Saturday, April 25, 2015

Phaulopsis dorsiflora, 肾苞草

Phaulopsis dorsiflora (Retz.) Santapau
Family: Acanthaceae

Chinese: 肾苞草

Description: Diffuse herbs, branches glandular hairy. Leaves in unequal pairs, 3-5 x 2 cm, elliptic, acuminate at both ends, nerves 4 pairs; petiole 2.5 cm long. Spikes axillary, 2 x 1 cm, 1-sided; bracts paired, 6 x 7 mm, orbicular, hairy and long ciliate along the margins; bracteoles absent. Flowers small, scarcely seen above the bracts; calyx lobes 5, unequal; corolla 8 mm long, bilabiate, tube slender, lobes obtuse, white with pink spots; stamens 4, filaments united into an adnated sheath below. Capsule 3 mm long, glabrous; seeds 4, compressed.

Monday, April 20, 2015

Gmelina arborea, Gambhari, Gamhar, Intianjemane, Gmélin arboré

Gmelina arborea Roxb.
Family: Lamiaceae
  1. Common name: Gamhar
  2. Assamese: Gomari
  3. Bengali: গাম্ভারি Gambhari, গামার Gamar
  4. Chinese: 酸树
  5. Finnish: Intianjemane
  6. French: Gmélin arboré
  7. Gujarati: શેવન Shevan
  8. Hindi: गम्हड़ Gamhar, भद्रपर्णी Bhadraparni
  9. Kannada: ಶಿವನಿಮರ Shivanimara, ಕಾಶ್ಮೀರಿ ಮರ Kaashmiri Mara
  10. Konkani: Sirni
  11. Malayalam: Kumbil, കുമിഴ് Kumizh, കുമ്പിള് Kumpil
  12. Manipuri: ৱাঙ Wang
  13. Marathi: शिवण Sivan, थोरशिवणी Thorshivani
  14. Oriya: Thlanvawng
  15. Sanskrit: Madhumati, गम्भारी Gambhari, स्तूलत्वचा Stulatvacha
  16. Tamil: Kumalaamaram, குமுதை Kumutai, கூம்பல் Kumpal, பெருங்குமிழ் Peru-n-kumil
  17. Telugu: పెద్ద గుముడు టేకు Peddagumudutekku, పుల్లగుమ్మడి Pullagummadi,  అడవి గుమ్మడి Adavigummadi
  18. Thai: ซ้อ
Description: Trees ca. 15 m tall; bark grayish brown; branchlets, petioles, and inflorescences densely yellow-brown tomentose. Branchlets slightly 4-angled when young, becoming terete, lenticellate, leaf scars prominent. Petiole terete, 3.5-10 cm; leaf blade broadly ovate, 8-19 X 4.5-15 cm, thickly papery, base broadly cuneate to subcordate, apex acuminate; veins 3-5 pairs, abaxially prominent. Inflorescences terminal, narrow thyrses; peduncle 15-30 cm. Calyx 3-5 mm, with several black discoid gland patches; teeth 5, sharply triangular. Corolla yellow, 3-4 cm, 2-lipped, sparsely glandular; lower lip 3-lobed, outside yellowish brown puberulent, inside glabrous; upper lip entire or slightly 2-cleft. Ovary glabrous, glandular. Stigma unequally 2-cleft. Drupes yellow when ripe and black when dry, ellipsoid to obovoid-ellipsoid.

Coomb teak,    Candahar  tree or  Kashmeeri  tree  is  a  moderate  sized,  unarmed,  deciduous tree which is a vital ingredient of the ”dasamula” (group of ten roots). The whole  plant  is  medicinally  very  important.  It  promotes  digestive  power,  improves  memory,  overcomes giddiness and is also used as an antidote for snake bite and scorpion sting. Roots  are useful in hallucination, fever, dyspepsia, hyperdipsia, haemorrhoids, stomachalgia, heart  diseases, nervous disorders, piles and burning sensation. Bark is used in fever and dyspepsia.  Leaf paste is good for cephalagia and leaf juice is a good wash for foul ulcers and is also  used in the treatment of gonorrhoea and cough. Flowers are recommended for leprosy, skin  and  blood  diseases.  The  fruits  are  used  for  promoting  the  growth  of  hair  and  in  anaemia,  leprosy, ulcers, constipation, strangury, leucorrhoea, colpitis and lung disease. Wood  is  one  of  the  best  and  most  reliable  timber  of  India.  It  is  used  for  making furniture, planks, carriages, printing boxes, musical instruments, shafts, axles, picture frames, jute bobbins, calipers, ship buildings, artificial limbs and stethoscopes. [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag Uni.]

Used in Ayurveda. Flowers used in blood diseases. Leaves  demulcent,  carminative,  purgative,  diuretic,  antiinflammatory,  used  in  gonorrhea,  snakebite,  scorpion  sting,  cough  and ulcers; leaves decoction to cure gonorrhea and cough;  applied  in  rheumatic  affections,  headache;  leaves  infusion  carminative,  given  in  indigestion.  Fruits  cooling,  wound  dressing,  insecticide  and  astringent,  for  skin  diseases,  biliousness, fever and urticaria; ripe fruit juice with sugar and  pomegranate fruit juice taken for dysentery. Bark decoction  for stomach ailments; root paste of Abroma augustum with  bark  of  Adhatoda  zeylanica,  Gmelina  arborea  and  roots  of  Amaranthus  spinosus  applied  on  forehead  in  headache;  inner bark powder used in scabies; stembark used as an anti-dote to poisoning, a paste applied for whitlow. Roots, leaf  sap and flowers decoction, anodyne, diuretic, galactagogue,  laxative, for loosening phlegm, an appetite stimulant, for the  treatment  of  liver  disorders.  Roots  bitter,  tonic,  stomachic,  laxative  and  galactagogue,  applied  externally  on  wounds,  gout  and  abscesses;  root  decoction  given  in  indigestion,  fevers and anasarca; extract of the root given as blood purifier. Veterinary medicine, bark boiled with water applied on  tumors. Sacred plant, ceremonial sacrifice. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

To  rectify  eyeSight during  diabetes [Herbal Cures Traditional Approach]

Root:  as blood purifier,  Leaf:  as  carminative; Birhore:  Leaf:  in headache; Santal:  in anasarca,  asthma,  bronchitis,  cholera,  colic  pain,  diarrhoea,  dropsy,  dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, phthisis, rheumatism, smaIl pox, sore,  spleen complaints, syphilis, throat swelling, urticaria, as antidote  to snake bite and some other poisons; Munda: Bark: to cure wounds;  Sora (Orissa): Root:  in catarrh of bladder; Decoction of root: as  tonic; Bark: in stomach disorder; Ethnic Communities of Araku  Valley  (Andhra Pradesh):  Root:  in  malarial  fever;  Ethnic  Communities of Godavari (Andhra Pradesh): Bark-paste: on bone  fracture, Leaf: in cough, gonorrhoea; Ethnic Communities ofDehra  Dun {Uttar Pradesh): Leaf-paste: on wounds; Atharvaveda: blood  purifier; Charaka Samhita: useful in vomiting, dropsy and in burning  sensation of the body; Sushruta Samhita: energiser like grape, can  be used as substitute of sweet date palm; Bhavaprakasha: it is bitter,  appetiser, brain tonic, energiser, digestive, subdues vata and kapha,  removes dropsy,  alleviates thirst,  useful in colic pain, burning  sensation of body, fever, urinary complaints, wastage; Rajanighantu:  it is pungent, bitter, heavy (guru), thermogenic, removes oedema,  phlegm,  tridosha, burning sensation,  fever,  thirst,  poisons;  Dhanvantarinighantu: bitter,  thermogenic,  removes bleeding  tendency, tridosha .•  fatigue, burning sensation of body, fever, thirst;  Kaiyaoevanighantu: it is sweet, bitter,  thermogenic,  heavy,  appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, removes dropsy, giddiness, colic  pain, toxins, burning sensation of body,  fever,  alleviates thirst;  flowers sweet, cooling, bitter, astringent, beneficial for the diseases  caused by  pitta and kapha;  fruits  unctuous, heavy,  cooling,  astringent, brain tonic,  cardiotonic, removes giddiness, acidity,  urinary troubles, burning sensation of body, wounds, wastage and  troubles caused by vata; Rajavallabham: fruits seizing, bitter, sweet,  heavy, cooling, good for hair, brain, removes burning sensation of  body and diseases caused by pitta; roots are too hot;  Nighantu  ratnakaram: it is pungent, bitter, hot,  astringent, heavy,  sweet,  appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, cardiotonic, removes thirst, colic  pain, oedema, phlegm, toxins,  burning sensation of body, fever,  impurities of blood,  piles,  giddiness; fruits aphrodisiac, heavy,  increases semen, cooling, unctuous, increa~s intelligence, removes  urinary troubles, impurities of blood, thirst, burning sensation of  body, good for urticaria, consumption, wounds, leucorrhoea.  Ayurveda: Root:  Acrid,  bitter,  anthelmintic,  galactogogue,  laxative, stomachic, tonic, useful in burning sensation, dyspepsia,  fever, haemorrhoids, hallucination, hyperdisia and stomachalgia;  Bark: bitter, tonic, stomachic, useful in dyspepsia, fever; Leaf-paste:  useful in cephalalgia, Leaf-extract: good wash for foul ulcer; Flower:  acrid, astringent, bitter, refrigerant, sweet, useful in skin diseases  including leprosy; Fruits: acrid, alterant, aphrodisiac, astringent,  bitter, diuretic, refrigerant, sour, sweet, tonic, trichogenous, useful  in anaemia,  blood dysentery, constipation,  leprosy,  leucorrhoea,  malnutrition of child and embryo, strangury and wounds. [Horticultural, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants]

Leaf—demulcent, bechic. Used for removing foetid discharges from ulcers. Root— stomachic, laxative, antibilious, demulcent, galactagogue. Bark—anticephalalgic. Root and bark—febrifuge. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark and stem in inflammatory diseases and oedema; the fruit in dysuria and haemorrhagic diseases. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Medicinal  use:  Ethanolic  extract  of  bark  and  wood  is  hypoglycemic  and  antiviral.  Bark is also used as bitter tonic and galactagogue.  Juice  of  young  leaves  is  used  as  demulcent,  in  gonorrhea  and  coughs.  Flowers are used in leprosy and blood diseases.  Fruit is diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, alterative and is used in anemia, leprosy and ulcer.  Root and root bark are stomachic, laxative, anthelmintic and used in fever, piles and abdominal pains. Other uses; the wood is used as a source of paper-pulp, lumber, shade and ornament.  Its  wood  resembles  that  of  Teak  and  Is  widely  employed  In  carriage-building  and  ornamental  cabinet  work,  in  the  manufacture  of  palanquins, shafts, axels, yokes, agricultural instruments, toys etc.  The fruit is edible. Traditional use by the herbal healer of Bolipara: Local herbal healers use this for several treatment purposes as diarrhea, intestinal worm   and sore.  [Medicinal Plants of Chittagong]

The juice of the leaves of  this tree is used to remove foetid discharges and  worms from ulcers.  A decoction of the roots and bark  is given for  fever and thirst and to increase the secretion of milk in women. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic)  Used in Ceylon – Part-V]

696 Published articles of Gmelina arborea

Saturday, April 18, 2015

Crossandra infundibuliformis, Kanakambaram, Crossandra, Firecracker Flower, Кроссандра_воронковидная

Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) Nees
Family: Acanthaceae

Synonyms: Crossandra axillaris Nees, Crossandra coccinea Dalzell & A.Gibson, Crossandra infundibuliformis var. axillaris (Nees) Trimen, Crossandra infundibuliformis subsp. axillaris (Nees) L.H.Cramer, Crossandra infundibuliformis var. coccinea (Dalzell & A.Gibson) M.R.Almeida, Crossandra nutans Wight ex Nees, Crossandra oppositifolia Wight ex Nees, Crossandra undulifolia Salisb., Harrachia spinosa Hook. ex Nees, Justicia infundibuliformis L., Ruellia infundibuliformis (L.) Andrews

Common name: Crossandra, Firecracker Flower, Tropic Flame
  • Arabic: كروسندرة قمعية الشكل
  • Chinese: 鳥尾花
  • Finnish: Taikurinkukka
  • French: Montagnarde (La)
  • Japanese: クロサンドラ
  • Kannada: ಕನಕಂಬರಾ kanakambara
  • Konkani: Abuli आबुली
  • Malayalaam: Manjakkurinji, കനകാംബരം Kanakambaram
  • Marathi: Aboli आबोली
  • Persian: کروساندرا
  • Russian: Кроссандра_воронковидная
  • Tamil: கனகாம்பரம் Kanakambaram
  • Telugu: కనకాంబరం kanakambaram
  • Vietnamese: Hỏa hoàng

Description: A small glabrous, evergreen undershrub, up to 1 (-1.5) m tall with terete branchlets. Leaves crowded near the spike, on 1-4 cm long petiole; lamina ovate-elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, 5-10 x 2-5 cm, basally attenuate, glabrous, margin undulate-crenate, acute at tips. Spikes dense, terminal and axillary, up to 15 cm long. Flowers bright orange-scarlet with yellow throat; bracts lanceolate, 12-15 x 4-5 mm, mucronate, glandular-pubescent to glabrescent; bracteoles linear-lanceolate, hairy, mucronate. Calyx lobes hairy, lanceolate, 7-9 mm long, outer 2 obtuse or bifid, inner smaller. Corolla tube c. 2.5 cm long, limb c. 1.5 cm long. Stamens inserted at the middle of tube. Ovary 2.5-3 mm long; style filiform, up to 2 cm long, glabrous. Capsule oblong, 10-12 mm long, glabrous. Seeds densely clothed with fringed scales.
(Leaf paste applied for toothache. Bark ground with turmeric and the paste applied to skin diseases of children. Crushed fruits made into a paste for brushing teeth to cure pyorrhea. Root paste applied around vagina to cure venereal diseases, syphilis. Flowers ground with pepper and the paste applied to wounds. Aphrodisiac. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]
34 Published articles of Crossandra infundibuliformis

Hemigraphis hirta, Hairy Hemigraphis

Hemigraphis hirta (Vahl) T.Anderson
Family: Acanthaceae
Synonyms: Ruellia hitra, Ruellia sarmentosa, Ruellia latifolia Roth ex Nees

Common name: Hairy Hemigraphis

Published article:
Phytochemical Investigation of Hemigraphis-Hirta-T Anders And Jussiaea-Repens Linn
Mukherjee, KS; Laha, S; Chakraborty, CK
Journal of The Indian Chemical Society  Volume: 68   Issue: 11   Pages: 634-635   Published: NOV 1991

Cinnamomum tamala, Talisa, Tejpatta, Kanelilaakeri

Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & Eberm.
Family: Lauraceae

Common name: Indian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Tamala cassia, Indian bark
  • Arabic: zarnab ساذج هندي
  • Assamese: Mahpat, তেজপাত Tejpat
  • Bengali: তেজপাত Tejpat
  • Burmese: Thitchabo
  • Catalan: Malabathrum
  • Chinese: 辣皮树
  • Danish: Indisk Laurbærblad
  • Esperanto: Hinda cinamomo
  • Finnish: Kanelilaakeri
  • German: Indisches Lorbeerblatt
  • Gujarati: તમાલપત્ર Tamaal patra
  • Hindi: तेजपत्ता tejpatta
  • Hungarian: Indiai babérlevél
  • Japanese: タマラニッケイ
  • Kannada: Patraka
  • Latin: Folia Malabathri
  • Lithuanian: Indinis cinamonas
  • Malayalam: തമാലപത്രമ് Tamalapatram
  • Manipuri: তেজপাত Tejpat
  • Russian: Малабарская корица
  • Sanskrit: तमालपत्र tamalapattra, Tvak patra
  • Tamil: தாளிசபத்திரி Talishappattiri
  • Telugu: తాళీసపత్రి, Talisapatri, Taalisa, పట్ట ఆకులు Patta akulu
  • Thai: อบเชยต้น
  • Urdu: तेज़पात Tezpat
  • Vietnamese: ô duoc

Description: Trees, medium sized, up to 10 m tall; branchlets slender. Terminal bud small, sericeous, 2 bud scales. Leaves sub-opposite or spirally arranged, chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, glabrous in mature specimens, ovate, oblong to lanceolate, 2.5-8 x 7.5-25 cm, apex long acuminate, base acute; above smooth, the main nerves prominulous, below obscurely, densely minutely reticulate, midrib slender, prominent, basal nerves prominent, 4/5 or more of the lamina length, connected by faint, parallel secondary veins, 3-5 mm apart. Petiole slender, up to 1.5 cm long. Panicles axillary or pseudoterminal, slender, many-flowered, up to 10 cm long. Pedicels filiform, 4-8 mm long. Flower tuber short. Tepals oblong, 3-4 mm, inside sericeous. Stamens slightly shorter than the tepals; anthers oval, c. the filament length, 4-celled, of whorls 1 and 2 introrse, of whorl 3, the basal cells extrorse, the smaller upper ones latrorse; gland small, attached to the middle of the filaments. Staminodes as long as the stamens, hastate, long-stipitate. Style thickish, as long as the ovary; stigma small, peltate. Fruit slender, ellipsoid, acutish, up to 7 x 11 mm; cup obconical, fleshy, up to 5 mm high and 7 mm in diameter at the rim, the basal part obconical, merging into the, up to 8 mm long, obconical pedicel; 1-2 mm long basal part of the tepals in fruit hardened, persistent.

Ayurvedic uses: Arsha, aruchi, pinasa [API Vol-1]

Anorexia, hemorrhoids, cough and nausea [Compendia Of World's Medicinal Flora]

Used  in  Ayurveda.  Bark  analgesic,  antibiotic,  antiseptic,  astringent, carminative, digestive, aromatic, emmenagogue,  stimulant,  stomachic,  a  decoction  for  complaints  of  colic,  diarrhea  and  piles,  coughs,  diarrhea,  gonorrhea,  rheumatism,  boils,  itchings,  conjunctivitis;  stembark  juice  applied  on teeth in tooth decay and toothache; dried bark used for  stomachache,  intestinal  disorders  and  gonorrhea.  Paste  of  stem bark applied on spondiloarthritis; bark and leaves for  headache. Leaves carminative, digestive, aromatic, emmena gogue, stimulant, used in colic, diarrhea, dysentery, rheuma tism, scorpion sting; a decoction of leaves of Cinnamomum  tamala  with  roots  of  Lasia  spinosa  given  in  rheumatism.  [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Leaf—Carminative, antidiarrhoeal, spasmolytic, antirheumatic, hypoglycaemic. Essential oil—fungicidal [Indian Medicinal Plants an Illustrated Dictionary]

Unani uses: Zof-e-Meda, Bakhrulfam Zof-e-Kabid, Ishal, Sual, Nazla, Zukam.

106 Published articles of Cinnamomum tamala

Thursday, April 16, 2015

Cinnamomum verum, Cinnamon, Dalchini

Cinnamomum verum J.Presl
Family: Lauraceae
Synonyms: Persea cinnamomum Spreng., Laurus rigida Wall., Laurus montana Link ex Meisn., Laurus culitlaban Buch.-Ham. ex Nees, Laurus cinnamomum L., Laurus cinnamomea Salisb., Laurus cinnamifera Stokes, Cinnamomum zollingeri Lukman., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. microphyllum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. inodorum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. foeniculaceum Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cordifolium Hayne, Cinnamomum zeylanicum var. cassia Meisn., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Cinnamomum wolkensteinii Lukman., Cinnamomum variabile Lukman., Cinnamomum vaillantii Lukman., Cinnamomum sonneratii Lukman., Cinnamomum sieberi Lukman., Cinnamomum roxburghii Lukman., Cinnamomum regelii Lukman., Cinnamomum pourretii Lukman., Cinnamomum pleei Lukman., Cinnamomum pallasii Lukman., Cinnamomum ovatum Lukman., Cinnamomum meissneri Lukman., Cinnamomum mauritianum Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum var. karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum maheanum Lukman., Cinnamomum madrassicum Lukman., Cinnamomum leschenaultii Lukman., Cinnamomum leptopus A.C.Sm., Cinnamomum karrouwa Lukman., Cinnamomum iners Wight [Illegitimate], Cinnamomum humboldtii Lukman., Cinnamomum erectum Lukman., Cinnamomum ellipticum Lukman., Cinnamomum delessertii Lukman., Cinnamomum decandollei Lukman., Cinnamomum cordifolium Lukman., Cinnamomum commersonii Lukman., Cinnamomum cinnamomum (L.) H.Karst., Cinnamomum cayennense Lukman., Cinnamomum carolinense var. oblongum Kaneh., Cinnamomum capense Lukman., Cinnamomum boutonii Lukman., Cinnamomum bonplandii Lukman., Cinnamomum biafranum Lukman., Cinnamomum bengalense Lukman., Cinnamomum barthii Lukman., Cinnamomum aromaticum J.Graham, Cinnamomum alexei Kosterm., Camphorina cinnamomum (L.) Farw.

Common name: Cinnamon
Albanian: Kanella, Kanellë
Amharic: Kerefa, qa-ra-faa, ቀረፋ
Arabic: قِرْفَة, dâr sînî, قرفة
Armenian: Կինամոն
Azerbaijani: Darçın, Дарчын
Basque: Kanela, Kanelondo
Burmese: Thit-ja-bo-gauk
Catalan: Canyella
Croatian: Ceylonski cimet, Cimet
Czech: Skorice, Skorice cejlonska
Esperanto: Cinamo
Estonian: Kaneel, Tseiloni kaneelipuu
Finnish: aitokaneli, Ceyloninkaneli Kaneli
French: Cannelier de Ceylan, Cannelle, Cannelle type Ceylan, Cannellier
Galician: canela
Georgian: Darichini, daricini, დარიჩინი
German: Ceylon-Zimt Echter Zimt, Zimtblute
Hebrew: קינמון
Hindi: दालचीनी Dalchini
Hungarian: Ceyloni fahéj,
Indonesian: Kayu manis
Italian: cannella del Ceylano
Japanese: にっけい, セイロンニッケイ,  肉桂
Kannada: ದಾಲಚೀನೀ Dalchini
Kazakh: Даршин
Khmer: Chek tum phka loeng
Korean: 계, 육계
Latin: Cortex Cinnamomi zeylanici
Malayalam: കറുവ
Polish: Cynamon cejloński
Portuguese: canelleira da India
Romanian: Scorţişoară
Russian: Цейлонская корица
Sanskrit: Darusita, tamalapatra, twak
Sinhalese: Kurundu
Tamil: சன்னலவங்கம் Channalavangam, Karuva
Telugu: Dalchini chekka దాల్చిన చెక్క
Thai: อบเชย,  อบเชยเทศ
Turkish: Tarcin, Tarçın ağacı
Ukrainian: Кориця
Vietnamese: Quế rành
Yiddish: Tsimring

Description: Trees, to 20 m high, bark 8-10 mm thick, brown, rough, cracks vertical; blaze creamy pink; bole buttressed; branchlets glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite, estipulate; petiole 8-20 mm, stout, glabrous, slightly grooved above; lamina 9.5-14 x 3.5-5.5 cm, ovate, elliptic ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, base acute, apex acute to acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, 3-ribbed from base, prominent, glabrous; lateral nerves 3-6 pairs, obscure, pinnate; intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, in terminal and axillary, pedicel 7 mm long, pale yellow, 5 mm long, 6 mm across; perianth 8 mm, silky, tube campanulate, lobes 6, 3 mm long, oblong-lanceolate; stamens 9 perfect, those of first and second rows opposite the perianth lobes, introrse and eglandular, those of third row opposite the first row, lateral, bearing 2 large glands at the base; staminodes 3, of the forth row opposite the second row, cordate and stipitate; ovary half inferior, sessile. Fruit a berry, 1-2 cm, ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid, dark purple, surrounded by the enlarged perianth.

Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge [ Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. Univ]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Root bark and stem bark aromatic. Dried bark aromatic, carminative, astringent, stimulant,  stomachic,  analgesic,  antiseptic,  antispasmodic, germicide,  hemostatic,  used  for  stomachache,  vomiting, nausea, flatulence, to treat headaches and intestinal troubles; stembark juice applied on teeth in tooth decay and toothache. Bark and leafy branches contain volatile oil useful in rheumatic pains and nervous breakdown. Aromatic root smelled to relieve headache. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Dominican Medicinal Uses : The inner bark is traditionally prepared as a decoction and taken orally for allergy, anxiety, arthritis, low blood pressure, kidney ailments, common cold, flu, sinusitis and women’s health conditions. Contraindications: Large quantities of cinnamon should not be during pregnancy due to potential teratogenic effects. [Dominican Medicinal Plants]

Cinnamon tea might be useful for elderly bedridden patients with cold extremities, or in preparing such  a  patient  for  a  recuperative  walk,  or  cast  removal  from  a  fractured  extremity.  Regarded  as antipyretic, antiseptic, astringent, balsamic, carminative, diaphoretic, fungicide, stimulant, and stomachic, it is a fragrant cordial, useful for weakness of stomach and diarrhea, checking nausea and vomiting,  and  used  in  other  medicinal  mixtures.  Powdered  bark  in  water  (or  EO,  or  tiger  balm containing many of the same chemicals) is applied to the temple in headaches and neuralgia. Cinnamon bark  prevents  platelet  agglutination  and  shows  antithrombic  and  antitumor  activity.  Lebanese  use cinnamon  as  a  stimulant,  for  colds,  rheumatism,  halitosis,  and  to  check  slobbering  in  young  and elderly people. It is also used to loosen coughs. Ayurvedics consider the bark aphrodisiac and tonic, using it for biliousness, bronchitis, diarrhea, itch, parched mouth, worms, and cardiac, rectal, and urinary diseases. They use the oil for “eructations,” gas, loss of appetite, nausea, and toothache. Unani consider  the  oil  carminative,  emmenagogue,  and  tonic  to  the  liver,  using  it  for  abdominal  pains, bronchitis, head colds, and inflammation. They consider the bark alexeteric, aphrodisiac, carminative expectorant, sialagogue, and tonic, using it for gas, headache, hiccup, hydrocele, liver ailments, piles, and scorpion stings. One of our Belizean ecotourists was complaining about a snoring roommate. Famed Belizean herbalist Rosita Aruigo suggests 1 cup of cinnamon tea with 2 tsp grated ginger, adding honey and milk to taste. Drink at bedtime each night until cured. Since I have mentioned one spicy Ayurvedic triad, trikatu (ginger, long pepper, and pepper), I may as well mention another spicy triad, trijataka [cardamom, cinnamon, and “tejapatra,” which I am told is cassia (unidentified in DEP and WOI)],  three  more  aromatics  often  used  together  for  lengual  paralysis,  stomach  cramps,  and toothache. [CRC Handbook of medicinal spices]

Cinnamon are mainly used for digestive disorders such as diarrhoea, and flatulent colic or dyspepsia. Cinnamon has also been used for the common cold, and the oil may have antiseptic activity. It has been used in Chinese medicine for circulatory disorders. [Herbal Medicines Interactions]

Cinnamon used in Asian traditional medicine for colds, flu, and digestive problems, recent investigations indicate that it has a potent stabilizing effect on blood sugar levels, helping to slow or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is also active against Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium commonly linked with  stomach ulcers.  [Herbal Remedies] 

68 Published articles of Cinnamomum verum

Tuesday, April 14, 2015

Thunbergia grandiflora, Neel lata, Blue Trumpet Vine, สร้อยอินทนิล

Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Roxb.
Family: Acanthaceae

Synonyms: Flemingia grandiflora Roxb. ex Rottl., Pleuremidis grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottl.) Raf., Thunbergia adenophora W.W. Sm., Thunbergia chinensis Merr., Thunbergia cordifolia Nees, Thunbergia lacei Gamble

Common name: Bengal Clock Vine, Bengal Trumpet Vine, Blue Sky Flower, Blue Sky Vine, Blue Trumpet Vine
Assamese: Kukua loti
Bengali: নীল লতা Neel lota
Chinese: 大花山牵牛, 大花老鸦嘴
Gujarati: Tumakhlung
Hindi: नील लता Neel lata
Kenya: cheptereret
Khasi: Jermi khnong, Syntiew jyrni chankhlaw
Malay: patok tuwauh
Mizo: Vakohrui, Zawngafian, Vako
Russian: Тунбергия_крупноцветковая
Swedish: Klockthunbergia
Tanzania: bangiliko, enyoru, wankula
Thai: สร้อยอินทนิล
Vietnamese: Dây bông xanh

Description: Woody vine, twining, 10-15 m in length. Stems cylindrical, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, striate, puberulous; cross section of the stem with the pith hollow and the xylem tissue with wide rays. Leaves opposite; blades 15-26 × 13-30 cm, ovate or broadly ovate, chartaceous, the apex acute or acuminate, the base cordiform or subcordiform, the margins lobate-dentate, ciliate; upper surface dark green, shiny, puberulous, with slightly prominent venation; lower surface light green, ull, glabrous or puberulous, with prominent venation; petioles 6-12 cm long, sulcate. Flowers arranged in axillary cymes; pedicels robust, cylindrical, 4-6 cm long; bracts light green, membranaceous, ovate, ca. 4 cm long, covering the calyx and the corolla tube. Calyx green, in the form of a ring, 4-5 mm long; corolla lilac or white, infundibuliform, with 5 lobes, the tube 6-7 cm long, light yellow inside, narrow at the base, the limb 6-7 cm in diameter. Capsule ca. 3 cm long, subglobose at the base, the upper half in the form of a beak, dehiscent in two halves.

Leaves decoction drunk for stomach complaints and indigestion; leaves paste used as poultice in skin diseases, cuts; juice of leaves with leaves of Thunbergia coccinea given in stomach pain. Sap from the stem given in eye troubles. Roots, leaves and whole plant decoction applied to snakebites. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]
Therapeutic uses: The leaves are commonly used against snake-bite. The petioles are removed and the juice of 30 to 50g of pounded fresh leaves is used to massage the site of the snake-bite, from the top downwards ; the residue is applied topically. The leaves are used on their own or in combination with Abelmoschus moschatus leaves and Clausena lansium seeds. Poulticing with a moistened fine powder of dried leaves is also prescribed. [Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam]

15 Published articles of Thunbergia grandiflora

Thunbergia fragrans, Indrapushpam, Chimin

Thunbergia fragrans Roxb.
Family: Acanthaceae

Common name: White Clock-Vine, White Lady, white thunbergia
Chinese: 铁贯藤 
Hindi: चिमीन Chimin
Japan: yahazu-kazura
Malayalam: Noorvan-valli
Marathi: चिमीन Chimine
Malayalam: Noorvan-valli
Spanish: Flor de nieve
Tamil: இந்த்ரபுஸ்பம் Indrapushpam, Kaasanangaai, Thannikkodi 
Othe rnames: benne  balli,  chakrakedar,  chimiti,  hegala  balli, indrapushapa, indrapushpa balli, indrathige, indratige, intiraputpi,  jimandaarathige,  koligokke,  kolikka,  kolikokka, kolikokkai,  koliokokkai,  noorvan  valli,  palatheega,  simiti, vengachchaan poovu

Description: A slender, herbaceous twiner or climber with quadrangular strigose young shoots. Leaves with 2-4.5 cm long, slender petiole; lamina broadly elliptic to ovate or lanceolate-ovate, (3-) 4-10 x (1.5) 2-5 (-6) cm, entire or few toothed, sparsely strigose on both sides near the truncate to cordate base, palmately 3-5-nerved, acute-acuminate. Flowers white, 4-5 cm long, c. 5 cm across, solitary axillary, on 2-7 cm long stout pedicels; bracts connate and spathaceous, oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm x c. 6-8 mm, ± acute, hairy. Calyx cupular with 12-16, subulate, 1-3 mm long, glandular hairy teeth. Corolla tube cylindrical, 2-2.5 cm long; lobes 5, subequal, nearly as long as tube, puberulous outside. Staminal filaments glandular-hairy below; anthers oblong, slightly beaked above, without spur at base. Style c. 2 cm long. Capsule depressed globose, c. 8 mm across, scabrid, puberulent, with 1-1.5 cm long beak. Seeds reticulate. 
Used in Sidha. Tender twigs made into a paste applied all over the body against the fever. Leaves used as poultice in skin diseases; tender leaf juice poured in nose and the paste applied  on  face  for  giddiness,  and  on  forehead  for  head-ache;  crushed  leaves  decoction  drunk  for  paralysis;  leaf paste applied on cuts and wounds; leaves ground with cumin mixed in water and taken orally as abortifacient. Fresh root juice used as eye drops. Magico-religious beliefs, to keep off evil spirits and ghosts, flowers paste applied all over the body and fruits tied as a necklace. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

7 Published articles of Thunbergia fragrans

Ruellia tuberosa, chatpati, Minnie Root, pattaskai

Ruellia tuberosa L.
Family: Acanthaceae
Synonyms: Cryphiacanthus barbadensis Nees, Dipteracanthus clandestinus C.Presl

Common name: Waterkanon, Watrakanu, Minnie Root, Iron root, Feverroot, Popping pod,
Chinese: 块根芦莉草
Javanese: Ceplikan
Marathi: Ruwel
Tamil: Pattaskai பட்டாஸ்காய்
Thai: ต้อยติ่ง
Hindi: chatpati चट्पटि
Telugu: chetapatakaayala mokka చిటపటకాయల మొక్క,
Other names: ghabri, jalvarkur, jurbula, ote sirka ba, tapas kaaya

Description: An erect, up to 60 (-70) cm tall herb with stout, 4-angled stems, swollen and purplish at the nodes, tender parts sparsely hairy. Roots slender, elongated, tuberous. Leaves with up to 2 cm long petiole; lamina oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, 5-9 (-10) x 2-4 cm, shining, basally cuneate to attenuate, entire to ± undulate, obtuse to somewhat acute, often mucronulate. Flowers shortly pedicellate, blue-violet, showy, 5-5.5 cm long, c. 3.5 cm across, solitary or in 1-3-flowered, terminal or axillary cymes; bracts and bracteoles linear-lanceolate, c. 5 mm long. Calyx lobes ± equal, linear, 1.3-2 cm long, ciliate, acute. Corolla pubescent outside, tube c. 3.5 cm long, abruptly narrowed at base, limb 5-lobed, lobes ± equal, ovate, c. 1.5 cm long, patent. Stamens with oblong-sagittate, c. 4 mm long, puberulous anthers. Ovary oblong, c. 4 mm long, glabrous; style 2.3-2.5 cm long. Capsule oblong, 2.2-3 cm long, glabrous or scabrescent, 24-28-seeded, minutely beaked at tip. Seeds flattened, orbicular, c. 2 mm across, hairy.
Plant  decoction  antacid,  in  indigestion  and  stomachache; plant and roots decoction taken internally for urinary troubles. Leaf paste for eczema; leaf decoction drunk by pregnant women for cold in the body. Roots infusion for oliguria, heat,  fever,  influenza,  venereal  diseases,  constipation;  root decoction diuretic and aphrodisiac. A paste made of root and few peppers is taken to cure stomachache. Tuber poultice for
swelling, joint pain. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Purgative and causes perspiration [Women’s Knowledge of Herbs used in Reproduction in Trinidad and Tobago. Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

Brazilians mix leaves with castor oil for skin eruptions blamed on teething, Cubans,  considering  roots  and  leaves  diuretic,  emetic,  and  purgative,  use  also  for malaria, peritonitis, pneumonia, and whooping cough.  Dominicans use macerated roots for leukorrhea and pelvic pain. Dominicans use the plant as analgesic, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, and febrifuge, for cough, cystosis, fever, and pertussis. Guadelupans use as diuretic, taking 2 tsp–1.5 tbsp dry herb/half bottle Spanish wine for jaundice. Haitians use leaf, flower, and root as diuretic, in decoction. Peruvians suggest the infusion for bronchosis, flu, gonorrhea, headache, inflammation, leprosy, oliguria, pain, and wounds. Venezuelans  use  root  decoction  for  asthma,  blennorrhagia,  catarrh,  and  pulmonosis. [ Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America]

A decoction is given in chronic bronchitis; also used as a diuretic for the treatment of stones in the bladder. [Indian Medicinal Plants - Ayurveda]

Whole plant: To treat bladder diseases and frequent micturition; decoction with Petiveria alliacea is drunk to "clean out" uterine tract (dilation and curettage) or as an abortifacient. Root: Infusion for kidney diseases; in a syrup for whooping cough; infusion or decoction for a diabetes remedy; tubers in a tea used for cleansing the blood. Root and Leaf: In a tea used for alleviating retention of urine and to remedy weakness. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)

Diuretic, antitoxic, abdominal pain, flu, hepatitis, high blood pressure, diabetes [Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants]

58 Published articles of Ruellia tuberosa

Eranthemum pulchellum, Gulsham, Neelambaram, Neelamulli

Eranthemum pulchellum Andrews
Family: Acanthaceae

Synonyms: Daedalacanthus nervosus (Vahl) T.Anderson, Daedalacanthus scaber T.Anderson, Daedalacanthus varians (Vent.) Voss, Eranthemum bicolor Schrank, Eranthemum edgeworthianum Nees, Eranthemum grandiflorum Zipp. ex Span., Eranthemum nervosum (Vahl) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult., Eranthemum scabrum Wall. ex T.Anderson, Eranthemum varians Billb., Fittonia verschaffeltii var. pearsei G. Nicholson, Justicia bicolor Sims, Justicia gendarussa Blanco, Justicia nervosa Vahl, Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radlk. ex Lindau, Pseuderanthemum pulchellum (Andrews) Merr., Ruellia varians Vent., Siphoneranthemum bicolor Kuntze, Upudalia pulchella (Andrews) Raf.

  • Common name: Blue Sage, Blue eranthemum
  • Chinese: 爱春花
  • Finnish: Korukäpy
  • French: Pensée créole
  • Hindi: गुलशाम Gulsham
  • Tamil: Neelamulli நீள முள்ளி
  • Telugu: Neelambaramu నీలాంబరము
Description: Eranthemum pulchellum (Eranthemum nervosum, English: blue eranthemum, or blue sage) is a strongly branched shrub, popular with gardeners in tropical India and China because of the spikes of flowers that are bright gentian blue - an unusual color in the tropics. The flowers appear from green-and-white veined bracts that remain after the blooms fall, forming a column several inches long. The hairy leaves are large and dark green. A sprawling shrub which may reach a metre or more in height, E. pulchellum is usually kept lower and bushier through pruning. Light shade is preferred in a garden; in a greenhouse it needs warm conditions. It is easily propagated from cuttings. Eranthemum pulchellum is the only species in the genus Eranthemum.

Roots, stems and leaves decoction antimicrobial, antiseptic, used for wounds, ulcers. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Published article of Eranthemum pulchellum

Sunday, April 12, 2015

Cosmos sulphureus, Yellow Cosmos, Sulphur Cosmos

Cosmos sulphureus Cav.
Family Compositae
  • Common name: Yellow Cosmos, Sulphur Cosmos 
  • Chinese: 硫華菊
  • Finnish: Keltakosmos
  • Japanese: キバナコスモス
  • Korean: 노랑코스모스
  • Malayalam: മാങ്ങാനാറി
  • Persian: گل ستارهای
  • Russian: kosmos želtyj, космос желтый
  • Swedish: gullskära
  • Thai: ดาวกระจาย
  • Vietnamese: Cúc_vạn_thọ_tây_vàng

Synonyms: Bidens artemisiifolia (Jacq.) Kuntze, Bidens artemisiifolia f. grandiflora Kuntze, Bidens artemisiifolia subsp. intermedia Kuntze, Bidens artemisiifolia f. parviflora Kuntze, Bidens artemisiifolia f. rubra Kuntze, Bidens artemisiifolia var. rubra Kuntze, Bidens sulfurea (Cav.) Sch.Bip., Bidens sulphurea (Cav.) Sch.Bip., Bidens sulphureus (Cav.) Sch.Bip., Coreopsis artemisiaefolia Jacq., Coreopsis artemisifolia Sessé & Moc., Coreopsis artemisiifolia Jacq., Cosmea sulphurea (Cav.) Willd., Cosmos artemisiifolius (Jacq.) M.R.Almeida, Cosmos aurantiacus Klatt, Cosmos sulphureus var. exaristatus Sherff, Cosmos sulphureus var. hirsuticaulis Sherff, Cosmos sulphureus f. sulphureus, Cosmos sulphureus var. sulphureus

Description: Plants 30–200 cm, glabrous or sparsely pilose to hispid. Leaves: petioles 1–7 cm; blades 5–12(–25) cm, ultimate lobes 2–5 mm wide, margins sparsely spinulose-ciliate, apices apiculate. Peduncles 10–20 cm. Calyculi of spreading-ascending, linear-subulate bractlets 5–7(–10) mm, apices acute; Involucres 6–10 mm diam. Phyllaries erect, oblong-lanceolate, 9–13(–18) mm, apices acute to rounded-obtuse. Ray corollas intensely yellow to red-orange, laminae obovate, 18–30 mm, apices ± truncate, denticulate. Disc corollas 6–7 mm. Cypselae 15–30 mm, usually hispidulous, rarely glabrous; pappi 0, or of 2–3 widely divergent awns 1–7 mm. 2n = 24, 48.

Antibacterial,  antifungal,  antiinflammatory,  for  gastric ulcer, liver inflammation, arthritis. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

43 Published articles of Cosmos sulphureus

Saturday, April 11, 2015

Blepharis maderaspatensis, Dudhiya choti, Kooravaalchedi

Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) B. Heyne ex Roth
Family: Acanthaceae

Synonyms: Acanthus ciliaris Burm.f. , Acanthus maderaspatensis L. , Blepharis abyssinica Hochst. ex A.Rich. , Blepharis boerhaviifolia Pers. , Blepharis boerhaviifolia Roth , Blepharis boerhaviifolia var. maderaspatensis (L.) Nees , Blepharis boerhaviifolia var. micrantha Sond. , Blepharis boerhaviifolia var. nigronervulosa De Wild. & T.Durand , Blepharis breviciliata Fiori , Blepharis calaminthifolia Pers. , Blepharis gueinzi T.Anderson , Blepharis maderaspatensis var. abyssinica Fiori , Blepharis maderaspatensis subsp. maderaspatensis , Blepharis maderaspatensis subsp. rubiifolia (Schumach.) Napper , Blepharis procumbens B.Heyne ex Roth , Blepharis procurrens Nees , Blepharis rubiifolia Schumach. , Blepharis teaguei Oberm. , Blepharis togodelia Solms ex Schweinf.
Common name: Creeping Blepharis
Hindi: दूधिया चोटी Dudhiya choti, Uttagana
Kannada: Kodali soppu
Malayalam: Murikootipacha, Elumbotti, Hemakandi
Tamil: Kooravaalchedi, Kooravaal Chedi, Kozhimookkan
Description: Prostrate herbs. Leaves ternate, unequal, 3-5 x 2 cm, obovate, apex apiculate, puberulus, margins distantly serrate; petiole to 3 cm. Flowers axillary; bracts 4 pairs, obovate, margins dentate with stiff elongated hairs, bracteoles 1.5 cm, spathulate; outer calyx lobes 1.3 cm and 1.8 cm, oblong, 2 and 3 veined, inner 8 mm; corolla tube urceolate, 5 mm, lower lip reduced, upper lip 3 lobed, 18 x 12 mm, white with pink nerves; filaments 4 and 5 mm, anthers 1-celled, apiculate, bearded; ovary 2.5 mm, oblong, style 1 cm, with a basal ring. 

Uses: Plant ash for dropsy, swellings, edema, gout; dry alcoholic extract  of  the  plant  a  potent  diuretic;  plant  parts  crushed mixed  with  sheep  milk  given  for  venereal  diseases.  Leaf juice in throat troubles and asthma; leaves ground with egg and onion and applied for bone fracture; leaf paste applied on wounds. Veterinary medicine, leaves ground with egg and onion and applied for bone fracture. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

10 Published articles of Blepharis maderaspatensis

Hygrophila polysperma, Indischer Wasserfreund, Гигрофила многосеменная

Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T.Anderson
Synonym: Justicia polysperma Roxb., Hemiadelphis polysperma (Roxb.) Nees
Family: Acanthaceae

Chinese: 小狮子草
Deutsch: Indischer Wasserfreund
Russian: Гигрофила многосеменная

21 Published articles of  Hygrophila polysperma

Cinar, Aysegul. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 2014. 23(9): p. 2190-2194.
2.    Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explant of dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson) Karatas, Mehmet, Aasim, Muhammad, Cinar, Aysegul
Dogan, Muhammet. TheScientificWorldJournal, 2013. 2013: p. 680425-680425.
3.    High frequency plant regeneration of dwarf hygro ( Hygrophila polysperma Roxb. T. Anderson) on liquid culture Cinar, A. Karatas, M.
Aasim, M. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 2013. 7(3): p. 75-78.
4.    Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the rhizosphere of the aquatic weed Hygrophila polysperma Mukherjee, Abhishek Khan, Matiyar R. Crow, William T.
Cuda, James P. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 2012. 50: p. 84-91.
5.    Effect of simulated herbivory on growth of the invasive weed Hygrophila polysperma: Experimental and predictive approaches Mukherjee, Abhishek Jones, James W. Cuda, James P. Kiker, Gregory
Overholt, William A. Biological Control, 2012. 60(3): p. 271-279.
6.    Efficacy of 10 Broadcast Foliar-Applied Herbicide Treatments on Emergent Hygrophila (Hygrophila polysperma) Fast, Brandon J. Gray, C. J. Ferrell, Gray J. A.
MacDonald, E. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 2009. 47: p. 155-157.
7.    First record in the Mexican flora of Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae), an aquatic weed Mora-Olivo, Arturo Daniel, Thomas F. Martinez, Mahinda. Revista Mexicana De Biodiversidad, 2008. 79(1): p. 265-269.
8.    Occurrences of Hygrophila polyspernia (RoXB.) T. ANDERSON, Pontederia cordata in North Rhine-Westphalia Hussner, Andreas Josephs, Mathilde
Schmitz, Ulf. Floristische Rundbriefe, 2007. 40: p. 25-30.
9.    Interference competition between Ludwigia repens and Hygrophila polysperma: two morphologically similar aquatic plant species Doyle, R. D. Francis, M. D. Smart, R. M. Aquatic Botany, 2003. 77(3): p. 223-234.
10.    Is the aquatic weed hygrophila, Hygrophila polysperma (Polemoniales: Acanthaceae), a suitable target for classical biological control? Cuda, J. P. Sutton, D. L. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Bozeman, Montana, USA, 4-14 July, 1999, 2000: p. 337-348.
11.    First records of the aquatic weed Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae) from Texas Angerstein, Michelle B.
Lemke, David E. SIDA Contributions to Botany, 1994. 16(2): p. 365-371.
12.    The effects of stress and disturbance on proximate composition, allocation of production, photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll levels in Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) Anders. (Acanthaceae) Kovach, Charles W. Kurdziel, Josepha P. Bowman, Reed Wagner, James
Lawrence, John M. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 1992. 32(4): p. 479-486.
Kurdziel, J. P. Bowman, R. Wagner, J.
Lawrence, J. M. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 1992. 32(4): p. 479-486.
Lawrence, J. M. Witz, B. W. Kovach, C. W. Aquatic Botany, 1990. 36(2): p. 207-214.
Miroslavov, E. A. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St. Petersburg), 1986. 71(7): p. 881-886.
Wunderlin, R. P. Florida Scientist, 1981. 44(3): p. 189-192.
Kaur, S. Indian Journal of Pharmacy, 1974. 36(6): p. 168-168.
18.    HYGROPHILA-POLYSPERMA-D A HARD PLANT Zimpel, H. Monatsschrift fuer Ornithologie und Vivarienkunde Ausgabe B Aquarien Terrarien, 1972. 19(3): p. 99-99.
19.    Contribution to our knowledge of the physiological anatomy of some Indian hydrophytes. VIII. The stem of Hygrophila polysperma T. Anders Mirashi, M. V. Proc Indian Acad Sci Sect B, 1958. 47((2)): p. 97-101.

Thursday, April 9, 2015

Swietenia mahagoni, Caoba, Mahoni

Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.
Family: Meliaceae

Chinese: 桃花心木
Finnish: Karibianaitomahonki
French: Mahogani de Saint-Domingue
Indinesian: Mahoni
Malayalam: ചെറിയ മഹാഗണി
Persian: درخت ماهون
Spanish: Caoba
Tamil:  Ciminukku
Vietnamese: Dái_ngựa_(cây)

Description: Trees to 25 m tall; trunk to 4 m across; bark deeply fissured. Leaves alternate, to 18 cm long; leaflets ca 5 pairs, oblong-lanceolate, falcate, oblique at base, entire at margin, acuminate at apex, coriaceous, glabrous above, puberulous beneath; petioles to 3 cm long; petiolules 5-6 mm long. Panicles to 10 cm long; peduncles to 4 cm long. Flowers ca 7 mm across. Calyx lobes 5, ovate, ca 2 mm long, pubescent. Petals 5, obovate, hooded, ca 5 x 2 mm, spreading, pubescent outside, cream-yellow. Staminal tube cupular, ca 3 mm long, glabrous, 10-lobed; anthers 10, included, alternating with lobes. Ovary 5-loculed; style narrow, tapering, to 2 mm long. Capsules oblong, ca 7 x 5.5 cm; seeds ca 6 x 1.5 cm, winged.

Seed powder antidiabetic; paste from the seeds applied for leucorrhea.  Bark  aphrodisiac,  bitter,  astringent,  febrifuge, antiseptic; a decoction applied to wounds. Drinking a large quantity of the boiled bark decoction is said to induce hemorrhage and thus abortion. Magic, love potion, the leafy twig. [CRC World Dictionary of  Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Argentinians take sweetened bark tea as febrifuge and orexigenic. Bahamans take bark or root infusion as tonic. 
Caicos Islanders take bark or root infusion, with wood ofZanthoxylum, for gonorrhea. Cubans apply juice from young shoots to stop bleeding and heal wounds. Cubans take the astringent bark decoction for catarrh, convulsions, and tetanus. Haitians apply bark infusion topically as antiseptic and astringent, taking the bark and leaf tea for diarrhea, dysentery, and hemorrhage, and large doses of bark decoction as abortifacient, smaller doses for toothache. Haitians steep bark in rum 3–4 days as aphrodisiac tonic. Haitians take leaf decoction with salt for nervous disorders.
Haitians take seed tea for chest pain. Haitians use alcoholic bark, leaf, and root maceration for malaria, the alcoholic bark tincture for anemia, anorexia, and debility. Haitians use aqueous bark maceration or decoction, with or without salt, for amenorrhea, anemia, diarrhea, dysentery, and fever Jamaicans take the bark decoction for diarrhea and fever . [Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants  of Latin America]

USES:  Stem: Decoction of bark used to dress wounds from firearms. Bark is astringent, antiseptic
and febrifuge. Bark infusion for dysentery.  [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

121 Published articles of Swietenia mahagoni

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Arachis hypogaea, Groundnut, Peanut

Arachis hypogaea L.
Family: Leguminosae

Vernacular names: Afrikaans : Apeneutjie, Grondboontjie;   Arabic : Fûl Sûdânî;   Aragonese : Cascagüet;   Aymara : Chuqupa;   Azeri : Araxis;   Bolivia : Chikopa ( Aymara );   Bosnian : Kikiriki;   Brazil :  Amendoim,  Amendoim  Verdadeiro,  Aráquida,  Jinguba,  Mancarra,  Mendoim,  Mendubi, Mondubim, Mudubim ( Portuguese );   Catalan : Cacauet;   Chinese :  Chang  Sheng  Guo,  Fan  Dou,  Hua  Sheng, Luo Hua Sheng;   Czech : Podzemnice Olejná;   Danish : Jordnød, Jordnødder, Jordnoedder;Dutch : Aardnoot, Grondnoot, Pindaplant;   Eastonian : Harilik Maapähkel;   Ecuador : Zaruma ( Spanish );   Esperanto : Ternukso;   Fiji : Pinati ( Fijian ), Maungafali ( Indian );   Finnish : Maapähkinä;   French :  Arachide,  Arachide  Du  Cayor,  Cacahuète,  Cacahouète,  Pistache  De  Terre,  Pistachier De Terre, Rufi sque;   Galician : Cacahuete;   German : Erdnuß, Echte Erdnuss, Erdmandel;   Greek : Arahida, Arapico Fistiki;   Hungarian : Amerikaimogyoró, Földimogyoró;   Icelandic : Jarðhnetur;   India :  China  Badam  ( Bengali ),  Bhoising  ( Gujarati ), Moong Phali, Muungaphalii ( Hindu ),  Kadale  Kayi  ( Kannada ),  Moong  Phalli  ( Kashmiri ),  Nellakkadalai,  Nilakkadalai  ( Malayalam ), Bhui Mug ( Marathi ), China Badam  ( Oriya ),  Moong  Phalli  ( Punjabi ),  Nilakkadalai,  Verkaddalai,  ( Tamil ),  Verusanaga, buddalu, pallilu [Telugu] Mugphalii  ( Urdu );   Italian : Arachide, Mandorla Di Terra, Nocciolina,  Pistacchio Di Terra;   Indonesia :  Kacang  Jawa,  Kacang  Manila,  Kacang Tanah;   Khmer : Sanndaek Dei;   Japanese :  Nankinmame,  Piinatsu,  Piinattsu,  Rakkasei;   Korean : Ttang Kong;   Laotian : Thwax Din, Thwax Ho;   Lithuanian : Valgomasis Arachis;   Luxembourgish : Kakuett;   Malaysia : Kacang Goreng, Kacang Jawa, Kacang  Tanah;   Mexico : Cacahueta;   Nahuatl : Tlālcacahuatl;   Nepal : Badam, Mungphalii;   Norwegian : Peanøtt, Jordnøtt;   Pakistan : Mung Phali;   Papua  New  Guinea :  Galip  Bilong  Giraun,  Kasang;   Paraguay : Manduvi ( Guarani );   Peru : Inchik, Inchis ( Quechua );   Philipines :  Batung–China  ( Sulu ),  Mani  ( Tagalog );   Polish : Orzech Ziemny, Orzacha Podziemna;   Portuguese : Amendoim, Caranga, Mandobi;   Russian : Arakhis;   Senegal :  Mankoli  ( Badyara ),  Mangara,  Su  U,  Slovašcina : Arašid, Kikiriki;   Spanish :  Alcagüeses,  Aráquido,  Avellana  Americana,  Cacahuate,  Huasquillo,  Mandovi,  Maní, Manî, Pistacho De Tierra;   Swahili : Mjugu Nyasa, Mnjugu Nyasa;   Swedish : Jordnöt;   Thai : Thùa Lísong;   Tongan : Pīnati;   Turkish : Yer Fıstığı;   Vietnamese : Lac, Dâu Phong.
 Moongphali (Unani)

An important oilseed crop in India.

Plant emollient and demulcent, used to relieve cough. Leaf macerations drunk as a diuretic; leaf infusions drunk against female infertility and as eye drops to treat cataract. Pod extracts taken as a galactagogue,  and  as  eye  drops  to  treat  conjunctivis.  Seedlings and pod extract aphrodisiac, tonic. [CRC World Dictionary of  Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

There is a haemostatic principle in the peanut flour, which is said to improve the condition of haemophiliacs. The protease inhibitor acts on the fibrinolytic system, primarily as an antiplasmin. It is reported to form complexes not only with the enzymes, but also with the corresponding zymogens. The peanut (red) skin contains bioflavonoids, which possess vitamin P activity; tannins; a lipoxidase and a protease inhibitor. Capric acid, obtained from the (red) skin, showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In French Guiana, an oily emulsion of the seed is used to remedy inflammatory colic; hot peanut oil is applied in a compress to dislocations, sometimes when mixed with rum. [Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) ]

125 Pharmacology related published articles of Arachis hypogaea

Ruellia patula, Dipteracanthus patulus

Ruellia patula Jacq.
Synonyms: Dipteracanthus erectus Nees,Dipteracanthus matutinus C.Presl , Dipteracanthus ocymoides C.Presl, Dipteracanthus patulus (Jacq.) Nees, Petalidium patulum (Jacq.) Dalzell & A.Gibson
Family: Acanthaceae

Arabic: فول, وزر
Some vernacular names in India:  cilantanceti,  cilantinayakam,  cukkulam,  cuntuilicceti,  cuntumam,  cuntuyili,  icaimuti,  kakapicam,  kakapikanayacceti,  kattunayakacceti,  kattunayakam,  kiranti, kiranti  nayakam,  kirantinayakan,  kirantinayan,  kirantippuntu,  nittinaviral,  nittinaviralkurittan,  punkiranti,  punkiranticceti,  putakilam,  putakilanceti,  turuputpam,  nayakam, upu-dali, vaikkirantitacceti, vaikkirantitam

Description: An erect, hoary pubescent, up to 50 cm tall, basally woody, much branched shrublet with ± quadrangular twigs. Leaves on 4-10 (-20) mm long petioles; lamina elliptic-ovate, rarely obovate, (1.2-) 1.5-5 (-6) x 1-3 (-4.5) cm, densely pubescent on both sides, entire, basally rounded, obtuse or subacute. Flowers pale-white, sessile, 3-4 cm long, usually solitary axillary, rarely 2-3 in cymes; bracteoles leafy, elliptic-spathulate or ovate, 8-10 mm x 6-7 mm, obtuse, petiolate. Calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, (3-) 4-5 (-6) mm long, ciliate, ± equal, acute. Corolla tube up to 3 cm long, infundibuliform, limb lobes suborbicular, 8-10 mm long, obtuse. Staminal filaments glabrous, anthers oblong, c. 2 mm long. Ovary glabrous, c. 2 mm long; style filiform, 2-3 cm long, hairy. Capsule elliptic-clavate, 1.4-1.8 cm long, glabrous, 8-10-seeded. Seeds flat, ± orbicular, c. 3 mm across.

10 Published articles of Ruellia patula


Abelmoschus esculentus Abelmoschus ficulneus Abies pindrow Abies spectabilis Abies webbiana Abroma augusta Abrus precatorius Abutilon hirtum Abutilon indicum Acacia catechu Acacia farnesiana Acacia horrida Acacia nilotica Acalypha wilkesiana Acer acuminatum Acer cappadocicum Achillea millefolium Achyranthes aspera Acmella oleracea Aconitum heterophyllum Adhatoda vasica Aegle marmelos Aerva javanica Aeschynomene americana Aesculus indica Ageratum conyzoides Alangium salviifolium Albizia saman Alcea rosea Aleurites moluccana Aleurites triloba Allium cepa Alocasia fornicata Alocasia indica Alocasia macrorrhizos Aloe vera Alpinia calcarata Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinarum Alstonia scholaris Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journals Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus graecizans Amaranthus viridis Ammannia baccifera Ammi majus Amomum subulatum Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Anacyclus pyrethrum Anagallis arvensis Andrographis echioides Andrographis ovata Andrographis paniculata Anemone coronaria Anemone rivularis Anemone tetrasepala Annona muricata Anthocephalus cadamba Anthurium andraeanum Apium leptophyllum Apluda mutica Arabidopsis thaliana Arachis hypogaea Argemone mexicana Arisaema tortuosum Aristolochia littoralis Artabotrys hexapetalus Artemisia japonica Artemisia nilagirica Artocarpus heterophyllus Arundinella setosa Arundo donax Aspidopterys wallichii Aster albescens Astragalus leucocephalus Asystasia gangetica Avena sativa Averrhoa carambola Azadirachta indica Bacopa monnieri Bambusa Bambos Bambusa multiplex Bambusa vulgaris Barleria cristata Barleria prionitis Basilicum polystachyon Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia racemosa Bauhinia scandens Bauhinia vahlii Bauhinia variegata Benincasa hispida Bidens pilosa Biophytum sensitivum Bixa orellana Blepharis integrifolia Blepharis maderaspatensis Blumea lacera Boerhavia diffusa Bombax ceiba Borassus flabellifer Boswellia ovalifoliolata Boswellia serrata Brassica rapa Buchnera hispida Butea monosperma Caesalpinia bonduc Caesalpinia pulcherrima Cajanus cajan Cajanus scarabaeoides Caladium bicolor Caleana major Calendula officinalis Calophyllum brasiliense Calophyllum inophyllum Calotropis gigantea Calotropis procera Camellia sinensis Campanula latifolia Cananga odorata Canscora diffusa Capparis sepiaria Capparis zeylanica Capsella bursa-pastoris Cardamine hirsuta Cardiocrinum giganteum Cardiospermum halicacabum Carduus edelbergii Carrichtera annua Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Carum carvi Cassia angustifolia Cassia auriculata Cassia fistula Cassia occidentalis Catesbaea spinosa Catharanthus roseus Cayratia trifolia Cedrela toona Ceiba insignis Ceiba pentandra Celastrus paniculatus Celosia argentea Centaurium erythraea Centella asiatica Cestrum diurnum Chaerophyllum reflexum Chamaesyce hypericifolia Chenopodium album Chenopodium ambrosioides Chenopodium murale Chrozophora rottleri Cicer arietinum Cichorium glandulosum Cichorium pumilum Cinnamomum camphora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum Circaea alpina Cissampelos pareira Cissus quadrangularis Citrullus lanatus Cleistanthus patulus Clematis gouriana Clematis montana Cleome gynandra Clerodendrum chinense Clerodendrum indicum Clerodendrum infortunatum Clerodendrum laevifolium Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora caudata Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cuminum cyminum Cupressus torulosa Curculigo orchioides Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Derris trifoliata Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dichrocephala integrifolia Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea pentaphylla Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros kaki Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichandrone spathacea Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Elytraria acaulis Embelia ribes Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Habenaria plantaginea Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hymenodictyon orixense Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens bracteata Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koelreuteria paniculata Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Lycium ferocissimum Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Marchantia polymorpha Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Papaver somniferum Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Pimpinella anisum Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum cirrhifolium Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia heynei Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria baicalensis Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Silybum marianum Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Sonchus oleraceus Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stellera chamaejasme Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia calophylla Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana
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