Sunday, November 23, 2014

Jacaranda mimosifolia, Neeli gulmohur

Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don
Family: Bignoniaceae

Common name: Blue Jacaranda
Bengali: নেএলকংঠ Neelkanth
Chinese: 蓝花楹
Hindi: Neeli gulmohur नीली गुलमोहर
Malayalam: നീലവാക
Spanish: Tarco
Thai: ศรีตรัง

Description: Trees 6-18 m tall. Leaves alternate, 24-45 cm long; bipinnate; pinnae elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 9-16 x 3-6 mm, entire, acuminate, cuneate, sessile. Panicles up to 45 cm long, erect, puberulous. Calyx campanulate, truncate, pubescent; teeth linear, c. 0.6 mm long. Corolla tube 30-35 mm long, abruptly dilated towards base; lobes subequal, 8-9 mm long, upper 2 lobes white inside; lower 3 lobes hairy within. Filaments of longer stamens c. 12 mm long, staminode subexserted, ± 2.6 mm long. Disk fleshy. Ovary oblong, 2-2.5 mm long, appressed pubescent; style 18-20 mm long, slightly curved and exceeding the stamens; stigma narrow oblong. Capsule suborbicular-oblong, 50-60 x 40-46 mm. Seeds obovoid, 5-6 x 4-4.5 mm (with wing 16-18 mm broad). 

Leaves’ volatile oil—applied to buboes. Leaves and bark of the plant—used for syphilis and blennorrhagia. An infusion of the bark is employed as a lotion for ulcers.

The leaves contain jacaranone, verbascoside and phenylacetic-beta-glucoside along with a glucose ester, jacaranose. Flavonoid scutellarein and its 7-glucuronide, and hydroquinones were also isolated. Fruits contain betasitosterol, ursolic acid and hentriacontane; stem bark gave lupenone and beta-sitosterol. The flowers contain an anthocyanin. In Pakistan, the flowers are sold as a substitute for the Unani herb Gul-e-Gaozabaan. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Root: sudorific, emetic, cathartic Bark, infusion: for fertility regulation Dried leaf: for liver disorders, antisyphilitic, for infections (compresses) Part not specified: abortifacient. Dried leaf: cytotoxic activity  Dried twig: hypotensive activity.

Fresh flowers. Cyanidin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside: flavonoid M14652; jacaranone: quinoid Dried fruit. Acetate ethyl-2-(1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-5-cyclohexadienyl): benzenoid; apigenin, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside: flavone. [Medicinal flora of Argentina]

41 Published articles of  Jacaranda mimosifolia
1.    Secondary Metabolites from Jacaranda Mimosifolia and Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaceae) and Their Anticandidal Activity
Sidjui, Lazare Sidjui; Zeuko'o, Elisabeth Menkem; Toghueo, Rufin Marie Kouipou; et al.
RECORDS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS  Volume: 8   Issue: 3   Pages: 307-311   Published: 2014

2.    Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization on mycorrhizal Statute of Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don cultivated in nurseries
Zaouchi, Yousr; Ben Bahri, Nada; Rezgui, S.; et al.
COMPTES RENDUS BIOLOGIES  Volume: 336   Issue: 10   Pages: 493-499   Published: OCT 2013

3.    A new phenylethanoid glucoside from Jacaranda mimosifolia
Rana, Ajay; Bhangalia, Shalika; Singh, Harsh Pratap
NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH  Volume: 27   Issue: 13   Pages: 1167-1173   Published: JUL 1 2013

4.    Avaliacao de temperaturas e substratos na germinacao de sementes de Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don.
Evaluation of temperatures and substrates on the germination of Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don.
Maciel, C. G.; Bovolini, M. P.; Finger, G.; et al.
Floresta e Ambiente  Volume: 20   Issue: 1   Pages: 55-61   Published: 2013

5.    Synthesis and adsorption properties of activated carbons from biomass of Prunus domestica and Jacaranda mimosifolia for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from water
Trevino-Cordero, H.; Juarez-Aguilar, L. G.; Mendoza-Castillo, D. I.; et al.
INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS  Volume: 42   Pages: 315-323   Published: MAR 2013

6.    Flower Bud Initiation and Development of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae) in Japan
Miyajima, I.; Takemura, C.; Kobayashi, N.; et al.
Edited Facciuto, G; Sanchez, MI
Conference: 7th International Symposium on New Floricultural Crops Location: Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA Date: NOV 22-25, 2011
Sponsor(s): Int Soc Hort Sci
VII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON NEW FLORICULTURAL CROPS  Book Series: Acta Horticulturae   Volume: 1000   Pages: 71-76   Published: 2013

7.    Study on Test Materials with The Relationship Between Growth and Development Characteristics and Temperature and Relative Humidity of Jacaranda mimosifolia
Sun, Ying; Li, Fan; Shi, JinAn
Edited Xu, B; Li, HY
Conference: 2nd International Conference on Building Materials and Structural Engineering (BMSE2013) Location: Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA Date: MAY 24-25, 2013
Sponsor(s): Wuhan Inst Technol; Beijing Mat Res Ctr; Int Mat Res Soc
BUILDING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING II  Book Series: Advanced Materials Research   Volume: 743   Pages: 189-194   Published: 2013

8.    Interspecific Crosses between Jacaranda mimosifolia and J. cuspidifolia (Bignoniaceae)
Miyajima, I.; Kurotani, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; et al.
Edited VanHuylenbroeck, J; VanLabeke, MC; VanLaere, K
Conference: 2nd International Symposium on Woody Ornamentals of the Temperate Zone Location: Ghent, BELGIUM Date: JUL 01-04, 2012
Sponsor(s): Int Soc Hort Sci
II INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WOODY ORNAMENTALS OF THE TEMPERATE ZONE  Book Series: Acta Horticulturae   Volume: 990   Pages: 253-258   Published: 2013

9.    Flower bud initiation and development of Jacaranda mimosifolia ( Bignoniaceae) in Japan.
Miyajima, I.; Takemura, C.; Kobayashi, N.; et al.
Edited Facciuto, G.; Sanchez, M. I.
Conference: VII International Symposium on New Floricultural Crops, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Acta Horticulturae  Issue: 1000   Pages: 71-76   Published: 2013

10.    Interspecific crosses between Jacaranda mimosifolia and J. cuspidifolia ( Bignoniaceae).
Miyajima, I.; Kurotani, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; et al.
Edited Huylenbroeck, J. van; Labeke, M. C. van; Laere, K. van
Conference: II International Symposium on Woody Ornamentals of the Temperate Zone, Gent, Belgium.
Acta Horticulturae  Issue: 990   Pages: 253-258   Published: 2013

11.    Ganoderma root rot: The scourge of Jacaranda mimosifolia in the "City of Jacarandas"
Coetzee, M. P. A.; Muthelo, V. G.; Wingfield, M. J.; et al.
SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY  Volume: 79   Pages: 180-181   Published: MAR 2012

12.    Factors affecting reproductive success in Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don. (Bignoniaceae).
Anita Rana; Seema Chauhan
The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology  Volume: 4   Issue: 1   Pages: unpaginated   Published: 2012

13.    Promotion of IAA, NAA on seed germination of Jacaranda mimosifolia.
Li Fan; Zhou LinYun; Shi Jin'an; et al.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B  Volume: 2   Issue: 11   Pages: 1184-1189   Published: 2012

14.    蓝花楹开花特性及其花器官构造特征观察
Observation on flowering habit and floral organ structural characterization of Jacaranda mimosifolia
李青; 刘月婷; 李帆; et al.
Li Qing; Liu Yueting; Li Fan; et al.
广东农业科学  Volume: 39   Issue: 9   Pages: 42-45   Article Number: 1004-874X(2012)39:9<42:lhykht>2.0.TX;2-V   Published: 2012
Guangdong Agricultural Sciences  Volume: 39   Issue: 9   Pages: 42-45   Article Number: 1004-874X(2012)39:9<42:lhykht>2.0.TX;2-V   Published: 2012

15.    Tissue culture and rapid propagation of Jacaranda mimosifolia.
Yang Li; Shi DaXing; Mai MiaoMiao; et al.
Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany  Volume: 20   Issue: 1   Pages: 26-32   Published: 2012

16.    Trace metals in soil and leaves of Jacaranda mimosifolia in Tshwane area, South Africa
Olowoyo, J. O.; van Heerden, E.; Fischer, J. L.; et al.
ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT  Volume: 44   Issue: 14   Pages: 1826-1830   Published: MAY 2010

17.    Investigating Jacaranda mimosifolia tree as biomonitor of atmospheric trace metals
Olowoyo, J. O.; van Heerden, E.; Fischer, J. L.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT  Volume: 164   Issue: 1-4   Pages: 435-443   Published: MAY 2010

18.    Polinizacao em area urbana: o estudo de caso de Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don (Bignoniaceae).
Pollination in urban area: the Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don (Bignoniaceae) case study.
Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Peruchi, Aline; Agostini, Kayna
Bioikos  Volume: 24   Issue: 1   Pages: 31-41   Published: jan-jun 2010

19.    Aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans desde madera en descomposicion de Jacaranda mimosifolia y Enterolobium contortisiliquum.
Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from decomposition wood of Jacaranda mimosifolia and Enterolobium contortisiliquum.
Alvarez, C.; Salim, R.; Runco, R.
Boletin Micologico  Volume: 24   Pages: 15-20   Published: 2009

20.    Identification, cloning and characterization of a GDSL lipase secreted into the nectar of Jacaranda mimosifolia
Kram, Brian W.; Bainbridge, Elizabeth A.; Perera, M. Ann D. N.; et al.
PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY  Volume: 68   Issue: 1-2   Pages: 173-183   Published: SEP 2008

21.    Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina.
de Viana, Marta L.; Albarracin Franco, Silvia
REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA TROPICAL  Volume: 56   Issue: 3   Pages: 1053-1061   Published: SEP 2008

22.    First record for the European fauna of Phytoliriomyza jacarandae Steyskal & Spencer, 1978 (Diptera Agromyzidae) leafminer of Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don. (Bignoniaceae)
Bella, S.; Mazzeo, G.; Suss, L.
Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura  Volume: 39   Issue: 1   Pages: 75-78   Published: APR 30 2007

23.    Efecto de la aplicacion de biosolidos en el crecimiento defecto de Jacaranda mimosifolia (Gualanday) y en las condiciones fisicas y quimicas de un suelo degradado.
Effect of biosolids application on the growth of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Gualanday) and under physical and chemical conditions of a degraded soil.
Ramirez Pisco, R.; Velasquez Pomar, D. C.; Acosta Baena, E.
Revista - Facultad Nacional de Agronomia Medellin  Volume: 60   Issue: 1   Pages: 3751-3770   Published: 2007

24.    Promotion of immature seed germination in Jacaranda mimosifolia
Miyajima, I; Kato, A; Hagiwara, JC; et al.
HORTSCIENCE  Volume: 40   Issue: 5   Pages: 1485-1486   Published: AUG 2005

25.    Anchored ISSR as molecular marker to characterize accessions of Jacaranda mimosifolia L. Don.
Escandon, AS; de la Torre, MP; Acevedo, A; et al.
Edited Tombolato, AFC; DiasTagliacozzo, GM
Conference: 5th International Symposium on New Floricultural Crops Location: Parana, BRAZIL Date: AUG 26-31, 2003
Proceedings of the Vth International Symposium on New Floricultural Crops  Book Series: ACTA HORTICULTURAE   Issue: 683   Pages: 121-127   Published: 2005

26.    Germination of Jacaranda mimosifolia (D. Don bignoniaceae) seeds: Effects of light, temperature and water stress
Socolowski, F; Takaki, M
BRAZILIAN ARCHIVES OF BIOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY  Volume: 47   Issue: 5   Pages: 785-792   Published: 2004

27.    Practical method of propagating Jacaranda mimosifolia by cuttings
Miyajima, I; Mata, D; Kobayashi, N; et al.
JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE  Volume: 73   Issue: 2   Pages: 137-139   Published: MAR 2004

28.    Correlation between pollen development and Ubisch bodies ontogeny in Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae)
Galati, B. G.; Strittmatter, L. I.
Beitraege zur Biologie der Pflanzen  Volume: 71   Issue: 2   Pages: 249-260   Published: 26 Mai, 1999

29.    Microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae)
Galati, B. G.; Strittmatter, L. I.
Phytomorphology  Volume: 49   Issue: 2   Pages: 147-155   Published: April-June, 1999

30.    Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don.
Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don.
Salazar, R.
Nota Tecnica sobre Manejo de Semillas Forestales - CATIE  Issue: 84   Pages: 2 pp.   Published: 1999

31.    Ovule ontogeny and megasporogenesis in Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don. (Bignoniaceae)
Galati, Beatriz G.; Strittmatter, L. I.
Phytomorphology  Volume: 49   Issue: 1   Pages: 67-74   Published: Jan.-March, 1999

32.    The jacaranda city under threat: Leaf miners attacking Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae)
Coetzee, Julie; Byrne, Marcus
Edited Robertson, H. G.
Conference: Joint Congress of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa (11th Congress) and the African Association of Insect Scientists (12th Congress) Location: Stellenbosch, South Africa Date: June 30-July 4, 1997
Sponsor(s): Entomological Society of Southern Africa
Insects in African economy and environment  Pages: 202   Published: 1997
Publisher: Entomological Society of Southern Africa {a}, P. O. Box 103, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

33.    Essai de mise en evidence de l'activite anti-amibienne de Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don.
Attempt at demonstrating the anti-amoebic activity of Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don.
Magnez, I.; Duriez, T.; Delelis-Dusollier, A.; et al.
Bulletin de la Societe Francaise de Parasitologie  Volume: 14   Issue: 1   Pages: 89-93   Published: 1996

34.    Preliminary study of the parasitic complex of Phytoliriomyza jacarandae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae) in Cordoba, Argentina
Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela
Acta Entomologica Chilena  Volume: 18   Issue: 0   Pages: 113-118   Published: 1993

35.    Impact of environmental factors on pollen fertility in Jacaranda mimosifolia L
Chauhan, S. V. S.; Jain, R. K.
Acta Botanica Indica  Volume: 20   Issue: 1   Pages: 156-158   Published: 1992

Indian Forester  Volume: 117   Issue: 1   Pages: 70-71   Published: 1991

Indian Journal of Forestry  Volume: 4   Issue: 3   Pages: 179-185   Published: 1981

PHARMAZIE  Volume: 35   Issue: 10   Pages: 649-650   Published: 1980

JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY  Volume: 56   Issue: 12   Pages: 1269-1270   Published: 1979

ANALES DE LA ASOCIACION QUIMICA ARGENTINA  Volume: 56   Issue: 3-4   Pages: 135-&   Published: 1968

South Africa Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Entomology Memoir  Volume: 14   Pages: 1-111   Published: 1968

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Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana