACEUS AND PHYTOLACCA AMERICANA. CYTOTOXICITY STUDIES ON HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES, AND MDR CANCER REVERSAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES. Pentacyclic Triterpenes as Promising Agents in Cancer, ed. J.A.R. Salvador. 2010. 89-126.
70.    Abin, A. and S.V. Eslami, Effect of mother plant environment on salinity tolerance at germination and early seedling growth of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus). Proceedings of 3rd Iranian Weed Science Congress, Volume 1: Weed biology and ecophysiology, Babolsar, Iran, 17-18 February 2010. 2010. 422-425.
71.    Vilela, F.C., R. Soncini, and A. Giusti-Paiva, Anxiolytic-like effect of Sonchus oleraceus L. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2009. 124(2): p. 325-327.
72.    Vilela, F.C., et al., Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of extracts of Sonchus oleraceus L. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2009. 124(2): p. 306-310.
73.    Saad, E.E., Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Constituents from the Roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. Growing in Egypt. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009. 5(20): p. 324-328.
74.    Lima, J.M., et al., Phytochemical Prospecting of Sonchus oleraceus and its toxicity to Artemia salina. Planta Daninha, 2009. 27(1): p. 7-11.
75.    Jun-zhe, Q.I.N. and Y. Han-wei, Study on the green-protecting technology of Sonchus oleraceus L.and its quality control. Science & Technology of Food Industry, 2009. 30(11): p. 232-234.
76.    Hong, Y.-Y., et al., Paenibacillus sonchi sp nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from the rhizosphere of Sonchus oleraceus. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2009. 59: p. 2656-2661.
77.    Hong, Y., et al., Paenibacillus sonchi sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from the rhizosphere of Sonchus oleraceus. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 2009. 59(11): p. 2656-2661.
78.    Elkhayat, E.S., CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ROOTS OF SONCHUS OLERACEUS L. GROWING IN EGYPT. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2009. 32: p. 189-197.
79.    Cardoso Vilela, F., R. Soncini, and A. Giusti-Paiva, Anxiolytic-like effect of Sonchus oleraceus L. in mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2009. 124(2): p. 325-7.
80.    Yuhua, B.A.I., et al., Chemical constituents of Japanese herb Sonchus oleraceus. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University, 2008. 39(3): p. 279-281.
81.    Yin, J., C.-L. Si, and M.-H. Wang, Antioxidant activity of flavonoids and their glucosides from Sonchus oleraceus L. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 2008. 51(2): p. 57-60.
82.    Yin, J., et al., Antioxidant Activity of Fractions from 70% Methanolic Extract of Sonchus oleraceus L. Food Science and Biotechnology, 2008. 17(6): p. 1299-1304.
83.    Xu, Y.P. and J.X. Wu, First report of Ageratum yellow vein virus infecting Sonchus oleraceus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 2008. 90(2): p. 399-399.
84.    St. John-Sweeting, R.S., et al., Gene movement in herbicide resistant sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Proceedings of the 16th Australian Weeds Conference, Cairns Convention Centre, North Queensland, Australia, 18-22 May, 2008. 2008. 113-115.
85.    McCarren, K.L. and J.K. Scott, Two biological control options for Sonchus oleraceus in Australia. Proceedings of the 16th Australian Weeds Conference, Cairns Convention Centre, North Queensland, Australia, 18-22 May, 2008. 2008. 259-261.
86.    Lin, M., et al., Study on Scavenging Activity of the Water Extract of Sonchus oleraceus to Nitroso and Hydroxyl Free Radicals. Chinese Wild Plant Resources, 2008. 27(4): p. 53-54,58.
87.    Erxia, W., et al., Research and development situation of Sonchus oleraceus L. Science & Technology of Food Industry, 2008. 29(10): p. 272-274.
88.    Yin, J., G.-J. Kwon, and M.-H. Wang, The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Sonchus oleraceus L. extracts. Nutrition research and practice, 2007. 1(3): p. 189-94.
89.    Wang, N.-X., et al., Determination of inorganic elements in different parts of Sonchus oleraceus L by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu, 2007. 27(6): p. 1229-30.
90.    El-Aassar, M.A., K.A. Abou El-Seoud, and I.M. El-Shami, The separation and study of the biological activity of glycan of Sonchus oleraceus L. herb family Asteraceae. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2007. 30: p. 1-22.
91.    Chaves, A.L.R., et al., SONCHUS OLERACEUS AND S. ASPER AS A NATURAL RESERVOIR OF VIRUSES IN LETTUCE CROPS OF THE SAO PAULO GREEN BELT. Arqivos do Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo, 2007. 74(2): p. 101-106.
92.    Vieira, B.S. and R.W. Barreto, First record of Bremia lactucae infecting Sonchus oleraceus and Sonchus asper in Brazil and its infectivity to lettuce. Journal of Phytopathology, 2006. 154(2): p. 84-87.
93.    Chauhan, B.S., G. Gill, and C. Preston, Factors affecting seed germination of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) in southern Australia. Weed Science, 2006. 54(5): p. 854-860.
94.    Xu, Y. and J. Liang, Chemical Constituents of Sonchus oleraceus L. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University, 2005. 36(5): p. 411-413.
95.    Hu, P.-z., C.-z. Zou, and Y. Zhu, Lipid-soluble chemical constituents in Sonchus oleraceus. Xibei Zhiwu Xuebao, 2005. 25(6): p. 1234-1237.
96.    Hu, P., C. Zou, and Y. Zhu, Lipid-soluble chemical constituents in Sonchus oleraceus. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 2005. 25(6): p. 1234-1237.
97.    Widderick, M., S. Walker, and B. Sindel, Better management of Sonchus oleraceus L. (common sowthistle) based on the weed's ecology. Weed management: balancing people, planet, profit. 14th Australian Weeds Conference, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, 6-9 September 2004: papers and proceedings, ed. B.M. Sindel and S.B. Johnson. 2004. 535-537.
98.    Mejias, J.A. and C. Andres, Karyological studies in Iberian Sonchus (Asteraceae : Lactuceae): S oleraceus, S microcephalus and S asper and a general discussion. Folia Geobotanica, 2004. 39(3): p. 275-291.
99.    Hernandez, J.R., et al., First report of the rust Miyagia pseudosphaeria on Sonchus oleraceus in the Americas. Plant Disease, 2003. 87(6): p. 752-752.
100.    Fraga, M.I. and M.G. Tasende, Mechanisms of resistance to simazine in Sonchus oleraceus. Weed Research, 2003. 43(5): p. 333-340.
101.    Widderick, M., B. Sindel, and S. Walker, Emergence of Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) is favoured under zero tillage farming systems. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, ed. H.S. Jacob, J. Dodd, and J.H. Moore. 2002. 91-92.
102.    Liu, L., J. Li, and Y. Chen, Analysis of fatty acids content in the stems and leaves of the sonchus brachyotus DC., Sonchus oleraceus L. and I xeris denticulata Stebb. Journal of Jilin Univeristy. Medicine edition, 2002. 28(6): p. 606-607.
103.    Gu, H., A. Cao, and G.H. Walter, Host selection and utilisation of Sonchus oleraceus (Asteraceae) by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae): A genetic analysis. Annals of Applied Biology, 2001. 138(3): p. 293-299.
104.    Gu, H. and G.H. Walter, Is the common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) a primary host plant of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lep., Noctuidae)? Oviposition and larval performance. Journal of Applied Entomology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Entomologie, 1999. 123(2): p. 99-105.
105.    Guil-Guerrero, J.L., et al., Nutritional composition of Sonchus species (S-asper L, S-oleraceus L and S-tenerrimus L). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1998. 76(4): p. 628-632.
106.    Xiong, Z.T., Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of excess lead in a roadside pioneer species Sonchus oleraceus L. Environmental Pollution, 1997. 97(3): p. 275-279.
107.    Downard, R.W. and D.W. Morishita, Annual and perennial sowthistles - Sonchus oleraceus, S. asper, S. uliginosus, S. arvensis. Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Publication, 1995(PNW476): p. 4 pp.-4 pp.
108.    Boutsalis, P. and S.B. Powles, INHERITANCE AND MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE TO HERBICIDES INHIBITING ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE IN SONCHUS-OLERACEUS L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 1995. 91(2): p. 242-247.
109.    Boutsalis, P. and S.B. Powles, Sonchus oleraceus resistant to the ALS inhibiting herbicides. Proceedings II of the 10th Australian Weeds Conference and 14th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 6-10 September, 1993, ed. B.J. Wilson and J.T. Swarbrick. 1993. 82-85.
110.    Sayed Ahmed, A.F., Chemical constituents of Sonchus oleraceus L. Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1992. 33(3-4): p. 689-692.
111.    Fisher, D.G., PLASMODESMATAL FREQUENCY AND OTHER STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF ASSIMILATE COLLECTION AND PHLOEM LOADING IN LEAVES OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS (ASTERACEAE), A SPECIES WITH MINOR VEIN TRANSFER CELLS. American Journal of Botany, 1991. 78(11): p. 1549-1559.
112.    Prabha, C., GERMINATION STUDIES IN SONCHUS-OLERACEUS. Geobios (Jodhpur), 1990. 17(2-3): p. 99-103.
113.    Fisher, D.G., SYMPLASTIC CONTINUITY OF THE LEAF OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS ASTERACEAE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PLASMODESMATA IN MINOR VEINS CONTAINING TRANSFER CELLS. American Journal of Botany, 1990. 77(6 SUPPL): p. 15-15.
114.    Shang, H.C., X.F. Ye, and N.B. Yang, Differentiation of adventitious buds from root segments of Taraxacum sp. and Sonchus oleraceus and their relationship to endogenous hormones. Plant Physiology Communications, 1988(5): p. 35-38.
115.    Miyase, T. and S. Fukushima, STUDIES ON SESQUITERPENE GLYCOSIDES FROM SONCHUS-OLERACEUS L. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1987. 35(7): p. 2869-2874.
116.    Chirila, C. and C. Pintilie, Weeds in agricultural crops and their control. (XXVII.) Prickly sow thistle (Sonchus asper L. (Hill)) and smooth sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.). Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 1986. 38(9): p. 36-38.
117.    Ahmad, R., et al., SONCHUS OLERACEUS SEED OIL - CHARACTERIZATION OF HBR-REACTIVE OXYGENATED ACID. Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel, 1986. 88(12): p. 490-492.
118.    Hiremath, B.S. and M.S. Chennaveeraiah, CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES IN SONCHUS-OLERACEOUS LINN. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Plant Sciences, 1985. 95(6): p. 373-377.
119.    Hassan, N.M., et al., PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS. Acta Agronomica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 1985. 34(SUPPL): p. 106-106.
120.    Hutchinson, I., J. Colosi, and R.A. Lewin, THE BIOLOGY OF CANADIAN WEEDS .63. SONCHUS-ASPER (L) HILL AND SONCHUS-OLERACEUS L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 1984. 64(3): p. 731-744.
121.    Bondarenko, V.G., V.I. Glyzin, and V.L. Shelyuto, FLAVONOIDS OF FLOWERS SONCHUS-OLERACEUS. Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, 1983(2): p. 234-235.
122.    Uyar, N. and B. Cireli, OBSERVATIONS ON THE MORPHOLOGY ANATOMY AND ECOLOGY OF SONCHUS-ASPER AND SONCHUS-OLERACEUS GROWING IN THE AEGEAN REGION. DOGA Bilim Dergisi Seri A Temel Bilimler, 1982. 6(1): p. 33-44.
123.    Pullaiah, T., EMBRYOLOGY OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS LINN. Current Science, 1982. 51(14): p. 708-710.
124.    Peschken, D.P., Sonchus arvensis L., perennial sow-thistle, S. oleraceus L., annual sow-thistle and S. asper (L.) Hill, spiny annual sow-thistle (Compositae). Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1969-1980, 1981: p. 205-209.
125.    Esau, K. and L.L. Hoefert, BEET YELLOW STUNT VIRUS IN THE PHLOEM OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS L. Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 1981. 75(3): p. 326-338.
126.    Gamor, F.D., A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SEED PRODUCTIVITY OF THE COMMON SOWTHISTLE SONCHUS-OLERACEUS UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF THE TRANSCARPATHIAN MOUNTAINOUS REGION UKRAINIAN-SSR USSR. Biologicheskie Nauki (Moscow), 1979(2): p. 47-52.
127.    Gamor, F.D., Statistical analysis of the seed productivity of yellow sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) under the differing conditions of the Transcarpathian mountain zone. Biologicheskie Nauki, 1979. 22(2): p. 47-52.
128.    Esau, K., BEET YELLOW STUNT VIRUS IN CELLS OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS AND ITS RELATION TO HOST MITOCHONDRIA. Virology, 1979. 98(1): p. 6-8.
129.    Esau, K., BEET YELLOW STUNT VIRUS IN CELLS OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS L AND ITS RELATION TO HOST MITOCHONDRIA. Virology, 1979. 98(1): p. 1-8.
130.    Steinkamp, M.P. and L.L. Hoefert, ANNULATE-LAMELLAE IN PHLOEM CELLS OF VIRUS-INFECTED SONCHUS PLANTS. Journal of Cell Biology, 1977. 74(1): p. 111-118.
131.    Ozel, M., COMPARATIVE STUDIES BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPE OF RHABDOVIRUSES OF PLANT AND OF ANIMAL ORIGIN .2. INVESTIGATIONS BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND BY CYTOLOGICAL METHODS OF HOST PLANT SONCHUS-OLERACEUS (L) AND VECTOR HYPEROMYZUS-LACTUCAE (L) AFTER INFECTION WITH SOWTHISTLE YELLOW VEIN VIRUS (SYVV). Zentralblatt Fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie Und Hygiene Series a-Medical Microbiology Infectious Diseases Virology Parasitology, 1973. 224(1): p. 1-48.
132.    Oezel, M., COMPARATIVE STUDIES BY THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE OF RHABDOVIRUSES OF PLANT AND OF ANIMAL ORIGIN PART 2 INVESTIGATIONS BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND BY CYTOLOGICAL METHODS OF THE HOST PLANT SONCHUS-OLERACEUS AND THE VECTOR HYPEROMYZUS-LACTUCAE AFTER INFECTION WITH THE SOWTHISTLE YELLOW VEIN VIRUS. Zentralblatt fuer Bakteriologie Parasitenkunde Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene Erste Abteilung Originale Reihe A Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Parasitologie, 1973. 224(1): p. 1-48.
133.    Alam, S., MORPHOLOGY CYTOLOGY CROSSABILITY AND HERBICIDE REACTION OF SONCHUS-ARVENSIS SONCHUS-OLERACEUS AND THEIR HYBRIDS. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 1972. 1(1-2): p. 179-184.
134.    Walter, R. and E. Kuta, Cytological and embryological studies in Sonchus L. 1. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia, Series Botanica, 1971(14): p. 103-109.
135.    Walter, R. and E. Kuta, CYTOLOGICAL AND EMBRYOLOGICAL STUDIES IN SONCHUS LI SONCHUS-ASPER (L) HILL AND SONCHUS-OLERACEUS L. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica, 1971. 14(1): p. 103-&.
136.    Khan, M.S.Y. and I.P. Varshney, CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS LINN. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1970. 47(9): p. 923-&.
137.    Khan, M.S.Y. and I.P. Varshney, CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SONCHUS-OLERACEUS-D. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1970. 47(9): p. 923-923.
138.    Sylvester, E.S. and J. Richardson, ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE OF MULTIPLICATION OF SOWTHISTLE YELLOW VEIN VIRUS IN AN APHID VECTOR-SERIAL PASSAGE. Virology, 1969. 37(1): p. 26-+.
139.    Oloughlin, G.T. and T.C. Chambers, FEEDING SITES IN SONCHUS OLERACEUS OF HYPEROMYZUS LACTUCAE APHID VECTOR OF LETTUCE NECROTIC YELLOWS VIRUS. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 1969. 22(3): p. 629-+.
140.    O, L.G.T. and T.C. Chambers, THE FEEDING SITES IN SONCHUS-OLERACEUS-D OF HYPEROMYZUS-LACTUCAE THE APHID VECTOR OF LETTUCE NECROTIC YELLOWS VIRUS. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 1969. 22(3): p. 629-637.
141.    Richardson, J. and E.S. Sylvester, FURTHER EVIDENCE OF MULTIPLICATION OF SOWTHISTLE YELLOW VEIN VIRUS IN ITS APHID VECTOR HYPEROMYZUS LACTUCAE. Virology, 1968. 35(3): p. 347-+.
142.    Ponomareva, M.S., SPECIES COMPOSITION AND SPECIFIC BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF APHIDS ON CURRANT-D AND GOOSEBERRY-D HYPEROMYZUS-LACTUCAE SONCHUS-OLERACEUS-D SONCHUS-ARVENSIS-D THISTLE-D RIBES-NIGRUM-D WOUND WORT-D. Doklady Moskovskoi Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii Imeni K A Timiryazeva, 1967(137): p. 107-109.
143.    Niklewski, Z., The germination of lettuce seeds in the presence of rooted plants of common chickweed, dandelion and greater celandine-allelopathic investigations. Roczn. Naukrol, 1964. 89: p. 681-4.
144.    Stubbs, L.L., J.A.D. Guy, and K.J. Stubbs, Control of lettuce necrotic yellow virus disease by the destruction of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus). Australian Jour Exptl Agric and Animal Husb, 1963. 3((10)): p. 215-218.
145.    Duffus, J.E., POSSIBLE MULTIPLICATION IN APHID VECTOR OF SOWTHISTLE YELLOW VEIN VIRUS, A VIRUS WITH AN EXTREMELY LONG INSECT LATENT PERIOD. Virology, 1963. 21(2): p. 194-&.
146.    Barber, H.N., Spontaneous hybrids between Sonchus asper and S oleraceus. Annals of Botany, 1941. 5(18): p. 375-377.
147.    Zhou, Z., Traditional Chinese medicinal spray for treating, e.g. oral ulcer, rhinitis, sinusitis, herpes, eczema, allergic dermatitis, or alopecia, includes Sonchus oleraceus flowers, seeds, roots, leaves, stems, ginger, and hay. Zhou Z.
148.    Zhao, M., Medicinal formulation useful for preparation of drug for treating trigeminal neuralgia pain, contains Sonchus oleraceus root, Meliosma cuneifolia root, radix paeoniae alba, Vitex rotundifolia, Chinese Angelica and Gastrodia elata. Nanjing Zhengliang Pharm Technology Co.
149.    Zhao, C., Traditional Chinese medicine used for e.g. treating hemorrhoids, includes Typhonium, Sonchus oleraceus, Potentilla chinensis, balsamine phrymaceae, Limonium bicolor, apple, rhizoma phragmitis, lotus leaf and Allium macrostemon. Zhao C.
150.    Zhang, Z., Pesticide comprises loess, peppermint, Adenophora stricta, saffron, safflower oil, polyoxyethylene, jasmine oil, cycloserine, Sonchus oleraceus, aniseed, corn straw, and Verticillium powder. Zhang Z.
151.    Zhang, X., Vegetables pesticide comprises loess, mint, radix adenophorae, saffron, safflower oil, polyoxyethylene, jasmine oil, oxytetracycline and Sonchus oleraceus root. Qingdao Yuebangnong Seed Ind Co Ltd.
152.    Yang, J., Traditional Chinese medicine for treating nonsuppurative otitis media, contains e.g. Sonchus oleraceus, Cheilocostus speciosus, sclerophyll melandrium, Drymoglossum piloselloides, Cornus, Pelargonium hortorum, and tianshui ant grass. Yang J.
153.    Yanagi, A., et al., Novel 2-cyano-2,3-dioxo propane derivative or its salts used as active ingredient of herbicides with respect to various weeds such as lepidiuym virginicum, mustard, crab grass, sonchus oleraceus, spiderwort and sorghum. Bayer Cropscience Ag.
154.    Xu, F., Sesame seed treatment agent comprises fungicide, insecticide, nutritional element, hormone and water, where the fungicide comprises Sonchus oleraceus, Aloe and Sophora alopecuroides. Tongling Datongxiaomo Sesame Oil Co Ltd.
155.    Wang, X., G. Wang, and Y. Wang, Yinchuan traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid used e.g. for treating gastric cancer, includes radix astragali, Sonchus oleraceus root, radix codonopsitis, cortex acanthopanacis radicis, fructus psoraleae, Polygonatum, and honey. Yinchuan Shanghetu New Technology Dev Co.
156.    Wang, X., G. Wang, and Y. Wang, Yinchuan traditional Chinese medicinal granule useful for treating e.g. gastric cancer and throat cancer, prepared using e.g. radix astragali, Sonchus oleraceus, Rabdosia amethystoides, radix codonopsis, rhizoma coptidis, and honey. Yinchuan Shanghetu New Technology Dev Co.
157.    Wang, X., Bitter buckwheat and Sonchus oleraceus porridge prepared by curing tartary buckwheat grits and dehydrated vegetable, and aseptic packaging. Wang X.
158.    Wang, J., Chinese herbal medicine useful for inhibiting and contact-killing Cyanobacteria water bloom, contains rhizoma coptidis, radix bupleuri, rhubarb, Schisandra berry, semen pharbitidis, Sonchus oleraceus, spina gleditsiae and lotus leaves. Wuxi Tianyi Zhizhe Biotechnology Co Ltd.
159.    Sun, P., Traditional Chinese medicine used for treating urticaria and itching includes Sonchus oleraceus, radix rehmanniae, semen cannabis, radix puerariae, gypsum, flos eriocauli, radix sophorae flavescentis, rhizoma atractylodis and Diospyros leaf. Taihe Chinese Medicine Hospital.
160.    Song, B., Preparation of Sonchus oleraceus health tea by spreading Sonchus oleraceus, removing water, rubbing, drying and preparing. Song B.
161.    Ran, D., Disinfecting oral liquid useful for treating ordinary hand-foot-and-mouth disease, contains herba andrographis, Sonchus oleraceus L, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Semiaquilegia, burdock root, nux prinsepiae and fructus amomi rotundus. Jinan Haoze Environmental Protection Tec.
162.    Qu, J., Chicken feed additive comprises dandelion, purslane, Sonchus oleraceus and herba artimisiae sieversianae. Hengyang Fumao Agric & Forestry Ecology.
163.    Peng, C. and X. Xu, Manufacturing Sonchus oleraceus and daisy complex tea powder comprises picking the fresh bitter Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge) Hance, young flower, leaf of Ivy, purse, skin Konoha salt, and okra in clean water, cleaning and processing. Peng C.
164.    Okada, A., et al., Regenerating plant e.g. Sonchus oleraceus or Hevea brasiliensis, by inducing asexual embryo from callus. Sumitomo Rubber Ind Ltd.
165.    Liu, D., et al., Medicine used for treating hypertension, comprises wolfberry, semen sterculiae lychnophorae, Siraitia grosvenorii, licorice, Sonchus oleraceus, tuckahoe, Chlorella ellipsoidea and purslane. Tianjin Zhicaoyuan Biotechnology Co Ltd.
166.    Ling, L., Houttuynia cordata taste nutritional soy milk comprises Houttuynia cordata, soybean, Sonchus oleraceus, glutinous rice, water, walnut oil, burdock, roses, sage, loofah leaves, pine needles, stevioside and Schisandra powder. Ling L.
167.    Liang, Z., Preparing culture fertilizer, useful for Sonchus oleraceus, comprises weighing dry duck manure, chicken manure, Sorghum straw powder, pumpkin stem leaf powder, cotton seed powder, cotton seed hull powder and peanut shell powder. Liang Z.
168.    Li, Y., Capsule useful for e.g. treating bone tuberculosis, removing dampness, detoxifying, and relaxing tendon, comprises e.g. rhizoma smilacis glabrae, radix puerariae, herba cistanches, Sonchus oleraceus, Potentilla freyniana, and Smilax riparia. Li Y.
169.    Li, X., Dumpling used for reducing fever, cooling blood and removing toxin, comprises stuffing containing chilled chicken, Sonchus oleraceus, freshener, ice water, chicken essence, bone soup and flavor enhancer. Yongda Food Ind Co Ltd Qi County.
170.    Li, X., Chicken ball useful for treating diarrhea, jaundice, haemolymph, hemorrhoids and swelling, comprises chicken breast, chicken skin, common salt, white granulated sugar, Sonchus oleraceus, and ice water. Yongda Food Ind Co Ltd Qi County; Yongda Food Ind Co Ltd.
171.    Li, H., X. Lu, and Y. Sun, Method for indoor hypotonic production of Sonchus oleraceus, involves germinating Sonchus oleraceus seeds in matrix surface of sponge having hydroponic nutrient solution, followed by illuminating and culturing seedling. Anhui Inst Technology & Sci.
172.    Kwak, Y.S., Herbicide for Zoysia japonica, Erigeron annuus, wood sorrel, pennywort, Youngia japonica, Stellaria alsine, Sonchus oleraceus and Trigonotis peduncularis, comprises flazasulfuron, oxyfluorfen, fluazifop-p-butyl, triclopyr and surfactant. Posco; Res Inst Ind Sci&Technology.
173.    Huang, C., Traditional Chinese medicinal instant tea used for treating jaundice, comprises honeysuckle, Sonchus oleraceus, dandelion, fructus forsythiae, herba artemisiae capillaris, radix paeoniae alba, dried orange peel and radix bupleuri. Huang C.
174.    Hu, W., et al., Hand-washing cream comprises specified amount of cucumber, purple sweet potato, corn, Sonchus oleraceus, Aloe, glycerol, borneol and orange peel. Jiangsu Yanteng Agric Dev Co Ltd.
175.    Hu, C., et al., Preparing fermented pickled vegetable comprises e.g. selecting Sonchus oleraceus, removing fibrous root, soaking, drying, blanching in hot water, cooling, adding material into container, adding salt, pepper, ginger and fennel and fermenting. Univ Ningxia.
176.    Ge, H., Dumpling useful for relieving cough and asthma in children comprises bamboo leaf, calyx, candygrass, bead frullanolide, Sonchus oleraceus, sharp subsecond fruit, grass, vegetable juice, glutinous rice flour, milk and rock candy. Harbin Tianyi Ecological Agric Co Ltd.
177.    Fu, Y. and R. Ma, Tea used for reducing blood pressure, promoting metabolism, enhancing immunity and prolonging life, comprises balsam pear powder, Sonchus oleraceus leaf powder and medlar leaf powder. Zhenjiang Dantu Shangdang Shunong Tea.
178.    Fan, J., et al., Detoxifying and beautifying agaric cowpea composite healthcare candy comprises e.g. Sonchus oleraceus, Passiflora caerulea, bloom plum, Amomum villosum, Jasminum sambac, Portulaca oleracea, dry fungus and cowpea. Anhui Hui-King Food Co Ltd.
179.    Corr, I., et al., Herbicidal mixture, useful to control undesirable vegetation or its locus and prevent the emergence of vegetation including broadleaf weeds (Sonchus oleraceus), comprises aminopyralid and a sulfonylurea herbicide (metsulfuron). Dow Agrosciences Llc.
180.    Chen, N., N. Maeda, and S. Shibazaki, Skin whitening agent e.g. cream or milky lotion, for preventing-improving pigmentation and aging spots, and providing fairness to skin, contains extract of plants e.g. Oxalis corymbosa, Pleomele angustifolia or Sonchus oleraceus. Shiseido Co Ltd.
181.    Chen, A., Traditional Chinese medicine used for treating ovarian cyst, comprises Rosa roxburghii, Malvastrum, wild clover, Mappia foetida, leech, Micromelum, alfalfa, castor seed, Sonchus oleraceus and Blumea herb. Chen A.
182.    Cardoso Resende, J.H., Herbal formulation used for treatment of vitiligo, comprises aqueous extracts of Jacaranda, Solanum paniculatum and Sonchus oleraceus, and pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, flavoring agents and sweetening agent. Cardoso Resende J H.
183.    Cardoso Resende, J.H., Herbal formulation used for treating vitiligo, comprises combined plant extracts comprising Jacaranda pteroides extract, Solanum paniculatum extract and Sonchus oleraceus extract, and pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Cardoso Resende J H.
184.    Cao, Y. and Z. Chen, Kudzu root walnut nutritional rice contains Japonica rice, kudzu root, pecan kernel, Grifola frondosa, mushroom, red pepper, chicken, agar, hazelnut, yak meat, chayote, tea powder, Sonchus oleraceus, and Chrysanthemum. Dangtu Longshan Grain & Oil Ind & Trade Co Ltd.

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Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana